Fiqh-us-Sunnah, Volume 2: Id prayers (Salatul 'Idain)
The prayers of the two 'ids was prescribed in the first year after themigration. It is a sunnah mu'kkadah as the Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallamalways performed these prayers and he ordered the men and women to go out toattend them.
It is preferred to make the ghusl, perfume one's self and don one's bestattire on the occasions of the two 'ids.
Ja'far ibn-Muhammad relates from his father on the authority of hisgrandfather who reported that the Prophet would wear a Yemeni cloak on every'id. This is related by ash-Shaf'i and al-Baghawi.
Al-Hassan as-Sibt says: "The Messenger of Allah ordered us to wear thebest clothes we could find for the two 'ids and to apply the best perfume wecould find and to sacrifice the best animal we could find." This isrelated by al-Hakim and in its chain is Ishaq ibn Barzakh whom al-'Azdideclares to be weak while Ibn Hibban says he is trustworthy.
Ibn al-Qayyim writes: "The Prophet used to wear his most beautifulclothes for them and he had a special cloak that he would wear on the two 'idsand Jumu'ah.
One is to eat before going to the salah for 'idul fitr, (the end of Ramadan)but not do so on the occasion of the 'idul azha (commemmorating ProphetIbrahim's sacrifice). For 'idul fitr, it is a sunnah to eat an odd number ofdates before going to pray salatul 'id while for 'idul azha the eating shouldbe delayed until one returns from the 'id prayers and then he may eat of hissacrifice if he has sacrificed an animal.
Anas reports: "The Prophet would not go out on the festival of breakingthe fast until he had eaten an odd number of dates." This is related byAhmad and al-Bukhari.
Buraidah reports: "The Prophet would not go out on the day of breakingthe fast ('idul fitr) until he had eaten and on the day of sacrifice ('idulazha) he would not eat until he had returned [from salah]." This isrelated by at-Tirmizhi and Ibn Majah, and also by Ahmad who added: "And hewould eat from his sacrifice."
In al-Muwatta' it is recorded from Sa'id ibn al-Musayyab that the peoplewere ordered to eat before they go out on the day of breaking the fast.
Ibn-Qudamah said: "I do not know of any difference of opinion over thefact that one should hasten in eating [eat early] on the day of breaking of thefast."
Salatul 'id can be performed in the mosque but it is preferred to perform ina place outside the city as long as there is no excuse or reason to dootherwise (e.g., rain and so on) as the Prophet would pray the two 'ids in theoutskirts of Medinah and he never prayed it in his mosque, except once andbecause it was raining.
Abu Hurairah reports that it was raining on the day of 'id, so the Prophetled them in salatul 'id in the mosque. This is related by Abu Dawud, Ibn Majah,and al-Hakim, and its chain contains an unknown narrator. Al-Hafiz says inat-Talkhis: "Its chain is weak," and azh-Zhahabi asserts: "Thishadith is rejected."
Shari'ah requires women and children to go out and attend the salatul'idain. This includes married, single, young, old, or menstruating women.
Umm 'Atiyah reports: "We were ordered to go out with the single andmenstruating women to the two 'ids in order to witness the good and thesupplications of the Muslims. The menstruating women would be separate from theothers." This is related by al-Bukhari and Muslim.
Ibn 'Abbas says that the Prophet would take his wives and daughters to thetwo 'ids. This is related by Ibn-Majah and al-Baihaqi.
Ibn 'Abbas further reports: "I went out with the Prophet on the day ofbreaking the fast or of the sacrifice, and he prayed and gave a khutbah, andthen he went to the women and admonished them, reminded them of Allah, andordered them to give charity." This is related by al-Bukhari.
Most of the people of knowledge are of the opinion that it is preferred fora person to go to the salah by one route and then to return home throughanother route, regardless of whether he be the imam or a member of thecongregation.
Jabir reports: "On the days of 'id, the Prophet would take differentroutes." This is related by al-Bukhari.
Abu Hurairah says: "When the Prophet went to salatul 'id, he wouldreturn through a different route." This is related by Ahmad, Muslim, andat-Tirmizhi .
It is permissible to return through the same route by which one goes to themusalla. Bakr ibn Mubashir says: "I used to go with the companions of theProphet to the musalla on 'idul azha and on 'idul fitr, and we passed through aspecific valley in Medinah until we came to the place of salah and prayed withthe Messenger of Allah, and then we would return to our houses through the samevalley." This is related by Abu Dawud, al-Hakim, and by al-Bukhari in hisTarikh. Ibn as-Sakin says that its chain is acceptable.
The time for salatul 'id begins from the time the sun is three meters abovethe horizon until the sun reaches its meridian.
Ahmad ibn Hassan al-Bana' records that Jundub said: "The Prophet prayedthe 'idul fitr prayer while the sun was [approximately] six meters above thehorizon and the 'id of the sacrifice while the sun was three meters above thehorizon."
Ash-Shaukani says: "That is the best of what has been relatedconcerning the specific time of salatul 'idain and the hadith shows that it ispreferred to hasten in praying salatul azha and to delay the salatulfitr."
Ibn Qudamah says: "It is a sunnah to pray salatul azha early in orderto allow more time for the people to perform the sacrifice, and the salatulfitr is to be delayed in order to give people time to pay zakat al-Fitr. I knowof no difference of opinion on this point."
Ibn al-Qayyim writes: "When the Messenger of Allah went to the musalla(place of prayer), he would perform the salah without any azhan or iqamah andwithout saying 'as-salatu jami'ah' (prayer in congregation). The sunnah is notto do any of that."
Ibn 'Abbas and Jabir both report that there was no azhan on the day of thebreaking of the fast or on the day of sacrifice. This is related by al-Bukhariand Muslim. Muslim records that 'Ata said: "Jabir informed me that thereis no azhan for the 'id of breaking the fast, neither when the imam arrives norafterward. And there is no iqamah or call of any kind."
Sa'd ibn abi-Waqqas reports: "The Prophet prayed salatul 'id withoutany azhan or iqamah. He would deliver two khutbahs standing and would seperate themby sitting between them.' This is related by al-Bazzar.
The 'id prayer consists of two rak'at during which it is sunnah to pronouncethe takbir seven times, after the opening takbir and before the Qur'anicrecital in the first rak'ah. During the second rak'ah, one makes takbir fivetimes after the takbir which is customarily made for standing after theprostration. One is to raise one's hands during each pronouncement of thetakbir. This is based on a report transmitted from 'Umar and his son Abdullah.
'Amr ibn Shu'aib reports from his father on the authority of his grandfatherthat the Prophet would make twelve takbirat during the 'id prayer, seven in thefirst rak'ah and five in the second. He did not pray before or after the 'id.This is related by Ahmad and Ibn Majah. Ahmad says: "I follow that."
Abu Dawud and ad-Daraqutni report that the Prophet said: "The takbiratduring the ['id of breaking the fast are seven in the first rak'ah and five in thesecond, and the Qur'anic recital comes after them in both the rak'at."This is the strongest opinion and it is the opinion of the majority of thepeople of knowledge from among the companions, the successors, and the imams.Ibn Abdul-Barr commenting on the number of takbirat, says: "It has beenrelated through many good chains that the Prophet made seven takbirat in thefirst rak'ah and five in the second. Such has been related from 'Abdullah ibn'Amr, Ibn 'Umar, Jabir, 'Aishah. Abu Waqid, and 'Amer ibn 'Auf al-Mazni.Nothing that has been related from him, either through a stonger or weakerchain, differs from that, and it was the first to be practiced."
As to the pause between takbirat, it is said that the Prophet would besilent for a short period of time between the takbirat, and nothing has beenrelated from him concerning exactly what he said during that pause; however,at-Tabarani and al-Baihai relate, with a strong chain, that Ibn Mas'ud wouldpraise and extol Allah, the Exalted, and make prayers upon the Prophet duringsuch intervals. The same has been recorded from Huzhaifah and Abu Musa.Pronouncing the takbirat are a sunnah even though the salah is not invalidatedif one neglects them, either intentionally or out of forgetfulness.
Ibn Qudamah says: "I know of no difference of opinion on thatpoint." Ash-Shaukani states that the strongest opinion is that if one doesnot perform the takbirat out of forgetfulness, he is not to perform theprostrations of forgetfulness.
It is not established that there is any sunnah prayer before or after the'id prayer. The Prophet never performed any such prayer, neither did hiscompanions upon arrival at the musalla (prayer place).
Ibn 'Abbas reports: "The Messenger of Allah went out to the site of the'id prayer and prayed two rak'at [i.e., the 'id prayer] without prayinganything before or after it." This is related by the group.
It is reported that Ibn 'Umar did the same and he stated that this was thepractice of the Prophet.
Al-Bukhari records that Ibn 'Abbas disliked that one should perform a prayerbefore salatul 'id. Concerning voluntary prayers at such a time, Ibn Hajar hasstated in Fath al-Bari that there is no evidence to show that it is not allowed,unless it is at the times in which it is disliked to pray on any day.
The 'id prayer is valid for men, women, children, travellers, residents,people in congregation, and people praying individually. It is also valid ifperformed in a house, mosque, or a distant place designated for the salah, andso on.
In Sahih al-Bukhari we find in the chapter entitled: "If one missessalatul 'id he may pray two rak'at and the same is the case for the women orpeople in their houses or in the countryside. This is based on the Prophet'swords: 'O Muslims, this is our festival."' Anas ibn Malik ordered hisprotege Ibn abi-'Utbah, [who lived] in a remote area, to gather his family andchildren and to pray [the 'id prayer] like the people in the city and withtakbirat similar to theirs. 'Ikrimah said: "The people of the countryshould gather for the 'id and pray two rak'at as the imam does." 'Atasays: "If you miss the 'id [salah], pray two rak'at."
The khutbah after salatul id is a sunnah and so is listening to it. AbuSa'id says: "On the id of breaking the fast and of the sacrifice, theProphet would go to the musalla (prayer place) and begin with the salah andwhen he finished, he would face the people while the people were sitting inrows, and he would admonish them, advise them, and exhort them [to do gooddeeds]. And if he wished to send off an army or order something, he would do soand then leave." Abu Sa'id then says: "The people continued to actlikewise until I went out with Marwan, while he was the govenor of Medinah, forone of the two 'ids. When I arrived at the place of prayer, I found a minbarthat was built by Kathir ibn as-Salt. When Marwan went to mount it before theprayer, I pulled him by his clothes. He pushed me away and gave the khutbahbefore the salah. I said to him: 'By Allah you have changed [the order].' Hesaid: 'O Abu Sa'id...what you know is gone.' I said: 'By Allah, what I know isbetter than what I don't know.' He said: 'The people would not stay with usafter the salah so we made the khutbah before the salah.'" This is relatedby al-Bukhari and Muslim.
'Abdullah ibn as-Sa'ib said: "I prayed the 'id salah with the Messengerof Allah and when he finished the salah he said: 'We will be delivering akhutbah. Whoever wishes to stay for the khutbah may stay. Whoever would like toleave, may leave . ' " This is related by an-Nasa' i, Abu Dawud, and IbnMajah.
Whatever has been recorded suggests that there are two khutbahs for the 'idand the imam sits between them [i.e., like the khutbatul Jumu'ah]. Such reportsare considered weak. An-Nawawi says: "There is nothing at allsubstantiated about there being more than one khutbah."
Ibn al-Qayyim writes: "The Prophet would begin all of his khutbahs withthe praise of Allah and there is no hadith from him that states that he beganhis 'id khutbahs with takbir.
Ibn Majah recorded in his Sunan from Sa'id, the mu'azhzhin of the Prophet,that the Prophet would say the takbir during his khutbahs and even more soduring the 'id khutbahs. Still, this does not prove that he began his khutbahwith it! The people differ over the beginning of the 'id and the khutbah forsalatul istisqa' (prayer for rain). Some say that they are to begin withtakbir. Some say that the khutbah for salatul istisqa' begins with praying forforgiveness while others say it begins with praises of Allah." Shaikhal-Islam Ibn Taimiyyah says: "That is correct as the Prophet said: 'Everyaffair that does not begin with the praise of Allah is deficient.' The Prophetbegan all of his speeches with praises of Allah. Concerning the statement ofmany jurists, i.e.. he began the 'prayer for rain' by asking forgiveness fromAllah and the id speech with takbir, there is absolutely no proof for it in theProphet's sunnah. In fact the sunnah contradicts that statement as he began allof his speeches with the praises of Allah."
Abu 'Umair ibn Anas reports: "My Ansari uncles from among thecompanions of the Messenger of Allah said to me: 'The moon for the month ofShawwal was hidden from us and, therefore, our companions fasted. Then at theend of the day, riders came and they bore witness to the Prophet sallallahualehi wasallam that they had seen the moon the previous night. The Prophetordered the people to break their fasts and to go out to the site of thesalatul 'id on the next day.'" This is related by Ahmad, an-Nasa'i, andIbn Majah with a sahih chain. In this hadith there lies evidence for those whosay that if the people miss salatul 'id due to some excuse, then they may goout and pray it the next day.
Recreation, amusements, and singing, if they stay within the moral bounds,are permissible on the days of 'id.
Anas reports: "When the Prophet came to Medinah they had two days ofsport and amusement. The Prophet said: "Allah, the Exalted, has exchangedthese days for two days better than them: the day of breaking the fast and theday of sacrifice." This is related by an-Nasa'i and Ibn Hibban with asahih chain.
'Aishah says: "The Abyssinians were preforming in the mosque on the dayof 'id. I looked over the Prophet's shoulders and he lowered them a little so Icould see them until I was satisfied and left." This is related by Ahmad,al-Bukhari, and Muslim.
Ahmad, al-Bukhari, and Muslim also record that she said: "Abu Bakrentered upon us on the day of 'id and there were some slave girls who wererecounting [in song the battle of] Bu'ath in which many of the brave of thetribes of Aus and Khazraj were killed. Abu Bakr said: 'Slaves of Allah, youplay the pipes of the Satan!' He said it three times. The Prophet said to him:'O Abu Bakr, every people have a festival and this is our festival."' Inal-Bukhari's version, 'Aishah said: "The Messenger of Allah, entered thehouse and I had two girls who were singing about the battle of Bu'ath. TheProphet lied down on the bed and turned his face to the other direction. AbuBakr entered and spoke harshly to me, 'Musical instruments of the Satan in thepresence of the Messenger of Allah!' The Messenger of Allah turned his face tohim and said: 'Leave them.' When Abu Bakr became inattentive I signaled to thegirls to leave. It was the day of 'id and the Africans were performing withtheir shields and spears. Either I asked him or the Prophet asked if I wouldlike to watch them [I don't recall now]. I replied in the affirmative. At thisthe Prophet made me stand behind him and my cheek was against his. He wassaying: 'Carry on, O tribe of Arfadah,' until I tired. The Prophet asked: 'Isthat enough for you?' I replied: "yes," so he said: 'Leave[then].'"
Ibn Hajar writes in Fath al-Bari, "Ibn as-Siraj related from Abuaz-Zinad on the authority of 'Urwah from 'Aishah that the Prophet said thatday: 'Let the Jews of Medinah know that our religion is spacious [and has roomfor relaxation] and I have been sent with an easy and straight forwardreligion. "'
Ahmad and Muslim record from Nubaishah that the Prophet sallallahu alehiwasallam said: "The days of tashriq (i.e., the days in which the 'id iscelebrated) are days of eating and drinking [non alcoholic drinks] and ofremembering Allah, the Exalted."
Ibn 'Abbas reports that the Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam said: "Nogood deeds done on other days are superior to those done on these days [meaningthe ten days of Zhul-Hijjah]." The companions asked: "O Messenger ofAllah, not even jihad in the way of Allah?" He said: "Not even jihad,save for the man who puts his life and wealth in danger [for Allah's sake] andreturns with neither of them." This is related by the group save Muslimand an-Nasa'i.
Ahmad and at-Tabarani record from Ibn 'Umar that the Messenger of Allahsaid: "There is no day more honorable in Allah's sight and no acts morebeloved therein to Allah than those in these ten days. So say tahlil["There is no God but Allah"], takbir [Allah is the greatest] andtahmid ["All praise is due to Allah"] a lot [on those days]."
Ibn 'Abbas says about the 'ayah, "Remember Allah during the well knowndays," that it refers to the first ten days of Zhul-Hijjah. This isrelated by al-Bukhari. Sa'id ibn Jubair would push himself very hard [to dogood deeds] during these ten days.
Al-Auza'i says: "It has reached me that a deed on one of the ten daysis similar to fighting in the way of Allah, fasting during its days andguarding during its nights, except for him who becomes a martyr." As toits source, he adds: "A man from the tribe of Bani Makhzum related that tome from the Prophet."
Abu Hurairah relates that the Prophet said: "There are no days moreloved to Allah for you to worship Him therein than the ten days of ZhulHijja.Fasting any day during it is equivalent to fasting one year and to offersalatul tahajjud (late-night prayer) during one of its nights is likeperforming the late night prayer on the night of power. [i.e., LailatulQadr]." This is related by at-Tirmizhi, Ibn Majah, and al-Baihaqi.
It is commendable to congratulate one another on the days of 'id.
Jabir ibn Nafir reports: "When the companions of the Prophet met eachother on the day of 'id, they would say to each other, 'taqabbal minna wa minka[May Allah] accept it from us and you.'" Ibn Hajar said that its chain ishasan.
It is a sunnah to pronounce the takbirat on 'id days. Concerning the 'id ofbreaking the fast, Allah says "you should complete the prescribed periodand that you should glorify Allah [i.e., say takbirat] for having guided youand that you may give thanks." Concerning the 'id of the sacrifice, Allahsays: "that you may remember Allah during the well known days;" and: "Hehas made them subject to you, that you may glorify Allah for His guidance toyou. The majority of the scholars say that the time for the takbirat during the'id of breaking the fast is from the time one goes to the 'id prayer until thekhutbah begins. Weak hadith have been recorded stating this, but there are alsoauthentic reports from Ibn 'Umar and other companions that they did so.Al-Hakim says: "This sunnah has been practiced by ahl-il hadith. Malik,Ahmad, Ishaq, and Abu Thaur [have made statements concurring that practice]."
Some say that the takbirat are from the night before the 'id, when the moonis seen, until the person goes to the musalla and the imam arrives. The timefor the takbirat during the 'id of the sacrifice is from the day of 'Arafahuntil the time of the 'asr on the thirteenth of Zhul-Hijjah.
Ibn Hajar writes in Fath al-Bari: "None of that has been confirmed fromthe Prophet. The most authentic report from the companions is that 'Ali and IbnMas'ud would make the takbirat from the day of 'Arafah to the 'asr of the lastday of Mina. Ibn al-Munzhir and others reported it. AshShaf'i, Ahamd, AbuYusuf, and Muhammad follow that report and it is also the view of 'Umar and Ibn'Abbas."
There is no specific time for the takbirat during the days of tashriq (threedays after 'idul azha). In fact, it is preferred to pronounce takbirat duringevery moment of those days.
Al-Bukhari recorded: "During 'Umar's stay at Mina, he would saytakbirat in his tent [so loud] that the people in the mosque would hear it andthen they would start doing it also and the people in the market place would dothe same and all of Mina would resound with the takbirat. Ibn 'Umar used to saythe takbirat, during those days of Mina, after the prayers and while on hisbed, in his tent, while sitting and while walking during all of those days.Maimuna would say the takbirat on the day of sacrifice. The women used to saytakbirat behind Abban ibn 'Uthman and 'Umar ibn 'Abdulaziz along with the menin the mosque during the days of tashriq." Al-Hafiz ibn Hajar said:"These reports show that the takbirat are made during all the times ofthese days, after salah and all other times. Some say the takbirat are madeonly after the salah, and some say they are to be made only after the fard prayersand not after nawafl, others declare them to be for men and not for women,while some say that they are only to be said in congregations and notindividually, while others reserve them only for those who perform the salah ontime and not for those who are making up a missed prayer, and some say only forresidents and not travellers, whereas others think they are only for the peopleof the city and not for the people of the countryside. Apparently al-Bukhari isof the opinion that it is for all people and the reports that he hastransmitted support his opinion."
These takbirat can be made in many different forms. The most authentic formis that which has been recorded with a sahih chain by 'Abdurrazaq from Salman,who said: "They made takbirat with: 'Allahu akbar, Allahu akbar, Allahuakbar kabeera."' From 'Umar and ibn Mas'ud the following is related:"Allahu akbar. Allahu akbar. La ilaha illallah. Allahu akbar. Allahu akbarwa lillahil-hamd." Translation: Allah is the greatest, Allah is thegreatest. There is no God but Allah. Allah is the greatest, Allah is thegreatest. All praise belongs to Allah.