Fiqh-us-Sunnah, Volume 5: Talbiyah
There is consensus among the scholars that talbiyah is a prescribedpractice. Umm Salamah reported: "I heard Allah's Messenger (peace be uponhim) saying: "O Family of Muhammad! Whoso among you intends to performHajj must raise his voice while uttering talbiyah." This is reported byAhmad and Ibn Hibban.
The scholars disagree, however, on its legal status, timing, and theposition of one who delays it. Ash-Shafi'i and Ahmad hold that it is sunnah ofthe Prophet (peace be upon him); it is desirable to utter it when putting onthe garb of ihram. Thus, if a person intended to perform Hajj but did not uttertalbiyah, his Hajj would still be valid, and he is not required to do anything,because according to them, such a person enters the state of ihram just bymaking intention to perform Hajj.
Hanafi scholars hold that talbiyah or any substitute for it - such ascontaining praise or glorification of Allah. and bringing an animal forsacrifice -is a requisite condition for the validity of ihram. If someone putson the garb of ihram without uttering talbiyah or glorifying Allah or bringinga sacrificial animal, his ihram is not valid, because ihram, according to them,is a combination of intention and one of the rites of Hajj. Thus, if onedeclares his intention for ihram and performs any of the rites of Hajj, forexample if he glorifies Allah or declares, "There is no deity worthy ofworship but Allah alone," or if he brought his sacrificial animal alongwith him but did not utter talbiyah, his ihram will be valid but he will berequired to sacrifice an animal as a penalty for failing to do so.
According to the well-known position of Imam Malik, uttering talbiyah isobligatory and in cases where one fails to do so or does not utter it upondonning the garb of ihram but utters it later on, one must slaughter an animalin atonement.
Malik reported from Nafi' that Ibn 'Umar said: "The Prophet (peace beupon him) made his talbiyah in these words: 'Lab-baika Allahumma Lab-baik.Lab-baika la-Sharika laka lab-baik. In-nal Hamda wan-ni 'mata laka wal mulk. LaSharika lak (Here I am at Your service, O Allah! You have no partner, Here I amat Your service, O Allah. Verily, all the praise, the grace belong to You, andthe kingdom. You have no partner) "'
Nafi' said that Ibn 'Umar used to add, "I am at Your service, I am atYour service. I am at Your service and at Your call. All good is in Your hands,I am at Your service. Our desire is for You, and also our deeds."
The scholars, however, prefer to restrict the words of talbiyah to the wordsused by the Prophet (peace be upon him), and there is disagreement among themconcerning any addition to them. The majority, however, holds that there is noharm in adding other words to them as Ibn 'Umar and other Companions of theProphet (peace be upon him) did. The Prophet (peace be upon him) heard them anddid not say anything to them.(Reported by Abu Da'wud and Al-Baihaqi) Malik andAbu Yusuf disliked adding to the talbiyah of the Prophet (peace be upon him).
Jabir reported that the Prophet (peace be upon him) said: "Whosoevermakes intention to perform Hajj and pronounces talbiyah all day until sunset,Allah the Almighty will forgive his sins, and he will be free of sin as he wasthe day his mother gave birth to him." (Ibn Majah)
Abu Hurairah reported that the Prophet (peace be upon him) said: "Hewho declares, 'There is no God but Allah' will get the good news of reward (forhim), and he who magnifies Allah (or, says Allahu Akbar - Allah is thegreatest) will receive the good news of reward (for him)." They asked:"O Prophet of Allah, is it the (good news of) Paradise?" He replied,"Yes." (Narrated by At-Tabarani and Sa'id bin Mansur)
Sahl ibn Sa'ad reported that the Prophet (peace be upon him) said:"When any Muslim utters talbiyah, everything - every stone or every treeor every pebble - on his right side and on his left side responds with a(similar) talbiyah, until the whole earth resounds with it." (Reported byIbn Majah, Al-Baihaqi, Tirmizhi, Al-Hakim, who considers it a sound hadith)
Zaid ibn Khalid reported that the Prophet (peace be upon him) said:"Gabriel (peace be upon him) came to me and told me: 'Command yourCompanions to raise their voices when saying talbiyah, because it is one of therituals of Hajj." This is reported by Ibn Majah, Ahmad, Ibn Khuzaimah andAl-Hakim, who regards it a sound hadith.
Abu Bakr reported that the Prophet (peace be upon him) was asked:"Which Hajj is the best Hajj?" He replied: "One in which voicesare raised when saying talbiyah and a sacrifice is offered." (Reported byTirmizhi and Ibn Majah) Abu Hazim said: "When the Companions put on ihramtheir voices would become hoarse even before they reached Makkah." In thelight of these ahadith the majority of scholars prefers that the pilgrims raisetheir voices when saying talbiyah.
Malik holds that one must not raise one's voice in saying talbiyah whileinside a congregational mosque. One may, however, say it loud enough foroneself or for those around to hear it, except in the Sacred Mosque and theMosque of Mina. In these two one should raise one's voice when saying talbiyah.This applies to male pilgrims only.
As for women, they may raise their voices when saying talbiyah so that theythemselves or those around them can hear it. To raise their voices above thatis disliked for them.
'Ata said: "Men must raise their voices (when saying talbiyah), but awoman should raise her voice so as to hear it herself, but she should not raiseher voice more than that."
Saying talbiyah is desirable in the following places and times: whenmounting one' s mount (or any means of transportation), on arriving at a place,on going up a hill or down into a valley, on meeting another group of people,at the end of every prayer, and early in the morning. Ash-Shafi'i said:"We love to say it at all times."
A pilgrim should begin his talbiyah from the time he wears his ihram andcontinue it until throwing the first pebble at the Aqabah Jamarah on the 10thof Zhul-Hijjah, the Day of Nahr (sacrifice). Then he should stop sayingtalbiyah, as the Prophet (peace be upon him) did, according to a hadithtransmitted by the Group. Ath-Thawri, the Hanafi school, Ash-Shafi'i, and themajority of scholars also hold this view. Ahmad and Ishaq, however, are of the viewthat a pilgrim must continue talbiyah until he has stoned all the threejamarahs. After that he may stop saying talbiyah. Malik holds that a pilgrimmust continue talbiyah until the end of the Day of 'Arafah (the 9th ofZhul-Hijjah). This applies only to those performing Hajj.
As for those performing 'Umrah, they may discontinue talbiyah after kissingthe Black Stone and starting their tawaf. Ibn 'Abbas reports that the Prophet(peace be upon him) used to discontinue talbiyah after kissing the Black Stone(at the start of his tawaf). (Reported by Tirmizhi who considers it a soundhadith. When a person puts on ihram from a miqat he should discontinue ralbiyahon entering the Haram (Sacred Mosque). And those who put on ihram from Ju'ranaor Tan'im, they should discontinue it on reaching the houses of Maklcah) Inpractice, most of the scholars follow this hadith.
Al-Qasim ibn Muhammad ibn Abu Bakr said: "It is commendable for apilgrim to send greetings and blessings on the Prophet (peace be upon him)after saying talbiyah." The Prophet (peace be upon him) used to seekAllah's forgiveness, pleasure, and protection from men after having said his talbiyah.(Reported by At-Tabarani and others)