Fiqh-us-Sunnah, Volume 2: The Duha prayer
Many hadith describe the excellence of the duha prayer.
Abu Zharr reports that the Prophet sallallahu aleihi wasallam said:"Charity is required from every part of your body daily. Every saying of'Glory be to Allah' is charity. Every saying of 'Praise be to Allah' ischarity. Every saying of 'There is no God but Allah' is charity. Every sayingof 'Allah is the Greatest' is charity. Ordering the good is charity.Eradicating the evil is charity. And what suffices for that (as a charity) are thetwo rak'at of duha." This is related by Ahmad, Muslim, and Abu Dawud.
Ahmad and Abu Dawud record from Buraidah that the Prophet sallallahu alehiwasallam said: "In a human (body) there are 360 joints and man must make acharity for each one." The people said: "Who can do that, O Messengerof Allah?" He responded: "One may cover the mucus that one finds inthe mosque or remove something harmful from the road. If one could not do that,he could pray two rak'at of duha and that will be sufficient for him."
Talking of the legal import of these hadith, ash-Shaukani says: "Thesetwo hadith point to the greatness, excellence, and importance of the duhaprayer, stressing its legality as its two rak'at suffice for 360 charities.Something like this should be performed regularly and persistently. The hadithalso establish the importance of saying 'Glory be to Allah', 'Praise be toAllah', and 'There is no God but Allah.' And [the importance of] ordering thegood, eradicating the evil, removing the spittle, removing what is harmful fromthe path, and such other acts that will fulfill what is required of a person ofdaily charities."
An-Nawas ibn Sam'an relates that the Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam said:"Allah said: 'Son of Adam, do not fail in performing four rak'at in theearly day as it will be sufficient for the latter part of the day."' Thisis related by al-Hakim and at-Tabarani and its narrators are trustworthy.Ahmad, at-Tirmizhi, Abu Dawud, and an-Nasa'i relate it on the authority ofNa'im al-Ghatfani with a good chain. At-Tirmizhi's wording is: "Son ofAdam, pray four rak'at for Me in the early day and it will be sufficient foryou for the latter part of the day."
'Abdullah ibn 'Amr says: "The Messenger of Allah sent an expedition andthey obtained lots of booty and returned quickly. The people talked about theirquick victory, abundant booty, and quick return. At this the Messenger of Allahsaid: 'Shall I not guide you to a closer battle, a greater booty and a quickerreturn? Whoever makes wudu' and then goes to the mosque to pray duha, that isthe closer battle, better booty, and quicker return."' This is related byAhmad and at-Tabarani. Abu Ya'la has something similar to it.
Abu Hurairah says: "My friend [the Messenger of Allah] advised me to dothree things: fasting three days of every month, praying the duha prayer, andpraying the witr prayer before I sleep." This is related by alBukhari andMuslim.
Anas says: "During a journey, I saw the Messenger of Allah pray eightrak'at in the early day. When he finished, he said: 'I prayed my prayer wishingand fearing. I asked my Lord for three things and He gave me two and withheldone. I asked Him not to put my ummah to trial by famine and He granted thatrequest. And I asked that they would not be overtaken by their enemies and Hegranted that request. And I asked that they not be split into groups andparties and He refused that request."' This is related by Ahmad,an-Nasa'i, al-Hakim, and ibn Khuzaimah who classifies it as sahih.
Salatul duha is a prized prayer and whoever wishes to earn reward shouldpray it, while there is no blame upon the one who does not pray it.
Abu Sa'id reports: "The Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam would prayduha until we thought he would never abandon it. And he would abandon it to thepoint that we thought he would no longer perform it." This is related byat-Tirmizhi who says it is hasan.
Anas relates that the Messenger of Allah said: "Prayer in my mosque isequal to ten thousand prayers [elsewhere]. And prayer in the inviolable mosqueis equivalent to one hundred thousand prayers [elsewhere]. And prayer in thebattlefield is equivalent to one million prayers [elsewhere]. And what is morethan all of that is two rak'at by a slave [of Allah] during the middle of thenight." This is reported by Abu ash-Shaikh, Ibn Hibban in his workath-Thawab, and al-Munzhiri, in his book at-Targhib watTarhib, is silent aboutit.
The time for duha begins when the sun is about a spear's length above thehorizon and it continues until the sun reaches its meridian. It is preferred todelay it until the sun has risen high and the day has become hot.
Zaid ibn Arqam relates: "The Messenger of Allah sallallahu alehiwasallam went to the people of Quba', and they were performing duha, and hesaid: 'The prayer of devotion should be observed when the young weaned camelsfeel the heat of the sun.'" This is related by Ahmad, Muslim, and at-Tirmizhi.
The minimum number of rak'ah to be prayed is two, as was mentioned in thehadith of Abu Zharr. The most that the Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallamperformed was eight rak'at, whereas, the most he mentioned was twelve rak'at.Some people, such as Abu Ja'far at-Tabari, al-Mulaimi, and ar-Ruwyani, whosubscribes to the Shafi' school, say there is no maximum limit to the number ofrak'at that one may perform for duha.
Al-'lraqi says, in the commentary on Sunan at-Tirmizhi: "None of thecompanions or followers are known to have restricted it to twelve rak'at."As-Syuti agrees with it.
Sa'id ibn Mansur records that al-Hassan was asked: "Did the companionsperform it?" He answered: "Yes . . . some of them would pray tworak'at and some of them would pray four rak'at. And some of them would continueuntil half the [early] day [had passed]."
Ibrahim an-Nakha'i reports that al-Aswad ibn Yazid was asked: "How manyrak'at are to be prayed for duha?" He answered: "As many as you wish."
Umm Hani narrates that the Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam prayed eightrak'at of duha and made the taslim after every two rak'at. This is related byAbu Dawud with a sahih chain.
'Aishah reports: "The Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam would pray fourrak'at for duha and would add to it whatever Allah willed." This isrelated by Ahmad, Muslim, and ibn Majah.