Kitab Al-Salaah (The book of Prayer)


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  • Kitab Al-Salaah (The book of Prayer)



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    Salatul-Janaza
    (Funeral Prayer)

               
    Islam has set certain rules and regulations with regard to attending to
    a deceased person and some of these rules are as follows:

    1. In most cases, death is preceded by sickness and it is the
      duty of the Muslims who happen to know the sick person to pay him a
      visit and make supplications to Allah (subhanahu wa ta'ala) for his
      recovery. Indeed, a sick Muslim has a right to be visited by other
      Muslims who are acquianted with him.
    2. If and when a Muslim is about to die, it is the practice that
      the person is directed to the Qiblah (the sacred mosque in Makka) after
      which the "Shahada", (the words of witness) is proclaimed over the
      person and he/she is also urged to proclaim the same. Thus: "LAA ILAAHA
      ILLAL LAAH ". Which Means: " There is no god but Allah". This is in due
      regard to the following saying of the Prophet (peace be upon him):
      “Exhort your dying ones to affirm the Shahada”
      (Reported by Imam
      Muslim).
    3. Where the person dies, the eyes are to be closed, body
      covered with garments and the people around him are required to avoid
      talking of anything else, except that which is good, such as saying for
      example: "O Allah forgive him and have mercy on him". This is in
      accordance with the following saying of the Prophet (peace be upon him):
      “Do not say over your dead ones except supplications for the angels
      say:
      Ameen, on your supplications”
      (Reported by Imam Muslim).
    4. In Islam a Muslim is respected whether alive or dead, and
      therefore, if a Muslim dies, the religion commands us to give the body
      total ablution (Ghusl) and to perfume it properly.
    5. A deceased male Muslim is given a bath only by other male
      Muslims, although, nothing forbids his wife from giving him a bath.
      Likewise, a deceased Muslim woman is given a bath only by other Muslim
      women, although, nothing forbids a husband from giving a bath to his
      deceased wife.
    6. The deceased should be wrapped in a shroud. If the deceased
      is a woman, she should be wrapped in a shroud composing of five pieces
      of white garments, while, a deceased male should be shrouded with three
      pieces of white garments.
    7. If a woman dies where there are no other women nearby to
      undertake the ritual bath or if a man dies in a similar situation where
      there are no other men nearby, then, the deceased person is only given
      a dry ablution (AT-Tayammum) by rubbing the earth over his/her face and
      hands. Because in such cases, complete bath is impossible. Proper
      funeral prayer is then performed over the deceased and thereafter
      buried accordingly.
    8. The funeral prayer is a collective obligation on the
      residents of a particular area. This is known as "FARDH-AL- KIFAYA" in
      Arabic. And if no one comes out to perform the prayer on a deceased
      Muslim of that community, the community as a whole is deemed sinful in
      the sight of Allah (subhanahu wa ta'ala). But, if it is performed by
      some of the people, then, the rest of the community are absolve of the
      sin.
    9. Women are not supposed to follow the funeral procession as
      can be noted from the following confirmation by Umm Atiya (may Allah be
      please with her) who said: “We were forbidden by the Prophet
      (peace be upon him) without enforcement to follow funeral processions”

      (Reported by Imam Bukhari).

     


    How the Funeral Prayer is Performed

               
    The prayer over the deceased person takes the following form:

    • The funeral prayer has neither Adhaan nor lqamah.
    • The deceased is laid down on the ground with the face
      directed towards the Ka'ba.
    • Where the deceased is a male, the Imam would stand facing
      towards the head of the dead body, while, if the deceased is a woman
      the Imam would stand facing the middle part of the dead body.
      Meanwhile, the congregation would be standing behind him in rows.
    • The funeral prayer is performed with one standing only and
      has neither bows (Rukuus) nor prostration (Sujuuds).
    • The Imam begins the prayer by raising up his hands up to the
      lobes of his ears and comes up with the words of greatness i.e. "Allahu
      Akbar". The congregation would follow likewise.
    • Then, everybody including the Imam would recite "Al-Fatihah".

    • After completing the recitation of the Al-Fatihah, the Imam,
      once again comes up with the words of greatness i.e. "ALLAHU AKBAR",
      and the congregation would follow likewise. After this, the Imam and
      the congregation would recite for themselves in a low voice the
      supplication for the Prophets ABRAHAM and MUHAMMAD, (may peace and
      blessings be upon them), which is usually recited by the Muslims during
      their daily prayers in the second part of the At- Tashahud. The
      supplication goes as follows: "ALLAHUMMA SALLI 'ALAA MUHAMMADIN WA
      'ALAA AALI MUHAMMADIN KAMA SALEYTA 'ALAA IBRAHIMA WA 'ALAA AALI
      IBRAHIMA, WABARIK 'ALAA MUHAMMADIN WA 'ALAA AALI MUHAMMADIN, KAMAA
      BARAKTA 'ALAA IBRAHIMA WA 'ALAA AALI IBRAHIMA INNAKA HA'MIDUN MAJIDUN",
      which means: "O Lord give peace and blessings to Muhammad and his
      family like You blessed Abraham and his family and shower Your
      blessings on Muhammad and his family like You showered on Abraham and
      his family in the two worlds, You are the Most praised, the Most
      wonderful".
    • The Imam would thereafter proclaim the words of greatness
      i.e. "ALLAHU AKRAR" for the third time and the congregation would
      follow likewise.
    • The Imam and the other members of the congregation would
      thereafter make the following private supplication for the deceased if
      he were an adult male Muslim. The supplication consists of prayer for
      self, for the deceased person and for the Muslims at large and it goes
      as follows: "ALLAHUMMA IGFIR LIH'AYINNA WA MAYITINAA, WA SHAHIDDINAA WA
      GHAA'IBINAA, WA SAGIIRINAA, WA KABIIRINA, WA DHAKARINAA WA UNTHANAA.
      ALLAHUMMA MAN AHYEYTAHU MINNAA FA'HYIHI 'ALAL ISLAM, WAMAN TAWAFEYTUHU
      MINA FATAWWAFAHU 'ALAL IIMAAN. ALLAHUMMA IGHFIR LAHU WAR-HAMHU,WA'AFIHI
      WA'AFU'ANHU, WA-KRIM NUZULAHU, WA - WA-SI'I MUDKHALAHU, WAGASILHU
      BIL-MAA-I WATHALAJI, WALBARAD, WANNAQIHI MINA-D-DUNUBI KAMA YUNAQA
      THOUBUL ABYADHU MINA DANAS, WABADIL-HU DAARAN KHEIRAN MIN DAARIHI,
      WAZOWJAN KHEIRAN MIN Z0WJIHI, WAD - KHIL HU JANNA TA, WA'AIDHU
      MIN'ADABIL-QABRI WA 'ADHABI-NAAR, WAAFSAH LAHU FII QABRIHI, WANAWAR
      LAHU FIIHI " which means: "O Allah forgive those of us who are still
      alive and those who have passed away, those present (at the
      congregation) and those who are absent, and our young and the elderly,
      our male and female lots. O Allah, whomever Thou wishes to keep alive
      from amongst us make him live according to Islam and whomever Thou
      wishes to die from amongst us, let him die in the state of being a
      believer (with faith). O Allah forgive him and have mercy upon him and
      keep him safe and sound and excuse him for his faults, and grant him
      respectable place in the heaven, and make his grave spacious, and wash
      him with water, snow and ice and purify him of all his sins like a
      piece of white cloth is cleared from dirt, and grant him a new house
      better than his (previous) house and a family better than his
      (previous) family and a wife better than his (previous) wife, and allow
      him to enter the paradise, and protect him from the torture of the
      grave and the hell-fire".
    • If the deceased is an adult woman, then the above
      supplication shall be repeated in full and the only change will be that
      the supplication shall be given a feminine reading in the Arabic
      language. Thus: "ALLAHUMMA IQFIR LIHAYINNA WA MAYITINAA, WA SHAHIDDINAA
      WA QAAIBINAA, WA SAQIIRINAA, WA KABIIRINA, WA DHAKARINAA WA UNTHANAA.
      ALLAHUMMA MAN AHYEYTAHU MINNA FAHYIHI ALAL ISLAMI, WAMAN TA WAFEYTUHU
      MINA FA TA WWAFAHU ALAL IIMAAN ....... ALLAHUMMA IQFIRLAHA WAR-HAMHA
      WA'AFIHA WAAFU ANHA WAAKRIM NUZULAHA, WA-WA-SI'I MUD- KHALAHA,
      WAQASILHA BIL-MAA'I WATHALAJI WALBARADI, WANNAQIHA MINA-D-DUNUBI KAMA
      YUNAQA THOUBUL ABYADHU MINA DANAS, WABADILAHA DAARAN KHEIRAN MIN
      DAARIHA, WAZOWJAN KHEIRAN MIN ZOWJIHA, WAD-KHILHA JANNATA, WA - AIDHA
      MIN-ADABIL-QABRI WA ADHABI-NAAR, WAAFSAH LAHA FII QABRIHA, WANAWAR LAHA
      FIIHI " which means: " O Allah forgive those of us who are still alive
      and those who have passed away, those present (at this congregation)
      and those who are absent, and our young and our elderly, our male and
      female lots. O Allah, whomever Thou wishes to keep alive from amongst
      us make him live according to Islam and whomever Thou wishes to die
      from amongst us, let him die in the state of being a believer (with
      faith) ...... O Allah forgave her and have mercy upon her and keep her
      safe and sound and excuse her for her faults and grant her respectable
      place in the heaven. And make her grave spacious and wash her with
      water, snow and ice. And purify her of all her sins as like a piece of
      white cloth is cleared from dirt and grant her a new house better than
      her (previous) house and a family better than her (previous) family and
      a husband better than her (previous) husband. And allow her to enter
      the paradise, and protect her from the torture of the grave and the
      hell-fire".
    • If the deceased is a boy, then the following supplication
      would be recited: "ALLAHUMMA IJ'ALHU DHUKHRAN LIWALIDEYHI WA FARADAN WA
      AJRAN MUJAABAN ALLAHUMMA THAOIL BIHI MAWAASIINAHUMA WA-AZZIM BIHI
      UJUURAHUMA WA ALHIQ-HU BISALIHI SALAFIL MU'MINIIN WAJALHU Fl KAFALAATI
      IBRAHIM WAQIHI BIRAHMATAKA 'ADHABAL JAHIIM" which means, "O Allah,
      make him forerunner of his parents and make him a reward and a treasure
      for them, make him one who will pleads for his parents and accept his
      pleadings. O Allah heavy him in their scales and grant them big reward
      and join him with the good believers and make him under the sponsorship
      of Abraham and protect him from the hell fire".
    • If the deceased is a girl, then the above supplication would
      be repeated in full and the only change would be that the supplication
      must be given a feminine reading in the Arabic language.
    • The Imam would thereafter, proclaim the words of greatness
      for the fourth time and the congregation would also say it after him.
      Immediately thereafter, the Imam turns his face only to the right side
      proclaiming the words of peace i.e. "ASSALAMU ALAYKUM WA -
      RAHMATULLAAH" to signify the completion of the prayer. The congregation
      would also follow likewise, and thus, the funeral prayer is completed.

    Note:

    1. If a person joins the funeral prayer while the Imam is about
      to complete the same, then, the person would continue with the
      congregation until when the Imam concludes the prayer, then, the person
      would complete by himself whatever he missed of the prayer following
      the above procedure.
    2. If a late-comer fears that the body of the deceased may be
      taken away before he completes the pray over him, then, such a person
      may only come up with the Words of greatness i.e. "ALLAHU AKBAR" four
      times without necessarily reciting the required supplications. The
      person thereafter, comes up with the words of peace, thereby, ending
      the prayer.
    3. If a person is unable to pray over a deceased person before
      burial, then, it is permitted for him to pray over the deceased's
      grave.
    4. If a person who is faraway is told of the death of another,
      then such a person may pray over the deceased person in absentia with
      the intention as though the deceased is actually before him/her.
    5. Funeral prayer is also recommended over a baby born dead
      after completing four months inside the mother's womb. However, no
      funeral prayer is required over a baby born dead before completing four
      months inside the mother's womb.

     

     

     

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