Fiqh-us-Sunnah, Volume 1: Ghusl, the complete ablution
Ghusl means to wash the entire body with water. Says Allah in the Qur'an, "If you are sexually impure, purify yourselves." And, "They question you concerning menstruation. Say: It is an illness, so let women alone at such times and do not have sex with them until they are cleansed" (al-Baqarah 222).Volume 1, Page 49a: Actions requiring Ghusl
The actions that require Ghusl are:Volume 1, Page 49b: Discharge of al-Mani owing to stimulation while asleep or awake
The opinion of the jurists in general is that ghusl is a must should one have a discharge of al-mani (sperm) owing to stimulation while asleep or awake. Abu Sa'eed reported that he heard the Messenger of Allah, upon whom be peace, say, "Water (washing) is (needed) after (ejaculation of) sperm." (Related by Muslim.)
Umm Salamah reported that Umm Sulaim said, "O Messenger of Allah, Allah is not ashamed of the truth. Does a woman have to perform ghusl if she has a wet dream?" He said, "Yes, if she sees the liquid." (Related by al-Bukhari, Muslim and others.)
There are some other points of importance that need to be noted:Volume 1, Page 49c: If the sperm is discharged without any type of stimulation (owing to illness or extreme cold)
In this case, ghusl is not obligatory. 'Ali reported that the Prophet, upon whom be peace, said to him, "If sperm is ejaculated, perform ghusl." (Related by Abu Dawud).
Said Mujahid, "We were in a meeting in the mosque with the companions of Ibn 'Abbas (Tawus, Sa'eed ibn Jubair and 'Ikrimah). When he stood to pray, a man came in and said, 'Is there one who can give a legal verdict?' We said, 'Ask your question.' He said, 'Whenever I urinate, a liquid always follows it.' We asked, 'Is it the type of liquid that gives birth to children?' He said, 'Yes.' We said, 'Then you have to perform ghusl.' The man went away. Ibn 'Abbas hurried to finish his prayer, after which he told 'Ikrimah to bring the man back. He turned to us and said, 'Is your verdict found in the Book of Allah?' We said, 'No.' He asked, 'Is it based on the sayings of the Prophet, upon whom be peace?' We said, 'No.' 'Then from what?' We said, 'From our opinion.' He said, 'That is why the Messenger of Allah said that one learned man is more difficult for Satan than a thousand worshippers.' The man came and faced Ibn 'Abbas, who said to him, 'When that happens, is it owing to any stimulation?' He answered, 'No.' Ibn 'Abbas asked, 'Do you feel any numbness in your body?' He answered, 'No.' Said Ibn 'Abbas, 'That is from the cold. Ablution is sufficient."'Volume 1, Page 50: If one has a wet dream but does not find any traces of ejaculation
There is no need for ghusl in this instance either. Ibn al-Munzhir said, "All of the knowledgeable people known to me agree on this point." The hadith of Umm Salamah mentioned earlier supports this proposition.Volume 1, Page 50a:
If one wakes from sleep and finds some moistness, but does not recall any wet dream, though he is sure it is sperm, what should he do? To be safe, he should perform ghusl. Said Mujahid and Qatadah, "There is no need for ghusl until he is sure that it is sperm, for his prior condition of purity is not ended by an uncertainty .Volume 1, Page 50b: If a man squeezes his penis to prevent ejaculation
This also makes ghusl unnecessary. This is based on the hadith which states that ghusl is required if the sperm can be seen. But, if the person walks and cannot control his ejaculation. he must perform ghusl.Volume 1, Page 51: Sperm on the clothes during prayer
If a man does not know how the sperm got on his clothes, and he has already prayed, should he perform ghusl and repeat all of his prayers since the last time he slept? If he thinks that it happened before his most recent sleep, he should repeat all of his prayers since the supposed time of his ejaculation .Volume 1, Page 51a: Touching the two circumcised parts
This refers to the penis and the vagina. If one's penis has entered his wife's vagina, ghusl is obligatory even if there was no ejaculation. Says Allah, "If you are sexually impure, purify yourselves." Commenting on the subject, ash-Shaifi says, "In the Arabic language, sexual impurity refers to any type of sexual intercourse, regardless of whether sperm was ejaculated or not. If someone says, 'So and so is sexually impure due to so and so,' it refers to any type of sexual intercourse between them, even if there was no ejaculation. No one disagrees that the fornication which requires the prescribed punishment is sexual intercourse, even if there is no ejaculation."
Abu Hurairah reported that the Prophet, upon whom be peace, said, "When anyone sits between the four parts of her body and exerts himself (has intercourse), bathing becomes obligatory (for both)." (Related by Ahmad and Muslim.)
Sa'eed ibn al-Musayyab reported that Abu Musa al-Ash'ari said to 'Aishah, "I would like to ask you something, but I am embarrassed." She said, "Ask and don't be shy, for I am your mother." He asked about a man who had intercourse but did not ejaculate. She said, on the authority of the Prophet, "If the two circumcised parts encountered each other, ghusl is obligatory." This hadith is related by Ahmad and Malik with different wordings. There is no doubt that there must be insertion; if there is only touching, ghusl is not obligatory for either. All scholars agree on this point.Volume 1, Page 51b: Women and their period
Concerning menstruation and childbirth bleeding, Allah says in the Qur'an, "Do not approach them until they become pure. When they are pure, go to them in the manner that Allah has prescribed for you." The Messenger of Allah, upon whom be peace, said to Fatimah bint Abu Habish, "Do not pray during your period. After it has ended, perform ghusl and pray." (Related by al-Bukhari and Muslim.)
Post-childbirth bleeding is treated in a similar manner, according to the consensus of the companions. If a woman gives birth and has no flow of blood afterwards, some scholars say that she must perform ghusl, while others say that it would not be necessary. There is no textual authority on this latter point.Volume 1, Page 52: Death
When a Muslim dies, it is obligatory to wash his or her body, according to the consensus of the Muslims. This will be discussed in more detail later on.Volume 1, Page 52a: A non-Muslim upon embracing Islam
New converts to Islam must perform ghusl. Abu Hurairah reported that Thumamah al-Hanafi was captured. The Prophet, upon whom be peace, passed by him and said, "What do you have to say for yourself, O Thumamah?" He said, "If you kill me, you would be killing a relative. If you give me a bounty (set me free), I would be thankful. If you want wealth (as a ransom), we can give you what you wish." The companions of the Prophet preferred the ransom and said, "What would we get if we killed him?" One time when the Prophet passed by him, he finally embraced Islam. The Prophet, upon whom be peace, untied him and told him to go to the garden of Abu Talhah and perform ghusl. He performed ghusl and prayed two rak'ah. The Prophet said, "Indeed, your brother became a fine Muslim." This hadith is related by Ahmad. There is also a source for the story in reports by al-Bukhari and Muslim.Volume 1, Page 52b: Prayer Volume 1, Page 52c: Circumambulating the Ka'bah
The reasoning behind this can be found in What actions require the ablution as a prerequisite.Volume 1, Page 52d: Touching or carrying the Qur'an
The companions were all agreed that it is forbidden to touch or carry the Qur'an while one is in a state of impurity. There are some jurists, such as Dawud ibn Hazm, who allow the physically unclean person, whether because of sex or menstruation, to touch or carry the Qur'an, and they see nothing wrong with this. He derives his support from a hadith in the two Sahihs in which it is stated that the Prophet sent a letter to Heraclius saying, "In the name of Allah, the Compassionate, the Merciful...O people of the book, come to a statement that is common between us and you, that we should worship none but Allah, and that we shall ascribe no partner unto Him, and that none of us shall take others for lords besides Allah. If they turn away, then say 'Bear witness that we are they who have surrendered (unto Him)." (al'Imran 64). Ibn Hazm concludes, "This is the letter the Messenger of Allah wrote, containing this verse, to the Christians, and of course they touched it." The majority of scholars answer him by stating that one is allowed to touch parts of the Qur'an that are used in letters, books, tafsir, and so on, as such things are not copies of the Qur'an, nor is it confirmed that such an action is forbidden.Volume 1, Page 53: Reciting the Qur'an
According to most scholars, one who is physically unclean (because of sex or menstruation) may not recite any portion of the Qur'an. This is based on a hadith from 'Ali, in which he stated that nothing kept the Messenger of Allah, upon whom be peace, from the Qur'an save being sexually impure. This is related by "the four." At-Tirmizhi graded it sahih. Says al-Hafez in al-Fath, "Some people declare some of its narrators weak. But, in fact, it is of the hassan class and it is satisfactory as a proof." He also related, "I saw the Messenger of Allah perform ablution and recite some of the Qur'an, after which he said, 'This is for the one who is not in post-sex impurity. If one is in post-sex impurity, he may not do so, not even one verse." Ahmad and Abu Ya'la related this hadith with that wording. With that wording, al-Haithami says, "Its narrators are trustworthy." Says ash-Shaukani, "If that (report) is authentic, that is proof enough that it is forbidden." The first hadith does not forbid it, for it just states that it was his practice not to recite the Qur'an while he was in post-sex impurity. Similar reports do not show that it is disliked. Therefore, how can it be used as a proof that it is forbidden?" Al-Bukhari, at-Tabarani, Dawud, and Ibn Hazm are of the opinion that it is permissible for one who is in post-sex impurity (or in menstruation) to recite the Qur'an. Says al-Bukhari, "Ibrahim said, 'There is no problem if a menstruating woman recites a verse.' Ibn 'Abbas did not see anything wrong with a sexually impure person reciting the Qur'an. The Prophet, upon whom be peace, used to mention Allah under all circumstances." In Ibn Hajr's notes to that work, he says, "There is no authentic hadith reported by the author (al-Bukhari) concerning the prohibition of reciting by one who is sexually impure or menstruating." The sum total of what has been related on this issue informs us on this point, though the interpretations differ.Volume 1, Page 54: Staying in the mosque
It is forbidden for one who is physically unclean (because of sex or menstruation) to stay in the mosque. 'Aishah said, "The Messenger of Allah, upon whom be peace, saw that his companions' houses were practically in the mosque. He said, 'Direct those houses away from the mosque.' He then entered the mosque, but the people did nothing, hoping that Allah would reveal to Muhammad that what they were doing was permissible. After he came out, he said, 'Direct those houses away from the mosque, for it is not permitted for a menstruating woman or sexually impure person to be in the mosque." (Related by Abu Dawud.)
Umm Salamah related that the Prophet, upon whom be peace, came to the mosque's courtyard and said at the top of his voice, "The mosque is off limits to menstruating women and the sexually impure persons." (Related by Ibn Majah and at-Tabarani.) Such people can, however, pass through the mosque, for says Allah, "O you who believe, draw not near unto prayer when you are drunk until you know that which you utter, nor when you are impure save when journeying upon the road, until you have bathed" (an-Nisa' 43). Said Jubair, "One of us used to pass through the mosque though he was impure." (Related by Ibn Abu Shaibah and Sa'eed ibn Mansur in his Sunan.) Zaid ibn Aslam said, "The companions of the Messenger of Allah, upon whom be peace, used to walk through the mosques while they were sexually impure." (Related by Ibn al-Munzhir.) Yazib ibn Habib reported that the companions' doors opened up into the mosque, and that when they were sexually impure, they could find no water or any path to water save through the mosque. Then Allah revealed, "...nor when you are impure, save journeying upon the road..." (Related by at-Tabari.)
Commenting on the preceding reports, ash-Shaukani says,"The meaning is so clear that there is no room for doubt." Said 'Aishah, "The Prophet said to me, 'Hand me my cloth from the mosque.' I said, 'I am menstruating.' He said, 'Your menstruation is not in your hand." (Related by the group, except for al-Bukhari.) Said Maimunah, "The Messenger of Allah used to come to one of our rooms while we were menstruating and put his head on (his wife's) lap and recite the Qur'an. Then one of us would take his clothes and put them in the mosque while she was menstruating." (Related by Ahmad and an-Nasa'i. The report has supporting evidence.)Volume 1, Page 55: Actions for which ghusl is preferred
This category of actions involves a reward for performing ghusl, and no blame if he does not. Such actions are:Volume 1, Page 55a: Before the Friday prayer
Muslims are encouraged to perform ghusl before they gather for the Friday prayer. In fact, Islamic law even goes to the extent of ordering one to perform ghusl at this time as part of the overall cleanliness and hygiene of the Muslim society. Abu Sa'eed reported that the Prophet said,"Ghusl on Friday is obligatory (wajib) on every adult, as is using a toothbrush and applying some perfume." (Related by al-Bukhari and Muslim.)
The meaning of "obligatory" here is that it is greatly recommended. This understanding of the Prophet's saying is derived from what al-Bukhari recorded about an incident from Ibn 'Umar about his father. One day, 'Umar ibn al-Khattab was standing and delivering the khutbah when 'Uthman, one of the people from among the emigrants and helpers, entered. 'Umar said to him, "What time is it now?" He said, "I was busy and could not return home. When I heard the call to prayer, I did not make more than the regular ablution." 'Umar said, "And the ablution only, when you know that the Messenger of Allah ordered us to perform ghusl ?" Commenting on the incident, says ash-Shaf'i, " 'Uthman did not leave the prayer to perform ghusl, nor did 'Umar order him to do so. This illustrates that the companions knew that this order was one of choice. It also shows that it is preferred."
Muslim recorded that Abu Hurairah reported the Prophet saying, "Whoever makes the ablution and perfects it and then goes to the Friday prayer and listens attentively, will have forgiveness during (the period) between the Friday and the next (Friday), and an additional three days." Says al-Qurtubi, "This hadith shows that ghusl is preferred. The mention of ablution, the reward and acceptability points to the fact that ablution alone is sufficient.'' Ibn Hajr states in at-Talkhis, "It is one of the strongest proofs that ghusl for the Friday prayer is not obligatory. The statement that it is preferred is built upon the fact that if one does not perform ghusl, it will not harm (his prayer). But, if others are harmed by his perspiration or bad smell from his clothes and body, ghusl becomes obligatory, and not performing it detracts from the rewards of salah. Some scholars say that the Friday ghusl is a duty even if its non-performance causes no harm (to others). Their basis for this opinion is the hadith related by Abu Hurairah in which the Prophet, upon whom be peace, said, "It is a duty upon every Muslim to perform ghusl once every seven days, by washing his head and body." Al-Bukhari and Muslim accept the hadith mentioned on the subject in their apparent meanings, and refute the ones contrary to the last hadith (of Abu Hurairah).
The time for the Friday ghusl is between dawn and the time of the Friday prayer. It is preferable to do it at the time of departure (to the mosque). If one loses his ablution after that, it is sufficient for him just to make a new ablution (he does not have to repeat the ghusl).
Says al-Athram, "I heard Ahmad being asked if a person performed ghusl, and then lost it, would the regular ablution be sufficient for him. He said, 'Yes, and I have not heard anything about that preferable to the hadith of Ibn 'Abzi," Ahmad is referring to the hadith related by Ibn 'Abzi Shaibah (with a sahih chain from 'Abdurahman ibn 'Abzi on the authority of his father, who was a companion.)He performed ghusl for the Friday prayer, and afterwards nullified his ablution. After that, he performed just the regular ablution, and did not repeat his ghusl. The time for the ghusl ends with the time of the prayer. If one performs ghusl after the prayer, it would not be the ghusl of the Friday prayer, and one who does so is not following the Prophet's order. Ibn 'Umar reported that the Prophet said, "Before you come to the Friday prayer, you should perform ghusl. (Related by "the group.") Muslim says, "When one of you wants to come to the Friday prayer, he should perform ghusl." Ibn 'Abdul-Barr related that there is a consensus on this point.Volume 1, Page 56: Performing ghusl for the 'Id prayers
Scholars also encourage Muslims to perform ghusl for the 'id prayers, even though there is no authentic hadith to support this opinion. It says in al-Badr alMuneer, "The hadith concerning performing ghusl for the 'ids are weak. But there do exist good reports from the companions (on this point) . "Volume 1, Page 56a: Ghusl for washing a corpse
According to many scholars, performing ghusl is also preferred for one who has washed a corpse. Abu Hurariah reported that the Prophet, upon whom be peace, said, "Whoever has washed a corpse must perform ghusl, and whoever carried him must perform ablution." (Related by Ahmad, Abu Dawud, at-Tirmizhi, an-Nasa'i, Ibn Majah and others.) However, there is some criticism of this hadith. 'Ali ibn al-Madani, Ahmad, Ibn al-Munzhir, ar-Rafi' and others say, "The hadith scholars did not classify anything on this topic as authentic." But Ibn Hajr quotes at-Tirmizhi and Ibn Hibban: "At-Tirmizhi called it hassan and Ibn Hibban called it sahih. And, due to its numerous chains, it is most likely hassan. An-Nawawi strongly refutes what at-Tirmizhi said." Says azh-Zhahabi, "The chains of this hadith are stronger than a number of chains of the hadith that the jurists argue by." The order in the hadith implies preference, based on what has been related by 'Umar, who said, "We used to wash the dead. Some of us would perform ghusl and some would not." (Related by al-Khateeb with a sahih chain.) When 'Asma bint Umaish washed the body of her deceased husband, Abu Bakr as-Siddiq, she asked if there were any among the emigrants present, and said, "This day is extremely cold and I am fasting. Do I have to make gh usl?" They said, "No." (Related by Malik.)Volume 1, Page 57: Making Ghusl for Hajj
According to the scholars, it is also preferable for one who is undertaking the pilgrimage or 'umrah to perform ghusl. Zaid ibn Thabit related that he saw the Messenger of Allah, when he intended to perform the hajj, perform ghusl. (Related by ad-Daraqutni, al-Baihaqi and at-Tirmizhi, who called it hassan. As-Usaili regarded it as weak.)Volume 1, Page 57a: Making Ghusl upon entering Makkah
It is preferable for whoever wants to enter Makkah to perform gh usl. It is reported that Ibn 'Umar, when going to Makkah, would spend the night in Tawa, and would enter Makkah during the day. He mentioned that the Prophet, upon whom be peace, also used to do this. (Related by al-Bukhari and Muslim.) Ibn al-Munzhir said, "All of the scholars say it is preferred to perform ghusl upon entering Makkah, but if one does not do so, there is no expiation for him to make. Most of them say that the regular ablution is sufficient.Volume 1, Page 57b: Making Ghusl at Mount 'Arafah
Such an act is preferred while one stops there during the hajj. Malik ibn Nafa' reported that Ibn 'Umar used to do so before embarking upon the hajj, upon entering Makkah, and while stopping at 'Arafah.Volume 1, Page 57c: The intention
This involves distinguishing the acts of worship from the customary acts. The intention is only in the heart, and should not be stated, as this would be tantamount to innovation.Volume 1, Page 58: Washing all bodily parts
This is based on the following: Says Allah, "If you are sexually impure, cleanse yourselves," that is, perform ghusl, and "They ask you concerning menstruation. Say: 'It is an illness, so leave women alone at such times and go not in unto them until they are cleansed," that is, until they perform ghusl. The proof that cleansing means ghusl is in the verse, "O you who believe, draw not unto the prayer when you are drunk until you know what you utter, nor when you are polluted, save when journeying upon the road, until you have bathed (taghtasilu)." This shows that ghusl, the washing of all bodily parts, is meant.Volume 1, Page 58a: How ghusl is performed
According to the practice of the Prophet, upon whom be peace, the correct manner of performing ghusl is:
-1- wash both hands three times,
-2- wash the penis,
-3- make a complete ablution (like the one made for prayer--the Prophet used to delay washing his feet until the end of his ghusl if he was using a tub, and so on),
-4- rub water through one's hair three times, letting the water reach down to the roots of the hair,
-5- pour water over the entire body, begining with the right side, then the left, washing under the armpits, inside the ears, inside the navel, inside the toes and whatever part of the body can be easily rubbed. This account is based on the following report from 'Aishah: "When the Prophet, upon whom be peace, took his bath after sexual intercourse, he would begin by washing his hands. Then he would pour water from his right hand to his left and wash his sexual organs, make the ablution for prayer, take some water and put his fingers to the roots of his hair to the extent that he sees that the skin is wet, then pour water over his head three times and then over the rest of his body." (Related by al-Bukhari and Muslim.) In one narration it states, "He used to rub his head with his hands until he was certain the water reached his skin, and then he poured water over it three times." It is also related that she said, "When the Prophet would perform ghusl after having had sexual intercourse, he would call for some water, which he would pour on his right hand to wash the right side of his head and then the left. He would then take water with both hands and pour it over his head." Said Maimunah, "I put water out for the Messenger of Allah to perform ghusl. He washed his hands two or three times, and then he poured water from his right hand to his left and washed his private parts, wiped his hands on the earth, rinsed his mouth and nose, washed his face and hands, washed his head three times, poured water over his body, and finally moved from his place and washed his feet. I brought him a towel, but he did not take it, for he shook the water off with his hands." (Related by "the group.")Volume 1, Page 59: Ghusl for women
A woman performs ghusl just as a man does, except that if she has plaited hair she does not have to undo it, provided that the water can reach the roots of her hair. Umm Salamah said, "O Messenger of Allah, I am a woman who has closely plaited hair on my head. Do I have to undo them for ghusl after sexual intercourse?" He said, "No, it is enough for you to throw three handfuls of water on your head and then pour water over yourself. After doing this, you shall be cleansed." (Related by Ahmad, Muslim and at-Tirmizhi, who called it hassan sahih.) 'Ubaid ibn 'Umair reported that 'Aishah discovered that 'Abdullah ibn 'Amr was ordering the women to undo their plaits of hair (for ghusl). She observed, "It is amazing that Ibn 'Amr orders the woment to undo the plaits of hair for ghusl. Why doesn't he just order them to shave their heads? I and the Messenger of Allah used to bathe from one vessel, and all I did was pour three handfuls of water over my head."(Related by Ahmad and Muslim.)
It is preferrable for a woman performing ghusl to cleanse herself from menstruation or post-childbirth bleeding to take some cotton smeared with musk or perfume and wipe it over the traces of blood. This will remove the bad smell of the menstrual blood. 'Aishah reported, "'Asma bint Yazid asked the Messenger of Allah about ghusl after menstruation has ended. He said, "She should use water mixed with the leaves of the lote-tree and cleanse herself. Then she should pour water over her head and rub it well till it reaches the roots of the hair, after which she should pour water over it. Afterwards, she should take a piece of cotton smeared with musk and cleanse herself with it." 'Asma asked, "How should she cleanse herself with it?" He said, "Praise be to Allah, she should cleanse herself with it." 'Aishah said in a subdued tone that she should apply it to the traces of blood. 'Asma then asked about bathing after sexual intercourse. He said, "She should take water and cleanse herself or complete the ablution, pour water on her head and rub it till it reaches the roots of her hair, and then she should pour water over herself." 'Aishah observed, "How good are the women of the 'helpers' that shyness does not keep them from learning their religion." (Related by "the group," except at-Tirmizhi.)Volume 1, Page 60: Questions related to Ghusl
It is sufficient to perform one ghusl for both menstruation and sexual impurity, or for the Friday prayer and the 'id prayer, or for sexual impurity and the Friday prayer, if one has the intention for both of them. This is based on the Prophet's saying, "All acts are based on intentions."
If a person performed post-sex ghusl but did not make ablution, the ghusl will suffice. Said 'Aishah, "The Messenger of Allah did not perform ablution after ghusl." Ibn 'Umar said to a man who had told him that he performed ablution after ghusl, "You went too far." Says Abu Bakr ibn al-'Arabi, "There is no difference of opinion among the scholars that ablution falls under the category of ghusl. If the intention was to remove sexual impurity, it also includes the minor impurities, as what sexual impurity prevents is greater than what the minor impurities prevent. The smaller one falls under the greater one, and the intention for the greater one suffices.''
It is acceptable for a person in post-sex uncleanliness or a menstruating woman to remove their hairs, cut their nails, go to the markets, and so on, without any dislike. 'Ata said that such people can get cupped, cut their nails and their hair, and that this is allowed even if he (or she) has not performed the regular ablution. (Related by al-Bukhari).
One may enter a public bathroom. As long as he keeps his private parts from being seen, and he does not look at others' private parts. Says Ahmad, "If you know that everyone inside the bathroom is wearing a loincloth, you may enter. If not, then don't enter." The Prophet, upon whom be peace, said, "A man should not look at another man's private parts, and a woman should not look at another woman's private parts." There is no problem with mentioning Allah's name in the public baths, as mentioning the name of Allah under any circumstances is good, since there is no text prohibiting it. The Messenger of Allah used to remember Allah under all circumstances.
There is no problem in drying one's self with a towel or other cloth after performing ablution or ghusl during the summer or winter.
It is permissible for a man to use the water left over by a woman and vice-versa. This is derived from the fact that it is permissible for them to perform ghusl from the same container. Ibn 'Abbas narrated that some of the Prophet's wives were performing ghusl from a container. The Prophet came and performed his ablution or ghusl from it. They said to him, "We were sexually unclean." He said, "The water does not become impure." (Related by Ahmad, Abu Dawud, an-Nasa'i and at-Tirmizhi, who called it hassan sahih). 'Aishah used to wash with the Messenger of Allah from one container, and they would take turns taking water until he said, "Leave some for me, leave some for me."
It is not allowed to bathe in the nude in front of people. It is forbidden to uncover one's private parts. If you cover it with some clothes, it is permissible. The Messenger of Allah would cover Fatimah with a curtain when she performed ghusl. If one performs ghusl in the nude, far away from the people, it is not prohibited. The prophets Musa (Moses) and Ayyub (Job) did so, as al-Bukhari, Ahmad, and an-Nasa'i recorded.