Fiqh-us-Sunnah, Volume 5: The hajj of the Prophet (peace be upon him)
Muslim reports: "Abu Bakr ibn Abi Shaibah and Ishaq bin Ibrahim told usthat Hatem bin Isma'il al-Madani reported of Ja'far bin Mohammad and he of hisfather, saying, 'We visited Jabir bin Abdullah (he was blind) and he beganinquiring about the people (who had come to see him) till it was my turn. Isaid: "I am Mohammad ibn Ali ibn Hussein." He placed his hand on myhead and opened my upper button and then the lower one, and then placed hishand on my chest (in order to bless me). I was during those days a young boy,and then he said: "You are welcome, my nephew. Ask whatever you want toask." I asked him a question but it was time for prayer. He stood upcovering himself in his mantle. Whenever he placed its ends upon his shouldersthey slipped down because it was short (in size). Another mantle was, however,Iying on the clothes rack nearby (and he put it on) and led the prayer. I saidto him: "Tell me about the Hajj of the Prophet (peace be upon him)."He held up his nine fingers and said: "The Prophet (peace be upon him)stayed in Madinah for nine years but did not perform Hajj. Then, in the tenthyear he made a public announcement to the effect that Allah's Messenger wasabout to perform the Hajj. A large number of people came to Madinah, and all ofthem were eager to emulate the Prophet (peace be upon him) and follow hisactions.
"We set out with him until we reached Zhul-Hulaifah, where Asma bint'Umais gave birth to Mohammad ibn Abi Bakr. She sent a message to the Prophet(peace be upon him) asking him: "What should I do?" He said,"Take a bath, bandage your private parts and put on ihram.
"The Prophet (peace be upon him) then prayed in the mosque and thenmounted al-Qaswa (his she-camel) and it stood erect with him on its back atal-Baida. As far as I could see in front of me, behind me, on my right and onmy left, I saw riders and pedestrians. The Messenger of Allah (peace be him)was prominent among us and the (revelation) of the Qur'an was descending uponhim, and it is he who knows (its true) interpretation. Whatever he did, we alsodid.
He pronounced the Oneness of Allah (saying): Labbaika Allahumma labbaiklabbaika la sharika laka labbaik, innal hamda wan-ni'mata laka wal mulk, lasharika lak (O Allah! I hasten to You. You have no partner. I hasten to You.All praise and grace is Thine and the Sovereignty too; You have no partner).And the people also pronounced this talbiyah which they pronounce today. TheMessenger of Allah (peace be upon him) did not disapprove of anything in it,but he azhered to his own talbiyah.
Jabir said: "We did not have any other intention but that of Hajj only,being unaware of the 'Umrah, but when we came with him to the House (of Allah),he touched the Black Stone (Hajar al Aswad) and made seven circuits, runningthree of them and walking four. Then going to the Station of Ibrahim, herecited: "And adopt the Station of Ibrahim as a place of prayer.'' (Qur'an2.125) He stood at a place where the Station (of Ibrahim) was between him andthe House. There he prayed two rak'ahs reciting Surah Al-lkhlas, and SurahAl-Kafirun. He then returned to the Black Stone (Hajar al A.sl~ad) and kissedit. Then he went out of the gate to Safa, and as he approached it he recited:"Al-Safa and al-Marwah are among the signs appointed by Allah,"(Qur'an 2.15) (adding:) I begin with what Allah began. He first mounted Safauntil he saw the House, and facing Qiblah he declared the Oneness of Allah andglorified Him and said: La ilaha illa Allah wahdahu la sharika lahu, lahul mulkwa lahul hamd, wa huwa 'ala kulli sha'in qadeer, la ilaha illallahu wahdahuanjaza wa'dahu, wa nasara 'abdahu, wa hazamal ahzaba wahdah (There is no Godbut Allah, One, He has no partner. His is the Sovereignty, to Him praise isdue, and He is Powerful over everything. There is no God but Allah alone, Whofulfilled His promise, helped His servant and routed the confederates alone").
He said these words three times making supplications in between. He thendescended and walked towards Marwah, and when his feet touched the bottom ofthe valley, he ran; and when he began to ascend, he walked till he reachedMarwah. There he did as he had done at Safa.
"When it was his last round of Marwah he said: 'If I had knownbeforehand what I have come to know afterwards, I would not have broughtsacrificial animals and would have offered it as an 'Umrah. So, he among youwho has not the sacrificial animals with him should put off ihram and treat itas an 'Umrah. Suraqa ibn Malik ibn Ju'tham got up and said, 'Messenger ofAllah, does it apply to the present year, or does it apply forever? Thereuponthe Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) intertwined the fingers (of onehand) into another and said twice: 'The 'Umrah has become incorporated in theHajj,' (adding): 'No, but forever and ever.'
"Ali came from Yemen with the sacrificial animals for the Prophet(peace be upon him) and found Fatimah (Allah be pleased with her) to be oneamong those who had put olf ihram. put on dyed clothes, and had applied kuhl*.Ali showed diiapproval of it, whereupon she said: 'My father has commanded meto do this.' (The narrator) said that Ali used to say in Iraq: 'I went to theMessenger of Allah (peace be upon him) showing annoyance at Fatimah for whatshe had done, and asked the Prophet (peace be upon him) regarding what she hadnarrated from him, and told him that he was angry with her, whereupon the Prophet(peace be upon him) said: 'She has told the truth; she has told the truth.'
"(The Prophet then asked Ali): 'What did you say when you put onihram?' I (Ali) said: 'O Allah, I am putting on ihram for the same purpose asYour Messenger has put it on.' Thereupon the Prophet (peace be upon him) toldhim, 'I have with me sacrificial animals, so do not put off the ihram.'
"(Jabir) said: 'The total number of those sacrificial animals broughtby Ali from Yemen and of those brought by the Prophet (peace be upon him) wasone hundred. All the people except the Prophet (peace be upon him) and thosewho had with them sacrificial animals, put off ihram and got their hairclipped. When it was the day of Tarwiya (8th of Zhul-Hijjah) they went to Minaand put on the ihram for Hajj and the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him)rode and led there, the noon, afternoon, sunset, 'Isha and dawn prayers. Hethen waited a little till the sun rose, and commanded that a tent of hairshould be pitched at Namira.
"The Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) then set out and theQuraish did not doubt that he would halt at Al-Mash'ar Al-Haram (the sacredsite) as the Quraish used to do in the pre-Islamic period. The Messenger ofAllah (peace be upon him), however, passed on till he came to 'Arafah and hefound that the tent had been pitched for him at Namira. There he got down tillthe sun had passed the meridian; he commanded that al-Qaswa be brought andsaddled for him. Then he came to the bottom of the valley, and addressed thepeople saying: Verily your blood, your property are as sacred and inviolable asthe sacredness of this day of yours, in this month of yours, in this town ofyours.
Behold! Everything pertaining to the Days of Ignorance is under my feet, andcompletely abolished. Abolished are also the blood-revenges of the Days ofIgnorance. The first claim of ours on blood-revenge which I abolish is that ofthe son of Rabi 'a ibn al-Harith, who was nursed among the tribe of Sa'd andkilled by Huzhail. And the usury of the pre-Islamic period is abolished, andthe first of our usury I abolish is that of 'Abbas ibn 'Abd al-Muttalib, for itis all abolished.
Fear Allah concerning women! Verily you have taken them on the security ofAllah, and intercourse with them has been made lawful unto you by word ofAllah. You too have rights over them, in that they should not allow anyone tosit on your bed whom you do not like. But if they do that, you can chastisethem but not severely. Their rights upon you are that you should provide themwith food and clothing in a fitting manner.
I have left among you the Book of Allah, and if you hold fast to it, youwill never go astray. And you will be asked about me (on the Day ofResurrection), (now tell me) what would you say? They (the audience) said:"We will bear witness that you have conveyed (the message), discharged (theministry of Prophethood) and given wise (sincere) counsel." He (thenarrator) said: "He (the Holy Prophet) then raised his forefinger towardsthe sky and pointing it at the people (said): 'O Allah, be witness. O Allah bewitness,' saying it thrice' ."
"Then azhan was pronounced and later on iqama and the Prophet (peace beupon him) led the noon prayer. Then another Iqama was pronounced and theProphet (peace be upon him) led the afternoon prayer and he observed no otherprayer in between the two. (This proves the validity of joining Zuhr and 'Asrprayer on this day, at this place. There is consensus on it, but there isdisagreement as to its cause. Abu Hanifah and some Shafi'i scholars hold thatit is a part of Hajj, but the majority of Shafi'i scholars hold it is due tojourney) The Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) then mounted his camel andcame to the place where he was to stay. He made his she-camel, al-Qaswa, turntowards the rocky side, with the pedestrian path Iying in front of him. He facedthe Qiblah, and stood there until the sun set, and the yellow light diminishedsomewhat, and the disc of the sun totally disappeared. He made Usama sit behindhim, and pulled the nosestring of Qaswa so forcefully that its head touched thesaddle (in order to keep her under perfect control), and pointing out with hisright hand, advised the people to be moderate (in speed) saying: "Opeople! calmness, calmness!" Whenever he passed over an elevated tract ofland, he slightly loosened the nose-string of his camel till she climbed up.This is how he reached al-Muzdalifah."
"There he led the evening and 'Isha prayers with one azhan and twoiqamas and did not glorify (Allah) in between them (i.e. he did not observesupererogatory rak 'ahs between Maghrib and 'Isha prayers). The Messenger ofAllah (peace be upon him) then lay down till dawn and offered the dawn prayerwith an azhan and iqama when the morning light was clear. He again mountedal-Qaswa, and when he came to Al-Mash'ar Al-Haram, he faced Qiblah, and supplicatedto Allah, Glorified Him, and pronounced His Uniqueness and Oneness, and keptstanding till the daylight was very clear.
"He then went quickly before the sun rose, and seated behind him wasAl-Fadl ibn 'Abbas, who wa.s a man with beautiful hair, fair complexion, andhandsome face. As the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) moved on, a groupof women riding camels was also passing. Al-Fadl began to look at them. TheMessenger of Allah (peace be upon him) placed his hand on Al-Fadl's face who thenturned his face to the other side, and began to look, and the Messenger ofAllah (peace be upon him) turned his hand to the other side and placed it onAl-Fadl's face. He again turned his face to the other side till he came to thebottom of Muhassir. He urged her (al-Qaswa) a little, and, following the middleroad, (This proves that it is sunnah to follow a different road on the way backfrom Arafah than the one taken while going toward it. The Prophet (peace beupon him) went by the Dab road to Arafah. Similarly he used to take differentroutes going to or coming back from 'Eid prayers) which comes out at thegreatest Jamarah, he came to the Jamarah which is near the tree. At this hethrew seven small pebbles, saying, 'Allahu Akbar' while throwing every one ofthem in a manner in which the small pebbles are thrown (holding them withfingers) and this he did while at the bottom of the valley. (That is, he stoodthere at a place where Mina, Arafah and Al-Muzdalifah were on his right, andMakkah on his left side)
"He then went to the place of sacrifice, and sacrificed sixty-three(camels) with his own hand. He shared the remaining camels with Ali, whosacrificed them. He then commanded that a piece of meat from each sacrificedanimal be put in a pot. When it was cooked, both of them (the Prophet and Ali)ate some of it and drank its soup.
"The Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) again rode and came to theHouse (of Allah), where he performed Tawaf Al-Ifadah and oftered the Zuhrprayer at Makkah. He came to the tribe of 'Abd al-Muttalib, who were supplyingwater at Zamzam, and said: 'Draw water, O Banu 'Abd al-Muttalib; were it notthat people would usurp this right of supplying water from you, I would havedrawn it along with you.' So they handed him a bucket and he drank fromit."
The scholars said: "This hadith is one of its kind. It contains lots ofvaluable information." Al-Qadi 'Iyad said: "Many scholars have spoken(and written) at great length about the legal injunctions contained in thishadith." Abu Bakr ibn Al-Munzhir has listed a large part of theseidentifying about one hundred and fifty injuctions. He observes that if he hadanalysed more closely this number would almost double.
The scholars said: This hadith indicates that for the women giving birth toa child or having monthly periods it is sunnah - and much more so for others -to take a bath when they intend to perform Hajj or 'Umrah. It also teaches usthat the women who are menstruating or are still in their confinement afterchildbirth, should clean themselves properly, cover their private parts with apiece of cotton, then declare their ihram. It also indicates that ihram must bedeclared after offering either a fard or a supererogatory prayer. Afterdeclaring ihram one should utter talbiyah loudly and preferably use the samewords as used by the Prophet (peace be upon him). However, there is no harm inadding similar phrases as 'Umar did: "O Allah! I answer Your call, You Whogives blessings and good favors. I answer Your call fearing You, and wishingYour favor."
This hadith also indicates that a pilgrim must first come to Makkah whereone must perform circumambulation of arrival in Makkah (Tawaf qudoom), andtouch the Black Stone--if possible--and make the first three rounds running, whilemaking the other four walking at normal speed. The running is done around theKa'bah except between the Yemeni Corner and the Black Stone.
After making the Tawaf one must go to the Station of Ibrahim (peace be uponhim) and recite the verse: "Take the Station of Ibrahim as a place forprayer." Then standing there, with the Station of Ibrahim between him andthe Ka'bah, he should pray two rak'ahs reciting after Al-Fatihah, SurahAl-Kafirun in the first rak'ah, and Surah Al-lkhlas in the second rak'ah. Thishadith also indicates that touching the Black Stone again prior to leaving theSacred Mosque is recommended (if possible), just as one did upon entering it.There is consensus among the scholars that touching (kissing) the Black Stoneis sunnah.
After that, one must make Sa'i and for this purpose go to mount Safa. climbit, face the Ka'bah and make supplications three times to Allah. Then. one mustclimb down and walk toward Marwah, while jogging in the marked area calledbainal milain between Safa and Marwah every time one passes this area duringthe seven rounds not just in the first three rounds as in Tawaf. On reachingMarwah one should climb it just as one climbed Safa, make supplications, andmake remembrance.
Completion of all these rites will complete one's 'Umrah. Now one shouldeither shave one's head or clip some of one's hair to get out of the state ofihram. This is precisely what the Companions of the Prophet (peace be upon him)did when the Prophet (peace be upon him) commanded them to change their Hajj to'Umrah. As for the pilgrim who is combining Hajj and 'Umrah, he must not shaveor clip his hair, but should remain in his state of ihram.
On the 8th of Zhul-Hij jah. those who had put off their ihram after making'Umrah, should again put on ihram to perform pilgrimage, and then head to Minawith those who combine Hajj and 'Umrah. It is sunnah to offer the five dailyprayers in Mina and to spend the night of the 9th of Zhul-Hijjah there.
It is also sunnah not to leave Mina for 'Arafah until after the sunrise, andnot to enter 'Arafah until the sun begins to decline, and after ot'fering bothZuhr and 'Asr prayers, which the Prophet (peace be upon him) offered at Namirawhich is not a part of 'Arafah. The Prophet (peace be upon him) did not enterhis quarters at 'Arafah until after otfering Zuhr and 'Asr prayers. Moreover,it is also sunnah of the Prophet (peace be upon him) to offer somesupererogatory (nawafil) prayers in between these two prayers.
The imam should give a sermon before the prayer, which is one of the sunnahsermons in pilgrimage. The second sermon is given by the imam on the 7th ofZhul-Hijjah after Zuhr prayer in the Ka'bah. The third of these sunnah sermonsis delivered on the 10th of Zhul-Hijjah, the day of slaughtering. And thefourth sermon is given on the day the people leave (yawm an-nafr)--the 11th dayof Zhul-Hijjah.
This hadith also contains some important manners and etiquette forperforming Hajj and 'Umrah:
-2- It is better to spend the time at 'Arafah riding one's mount.
-3- It is better to stand by the rocks or close to them as the Prophet(peace be upon him) did.
-4- One should face Qiblah while in 'Arafah.
-5- One must stay at one's quarters in 'Arafah until sunset.
-6- One should make supplications to Allah, raising one's hands to one'schest, and after the sunset calmly and quietly leave 'Arafah. And if one is ina leading position one should ask others to do likewise.
-7- Upon arriving at Al-Muzdalifah, one should combine Maghrib and 'Ishaprayers with one azhan and two iqamahs.
-8- One may not offer any nawafil prayers in between these two prayers.There is consensus among Muslim scholars about combining these two prayers.They differ, however, concerning the reason for it. Some claim that it is a partof the rites of the Hajj, while others say it is a permission granted to them,because they are traveling.
-9- Spending the night at Al-Muzdalifah is also sunnah. All scholars agreethat it is part of the Hajj rites. They do, however, differ on whether spendingthe night there is obligatory or sunnah.
-10- It is also sunnah to offer Fajr prayer at Al-Muzdalifah, and thendepart from it for Al-Mash'ar Al-Haram to stop there and make supplications.Stopping there is a part of the Hajj rite.
-11- It is sunnah to leave Al-Mash 'ar Al-Haram when dawn is well advancedand go to the bottom of Mohassir valley. When in this valley one should walkfast because this is the place where Allah's wrath descended upon theCompanions of the Elephant.
-12- On reaching the jamarah--jamarah al 'aqabah--one should throw sevenpebbles at it, and with each throw say Allahu Akbar. The pebbles should be nomore than the size of a cereal seed (beans).
-13- After this one should offer his sacrifice, if one has one, slaughteringit with one's own hands. After slaughtering one may shave one's head.
-14- Now one must go to Makkah to perform Tawaf ifadah also known as Tawafaz-ziyarah or circumambulation of visit.
One is thereafter permitted to engage in any lawful activity that wasunlawful for him while in the state of ihram, including sexual intercourse withone's wife. A person who has thrown pebbles at Jamarah al- 'Aqabah, but has notperformed the circumambulation of if adah (or ziyarah) may engage in any lawfulactivity except sexual intercourse with his wife.
That is the guidance of the Prophet (peace be upon him) concerning Hajj. Itexplains what he meant when, according to a hadith, he said: "Take yourrites from me," for his Hajj alone is the real and true Hajj.
In the following pages we will deal in detail with all these rites, and theopinions of various scholars concerning them.