A program Of Studies For new Muslims


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  • A program Of Studies For new Muslims


  • PART IV

    IV: POLITICAL HISTORY OF ISLAM

     

    IV-100 THE RIGHTLY-GUIDED CALIPHS (AL-KHULAFAH

    AL-RASHIDOON)

     

    1. Introduction

    1.1 The meaning of caliph (khalifah).

    1.2 The significance of the caliphate -politico-religious office.

    1.3 The principles of Islamic polity.

    1.4 Caliphate and kingship.

     

    1. Abu Bakr

    2.1 Fadail.

    2.2 Early life; his titles; his physical appearance.

    2.3 Conversion to Islam; his propagation of Islam.

    2.4 His devotion to the Prophet; gives his daughter in marriage; hijrah with the Prophet.

    2.5 Abu Bakr's sacrifices at Madinah; his participation in various battles.

    2.6 As imam during the Prophet's last illness.

    2.7 The Prophet's death and his election; inaugural address.

    2.8 Usamah's departure to Syria. his operations and the result.

    2.9 The apostates, the siege of Madinah and its defeat.

    2.10 The reconquest of Arabia; Khalid's operations against Talha, reclamation of the Bani Tayyi, the Battle of Buzakhah, Bani Tamin; the trial of Khalid; Khalid's         operations against Musaylamah; Sajah, the Battle of Yamamah.

    2.11 Bahrain, Oman and Mahrah, Yaman and Hadramaut.

    2.12 The frontier expeditions.

    2.13 Iraq, Syria; Khalid, Muthanna.

    2.14 Abu Bakr's illness, choice of a Successor, testament.

    2.15 His death.

    1. 16 His family, his home and his habits; his love of the Prophet.­

    2.17 Some hadiths concerning Abu Bakr.

     

    1. 'Umar

    3.1 Fadail.

    3.2 Early life, Grandfather, father; 'Umar's birth. 'Umar's training and achievements before Islam.

    3.3 Convension of Islam.

    3.4 Hijrah and his life with the Prophet.

    3.5 His role in Abu Bakr's election and during his caliphate.

    3.6 'Umar's caliphate.

    3.7 The conquest of Iraq and Syria; the Battles of Buwaib, Qadisiyyah, Yermuk; Jerusalem and 'Umar's entry into the city.

    3.8 The deposition of Khalid.

    3.9 The conquest of the Iranian provinces.

    3.10 The assassination of 'Umar.

    3.11 A review of the conquests.

    3.12 'Umar's policies: toward the dhimmis; toward the governors; toward the people; his ijtihad.

    3.14 'Umar's personal habits, characteristics and family life.

    3.15 Hadiths concerning the merits of 'Umar.

     

    1. 'Uthman

    4.1 Fadail.

    4.2 Early life.

    4.3 Conversion to Islam. Marriage to Ruqayyah. Persecution and hijrah to Abyssinia. Return to Makkah and hijrah to Madinah.

    4.4 Life with the Prophet. Generosity; buying of a wellbuying of land near the Prophet's mosque; Badr, Uhud; Ruqayyah's death and marriage to Umm Kulthum. Chief Officer of the Prophet is Madinah. Ba'it Radwan; equipping the Tabuk expedition.

    4.5 His role during Abu Bakr's and 'Umar’s caliphates.

    4.6 His election to khilafat.

    4.7 'Uthman's khilafat. Conquests: Armenia, Caucasus, Anatolia, Afghanistan, North Africa, Cyprus, Central Asia, Nubia.         

    4.8 Expansion of the Prophet's mosque; copying of the Qur'an and its distribution.

    4.9 Civil disturbances; their causes; Abdullah ibn Saba; the rebels' demands,

    4.10  'Uthman’s actions.

    4.11 'Uthman’s martyrdom.

    4.12 A review of the events.

    4.13 'Uthman’s character and qualities.

    4.14 Hadiths concerning the merits of 'Othman.

     

    1. 'Ali

    5.1 Fadail.

    5.2 Early life. His embracing Islam; life in the Prophet's household.

    5.3 Hijrah and life in Madinah. Participation in battles.

    5.4 Role during the khilafats of Abu Bakr, 'Umar and 'Uthman.

    5.5 Election to khilafat. Controversies; battles, Jamal and Siffin; arbitration; kharijiyyah; martyrdom.

    5.6 A review of the events.

    5.7 'Ali' s administration; his justice.

    5.8 His other accomplishments; character and qualities.

    5.9 Hadiths concerning the merits of 'Ali.

     

    1. A Review of This Period and Its Importance for Muslims

    6.1 The rapid expansion of Islam.

    6.2 Commerce.

    6.3 Administration.

    6.4 Finances.

    6.5 Social structure.

    6.6 The ideal Islamic state.

     

    IV-200 BANU UMAYYAH

     

    1. Amir M'uawiyah

    1.1 His personality; political acumen and statesmanship; his winning over of his enemies (hilm); his assistants; his bold campaigns.

    1.2 Early life; Islam after the conquest of Makkah; Prophet's scribe.

    1.3 His role during Abu Bakr's, 'Umar's and 'Uthman's khilafats.

    1.4 'Ali's election. 'Ali's decision to depose M'uawiyah; M'uawiyah's insistence on retaliation of the murder of 'Othman; Siffin; arbitration.

    1.5 'Ali's assassination; Hasan's abdication. M'uawiyah consolidates his rule.

    1.6 Conquests: Balkh; Hirat; Khurasan; Mukran; Kabul; Ghazni, Bukhara; Tirmidh.

    1.7 Attacks on the Byzantines; M'uawiyah's navy, conquest       of Cyprus and Rhodes. Attack on Constantinople (Ibn 'Abbas, Husain and Abu Ayyub involved).

    1.8 'Uqbah bin Naf'i's conquests in North Africa.

    1.9 Bay 'ah for Yazid; wasiyyah to Yazid; concerning Husain. Death.

    1.10 M 'uawiayh' s administration: army and navy; postal service; agriculture; water management; redress of grievances; injustice; religious freedom and tolerance; propagation of Islam; construction of masjids; translation of medical books.

    1.11 M'uawiyah's character and qualities.

     

    1. Husain

    2.1 Husain's character and qualities; his relations with M'uawiyah.

    2.2 Husain leaves Madinah for Makkah after Yazid's accession.

    2.3 The messages from Kufah; advoce by well-wishers; Muslim bin' Aqil sent to Kufah; betrayal by Kufans.

    2.4 Husain leaves for Kufah; he is surrounded by Hurr; his attitude.

    2.5 Husain's martyrdom. Effects of his martyrdom.

    2.6 'Abdullah ibn Zubair's stand and khilafat.

     

    1. Banu Umayyah from 680 to 750

    3.1 YazifJ: (680-683).

    3.2 Marwan ibn al-Hakam (683-685).

    3.3 'Abdul Malik (685- 705). Al-Hajjaj ibn Usuf and' Abdullah ibn Zubair. Al-Hajjaj reduces Arabia and Iraq. Muhammad ibn Qasim's conquest of Sind; conquest of Central Asia; Byzantines and Berbers. Arabicizing of the administration. Partisans of `Ali and Khwarij. 'Abdul­ Malik's achievements.

    3.4 Al-Walid (705-715). Conquest of Spain. Tariq ibn Ziyad, Musa bin Nusair, and Muhammad ibn Qasim.

    3.5 Sulayman (715-717). Attempt to conquer Constantinople.

    3.6 'Umar bin`Abdul-' Aziz (818-720). Return to Islamic rule. 'Umar's reforms. 'Umar's character and qualities.

    3.7 Yazid II ( 720-724) and Hisham (724-743). The Battle of Tours (732). Uprisings of Shi'an 'AIi and the ` Abbasiyyah.

    3.8 The end of the Umayyahs. The revenge by Saffah.

    3.9 A review of the Umayyahs. Administration; military organization; conquests; the people -Arabs, new Muslims, dhimmis and slaves; social life; intellectual activities; kalam, poetry, education and science, archi­tecture; trade and commerce; control of the Medi­terranean.

     

     

    IV-201 THE 'ABBASIYYAH

     

    1. The Early 'Abbasiyyah (750-849)

    1.1 ' Abbasiyyah heritage. The Muslim world and civilization        in 750.

    1.2 Al-Saffah (750-754) and al-Mansur (754-775). The new      order; suppression of uprisings. Wars with the Byzantines. Foundation of Baghdad (762). Barmakis.

    1.3 Al-Mahdi (775-785). The rise of Barmakis. Patronage of the arts. Al-Hadi (785-786).

    1.4 Harun al-Rashid (786-809).Jihad against the Byzantines. Style of life in Baghdad. Love of learning. Uprisings in al-Maghrib and Samarqand. Harun's character and          qualities.

    1.5 Al-Amin (809-813). Civil war.

    1.6 Al-Mamun (813-833). Trouble in Iraq. Egypt. Conquest in the Mediterranean. Bait al-Hikmah. M'utazilah controversies. Imam Ahmad Hanbal.

    1.7 Al-Mut'asim (822-842). Turkish bodyguard. Samarra, the new capital. Wars with the Byzantines. Afshin' s revolt.

    1.8 Al- Wathiq (842-849). Correcting the mistakes of his predecessors.

    1.9 A review of early' Abbasiyyah. Administration: vizier; revenues; the army; postal service) provinces; qadaat. Social life. Sciences and arts; medicine, philosophy, mathematics, astronomy, alchemy, geography, history, al-Hadith, Fiqh. Sea trade, trade with Europe. Industry. Elementary and higher education.

     

    1. Later 'Abbasiyyah(849-1258)

    2.1 The loss of power; the slow decline.

    2.2 The review of events from al-Mutawakkil to the fall of Baghdad (857-1258). Breaking up of the khilafat. Qaramitahs, Isma'ilis, the Sufis. Autonomous kingdoms; Tahiris; Saffaris; Samanis; Ghaznavis, Mahmud Ghaznavi; Buwayhis, 'Adadul Daulah; the Seljuqis, Tughral, Alp Arsalan, Malik Shah, Nizam al-Mulk, the decline of the Seljuqis. Genghis Khan, Hulagu; Baghdad falls (1258).

     

     

    IV-202 NORTH AFRICA AND SPAIN

     

    1. Introduction

    1.1 Conquests westward from 'Umar's time to Banu        Umayyah's time.

    1.2 Conditions after the conquest.

     

    1. Umayyah Dynasty (756-1031)

    2.1 'Abdul Rahman al-Dakhil. Consolidation of territories. Beginning of Islamic culture. Treatment of dhimmis. Spread of Islam.

    2.2 Al-Hakam (796-882) and' Abdul Rahman II (822-852).

    The influence of Muslim culture; the Christian fanatics.

    2.3 Muhammad I to Abdullah (852-912).

    2.4 'Abdul Rahman III (912-961). Fatimis of Tunis. Wars with Christians. Al-Nasir. Al-Zahra. His administration.

    2.5 Al-Hakam II (961-976). Peace and prosperity. The library of Qurtuba.

    2.6 A brief survey of the period from 976-1492. Hisham II, Hajib al-Mansur; the Hammadis; the petty kingdoms; al-M'utamid (1068-1091); al-Maghrib and Idrisis; Aghlabis, Isma'ilis; Murabits of Morocco; Yusuf ibn Tashfin; Le Cid; al-Muwahhidin, 'Abdul Mumin, al-Mansur; Nasiris; Abu' Abdullah.

    2.7 Muslim culture in Spain. The philosophers: Ibn Bajjah, Ibn Tufail, Ibn Rushd, Ibn Maimun. The Sufis: Ibn 'Arabi. Literature: Ibn 'Abd Rabbihi, Ibn Hazm. History: Ibn Khaldun. Travels: Ibn Battutah, Ibn Jubair. Transla­tion bureau in Toledo. The sciences: al-Majriti, al-Zarqali, Ibn al-Bay tar. Medicine and surgery: al-Zahrawi, Ibn Zuhr. Industry;" Education.

    2.8 Other events. Conquest of Sicily. Muslim kingdoms of Sicily. Muslim culture in Sicily. Tulunis of North Africa; Ikhshidis, Kafur. The Fatimis of Egypt. 'Ubaidullah's and al-Qaim's conquests in the Mediterranean. Jawhar and the four.dation of al-Qahirah, Nizar al-'Aziz. The

    fall of the Fatimis. Al-Hakim's excesses in religion and government, the Durzis. Al-Tahir; al-Basasiri's capture of Baghdad. Arts and sciences under the Fatimis, 'Ali ibn Yunus, Ibn al-Haytham; architecture and crafts.

     

     

    IV-203 THE CRUSADES AND THE MUSLIM KINGDOMS

     

    1. Origin of the Crusades.

     Early attempts by Christians; paper propaganda. First Crusade (1096-1099). The Christian kingdoms. Impact of Islam on the Crusaders.

     

    1. Zangis and Nuris (1127-1162).

    The Second Crusade (1147-1149). Nuruddin, Shirkuh; Salahuddin Ayyubi (1169-1193). Liberation of Jerusalem. The Third Crusade (1189-1192). Fall of 'Akkah. Peace settlement. Salahuddin's character and qualities. Ayyubis.

     

    1. 3. Fourth (1202-1204) and Fifth (1218-1221) Crusades.

    The sack of Constantinople. Al-Kamil. The Sixth to the Ninth Crusades (1228-1274). Al-Salih, Turan Shah.

     

    1. The Bahri Mamlukes (1250-1382).

    Al-Zahir Baybars Ruknuddin's victory over the Mongols. Campaign against Christian kingdoms. Restoration of 'Abbasi khilafat. Character of Baybars. Qalawun and his achievements.

    Burji Mamlukes (1382-1517). Timur. Capture of Cyprus.

     

    1. Culture, Ibn Taimiyyah; Ibn Khaldun; Abdul Fida; al-Maqrizi. Science and education. Industry. Trade. Social and political structure.

     

    IV-204 THE 'UTHMANIYAH (OTTOMANS)

     

    1. Anatoliaduring the Period of the Seljuqis

    1.1 Turkish migrations and ghazwahs in Anatolia (1018­-1071). The foundation of Seljuqi state in Anatolia. Kay-Qubad (1220-1237).

    1.2 The Mongol invasion and the destruction of Seljuqi state.

    1.3 The Seljuqi administration; the Islamization process; the economy, trade, and foreign relations.

    1.4 The formation of principalities (Beyliks). The spirit of ghazwah among the Turkish tribes.

     

    1. The Early 'Uthmaniyah

    2.1 The origin of the 'Uthmaniyah tribe.

    2.2 Osman ('Uthman) (1290-1326). His conquests; character and achievements.

    2.3 Orkhan (1326-1359). Conquest of Brusa and Izmit.   Building activity; educational activity. The qanun and Shari'ah. His administration. Conquest of Gallipoli.

    2.4 Murad I (1359-1389). European conquests. Crusades. Conquests in the Balkans. Fight with the combined forces of Balkans and Murad's martyrdom. Character and achievements of Murad.

    2.5 Bayazid (1389-1402). Conquests in Asia Minor. Attempts at Constantinople. Timur crushes Bayazid. Fratricidal wars.

    2.6 Muhammad I (Mehmet I) (1402-1421) and Murad II (1421-1451). Re-establishment of unity and resumption of wars in Europe.

     

    1. The 'Uthmaniyah (Ottoman)Empire

    3.1 Muhammad II (Mehmet Fatih), the Conqueror (1451-1481). Conquest of Constantinople (1453). Expansion in Europe and Black Sea. Reconstruction of Constantinople. Muhammad Fatih's administration; finances; land reform; trade.

    3.2 Bayazid II (1481-1512), Selim I (1512-1520), and Sulayman the Magnificent (1520-1566). Wars with Venice, Persia, Egypt, Hungary; the Seige of Vienna; alliance with France; wars in the Mediterranean.

    3.3 The state of the Empire at the time of Sulayman. The government; the army; the law; the people; the economy; foreign relations.

    3.4 Selim II (1566-1574). The Battle of Lepanto (1571). The Turkish fleet.

     

    1. The Slow Decline

    4.1 Causes of Decline.

    4.2 Murad III (1574-1595). Nur Banu (mother and Safiyah (wife). Wars with Persia and Austria.

    4.3 Muhammad III, Admad I, Osman II (1595-1623). Treaty      of Zsitva-Torok (1606). Revolt in Syria and Asia Minor. War with Shah'Abbas.

    4.4 The later 'Uthmaniyah (1623-1807). Wars with European powers and Russia.

    4.5 The state of the Empire at the end of the eighteenth century. Organization of the Empire; law and order; the Sufi orders; the society; Africa; Egypt, Syria and al-Hijaz.

     

    IV-205 PERSIA

     

    1. The Il Khans(1258-1349)

    1.1 The Muslim world in 1260.

    1.2 The Il Khans and their administration. Hulagu and his successors. Devastation of Central Asia. Ahmad (1381­1284), Arghun and Gaykhatu (1284-1295), and Ghazan (1295-1304). Ghazan defeats the Mamluk; conquers   Syria. Ghazan builds up Islamic institutions.

    1.3 Minor kingdoms.

    1.4 Timur (1336-1405). Conquests begin. Timur and Bayazid. Timur's character.

    1.5 Khalil Sultan (1404-1409), Shah Rukh (1404-1447), Ulugh Beg, Abu Said (1452,1469), Uzun Hasan (1453­-1478), and the Turkomen of the White Sheep. Yaqub (1478-1490).

    1.6 Persia at the end of the fifteen century. Rumi, Jami;    historians; architecture.

     

    1. The Sajavis

    2.1 The origin.

    2.2 Isma'il I (1500-1524). War with Uzbegs. Persecution of the Sunnis. Clash with Selim I. His character.

    2.3 Tahmasp (1524-1576). Clash with Sulayman. Humayun      takes refuge with Tahmasp. Treatywiththe 'Uthmaniyah; betrayal of Zayazid (1561). European intrigue.

    2.4 'Abbas I (1578-1629). English advisers. Wars with Uzbegs and the 'Uthmaniyah. 'Abbas' administration.

    2.5 Safi (1629-1642), and the end of the Safavis.

    2.6 Safavi administration.

    2.7 Persia during the eighteenth century. Nadir Shah, 'Adil Shah, Abdali, Zand dynasty, Lutf' Ali Khan.

    2.8 Persian culture. Society and education; religion; architecture; crafts: carpets and textiles, ceramics, painting, enamel work.

     

    IV-206 THE INDIAN SUBCONTINENT

     

    1. Arabs inIndia (712-1051)

    1.1 Muhammad ibn al-Qasim (712) and the conquest of Sind.    His recall.

    1.2 Arab expeditions in western India (712-1051). Their social relations.

     

    1. Turkish and Pathan Kings(998-1526)

    2.1 Mahmud (998-1030). Mahmud's expeditions in northern India. The Battle of Somnath (1926). His influence on India.

    2.2 Mahmud's successors (1175-1290). Muhammad Ghauri (1175-1206). Qutbuddin Aybed (1206-1210); Iltutmash (1211-1236); Radiyah (1236-1240); Nasiruddin Mahmud (1246-1266); Balban (1266-1290). The achievements of the "slave dynasty."

    2.3 The Khiljis (1290-1320), Jalaluddin and `Alauddin. Early conquests of `Alauddin. Conquest of Deccan. 'Alauddin' s administration. His successors: Mubarak, Khusro.

    2.4 The Tughluqs (1320-1413). Muhammad (1324-1351). His reforms, the shifting of the capital; token currency; Mongol invasion, internal troubles, Firuz and later Tughluqs. Timur's invasion (1398).

    2.5 The Sayyids and the Lodhis (1414-1526). Khidr, Khan; Bahlul, Sikander and Ibrahim Lodhi.

    2.6 Delhi sultanate. Administration; revenue; army; treat­ ment of Hindus; learning. Scholars: al- Biruni, al-Baihaqi, 'Ufi. Economic conditions; social conditions.

    2.7 The Islamization process; the conversions; the Shari'ah,education.

     

    1. The Mughals(1526-1857)

    3.1 India at the time of Babar's invasion. Delhi sultanate of Ibrahim Lodhi. Kingdom of Kashmir (1346-1540). Sharqi kings of Jaunper. Muslim kingdoms of Malwa and Gujrat, Khandesh, and Bangal. The Bahmains of Deccan. The Islamization of India. The great teachers.

    3.2 Zahiruddin Baber (1482-1530). Babar's early life. The first Battle of Paniput (1526). Babar, King of Delhi. Babar's character and achievements.

    3.3 Humayun. His checkered life. His campaign against the Lodhis and Gujrat. His defeat by Sher Khan Suri, and flight to Iran. Sher Shah Suri (1540-1545). Sher Shah's achievements. Return of Humayun.

    3.4 Akbar (1556-1605). Second Battle of Paniput. Bayram Khan. Akbar's political policy. Akbar's conquests. Din IIahi.

    3.5 Jehangir (1605-1628). Early years. Khusro's revolt; the hostility of Sikhs. Nur Jehan's  influence. His wars. Shah Jehan's revolt. Jehangir's character. Shaikh Ahmad Sirhindi. European interests.

    3.6 Shah Jehan (1628-1658). Consolidation of power. Shah      Jehan as a ruler; as a builder. The four sons of Shah Jehan and their struggle for power.

    3.7 Aurangzeb 'Alamgir (1658-1707). Extension of empire. Restoration of Islamic practices. His treatment of non­Muslims. The Sikhs, Rajputs and Maratthas. Rise of Sivaji. The campaign against Deccan. Aurangzeb's character and achievements.

    3.8 The Mughal administration; public services; the army; law and order; revenue system; education and learning; urban life; industry; communication; social life.

    3.9 The decline of the Mughals. Aurangzeb's successors. The rise of Maratthas; Ahmad Shah Abdali and the third Battle of Paniput (1761). The Sikhs. The coming of Europeans.

     

     

    IV-207 THE SPREAD OF ISLAM IN OTHER AREAS

     

    1. Southeast Asia

    1.1 The coming of Islam. Traders, awlia, and native kings. Sumatra's Muslim islands, Ferlec and Pasai (Samudra, 1281 or before). Ibn Battuta's visit (764/1345).

    1.2 From Sumatra to Malacca (1400). Sultan Muzaffar Shah (1445-1459). Malaccan  dependencies adopt Islam.

    1.3 Acheh adopts Islam in the mid -fourteenth century. 'Ali Mughayat Shah captures Pasai in 1524 from Portuguese. 'Alauddin (1548-1571) fights Portuguese. Iskander Muda (6108-1637). Women's rule :1641-1699). Islamization of neighboring islands.

    1.4 Borneo, Sulu and Mindanao Islamized by Arab traders. Spainards' resistance (1570).

    1.5 Islam in Java (1400-). Islamic preachers' activity. Shaikh      Ibn Maulana's efforts in west Java (1526). South and central Java's conversion by awlia.

    1.6 Moluccas. Maulana Husain's preaching of Islam. Zain al-'Abidin (1486-1500). Islamization of the island. South Borneo's conversion.

    1.7 Celebes and East Borneo. Prince of Tallo embraces Islam (1605). His subjects adopt Islam and become its champions. The conversion of Raja Makota by two preachers, followed by his court and later his people.

    1.8 Javanese Islam. Sultan Agung (1613-1646) and mystics.

     

    1. Sub-SaharanAfrica

    2.1 Bilad aI-Sudan. Al-Fazari's mention of Ghana in eighth century; al-Bakri (460/1067-1068) supplies more detail. Muslim traders and their superior position.

    2.2 Takrur (Senegal) and Malal were Muslim in eleventh century. 'Abdullah bin Yasin's preaching and reform; his conquest of Sijilmasa.

    2.3 Mali. Mansa Musa's (1312-1337) conquests. Ibn Battuta's description (753-4/1352-3). Mali's relations with pagan tribes, North Africa and Middle East.

    2.4 Songhay empire. The king adopts Islam in the fifth/eleventh century. Mali's and Songhay's relation­ship. Sonni  `Ali, Baru, and Askiya Muhammad. The influence of Muhammad bin `Abd al-Karim al-Maghidi; Takedda, Katsina and Kano; jihad against' 'mixers." Daud bin Muhammad (956-991/1545-1583).

    2.5 Bornu-Kanem. Umayyah influence on Kanemi Islam.   Links North Africa, the Middle East, and with Mali.

    2.6 Hausa. Islam comes from Mali in early eighth/fourteenth      century. Fulani 'ulama's influence. Muhammad Rumfa's centralization of power. 'Umaru bin Kanajeji' s rule         (9th/15th). Fulani 'ulama's influence in Bagirmi and Waday.

    2.7 Moroccan conquest and the rule of the pashas (1591-1660).

    2.8 Mande groups. Islam in Gambia, Ivory Coast, Upper   Guinea and Liberia.

    2.9 Reform movements of eighteenth century. Ibrahim Musa's jihad (1725) in Futa Jallon (Senegal and Gambia). Futa Toro's reform movements. Sulayman Bal and `Abd al-Qadir.

    2.10 'Uthman dan Fodio (b. 1167/1754). 'Uthman's jama'a and its influence and power. 'Uthman's  jihad.

     

    1. East Africa

    3.1 Early contacts. The first hlj'rah to Abyssinia. Trade along the coast. Coastal settlements of Kilwa. Ibn Battuta's visit (731/1331).

    3.2 The Horn of Africa. Somali coastal towns, Zayla, Mogadishu. Islamization of Zanzibar. Arab traders and immigrants. Muslim states in the interior, in Shoa (238/896-7). Seven kingdoms as tributaries of Abyssinia. Description of the Muslim society by Ibn Battuta. Relations with Christians and nomadic tribes.

    3.3 Portuguese and 'Uthmaniyah interests in the sixteenth century. Ahmad Gran's jihad. Harrar as a center of Islamic learning. The Galla kingdoms; Gall influence.

    3.4 The Yao people south of Somalia.

     

    IV-208 THE MUSLIM WORLD TODAY

     

    1. Disintegration of Muslim Power

    1.1 The decline of the 'Uthmaniyah Empire. Napoleon in Egypt; risings in Europe; Serbia, Greece, Muhammad `Ali of Egypt and his revolt. Wars with Russia. The Wahhabi movement; Saud ibn 'Abd al-'Aziz. The mahdi of Sudan. 'Abd al-'Aziz (1861-1876) and 'Abd al-Hamid

    (1876-1909).

    1.2 North Africa. French imperialism in Algeria, Tunisia and Morocco.

    1.3 the British in East and West Africa; the Dutch in Indonesia.

    1.4 Persia: the Qajar dynasty (1795-1825). Muhammad Shah. Nasiruddin. Babism and Baha'ism. Muzaffaruddin.

    1.5 The disintegration of the Mughal Empire. Mysore. Shah `Alam and the Marhattas. The British East India Company and its conquests. The revolt of 1857 and British rule. British prejudice against the Muslims of India.

    1.6 Attempts at Islamic revival. Jamaluddin Afghani. Sir     Syyed Ahmad Khan and his defeatist mentality. Apologist writers of Turkey, Egypt and India.

     

    1. The Muslim World Today

    2.1 The state of the Muslim world after World War I. The Europeans rule supreme.

    2.2 Turkey. Ataturk and his hatred of Islam. Turkish nationalism, secularism and westernization. 'Ismet Inonu. Restoration of democracy. Islamic movements in the Turkish population. The continuing struggle.

    2.3 The Arab countries. Revolt against the 'Uthmaniyah. Betrayal by the British and French. The history of Zionism. Struggle for independence. The Muslim nation states and kingdoms. Islamic movements. Gamal 'abd al-Nasir and his hatred of Islam. The wars with Israel. The newfound wealth: oil. The Arab world today.

    2.4 Iran. Ahmad Shah (1909-1929). World War I and the rise of Reza Khan. Reze Shah Pahlavi (1925-41). Iran after World War II. The Islamic movement and the tyranny of the Shah.

    2.5 India and Pakistan. Struggle for independence. The Indian National Congress and the Muslim League. The partition of India. The Islamic movements in India and Pakistan. Hindu and Western-influences on the Muslims of the subcontinent. The Indo-Pakistani wars and the

    separation of Bangladesh. India, Pakistan and Bangla­desh today.

    2.6 South-East Asia. Independence of Indonesia and Malaysia. The Philippines. Islamic movements.

    2.7 The African countries. The emergence of African nationalism. Independence of African countries. Islam in Africa today.

    2.8 Muslims in the communist world: China, USSR and Eastern Europe.

     

    1. A Review of the Muslim World

    3.1 Independent Muslim countries. Population. Political      structures. The economics. Education.

    3.2 The rise of Islamic consciousness. Anti- and un-Islamic         governments. The Islamic movements and their role in awakening the Muslim conscience.

    3.3 Islamically-oriented governments and their efforts in   restoring the Islamic way of life.

     

     

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