Fiqh Assunah


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  • Fiqh Assunah


  • Fiqh-us-Sunnah, Volume 2: The Mosques

    Fiqh-us-Sunnah, Volume 2: The Mosques


    Volume2, Page 67: The earth as a mosque

    Allah the Exalted has conferred a special blessing upon this ummah - thatis, the whole earth has been declared a mosque for it. Therefore, when the timefor prayer comes, a Muslim may pray wherever he may be. Abu Zharr asked theProphet, "What was the first mosque on the earth?" He said: "TheMasjid al-Haram [in Makkah]." Abu Zharr asked: "which is the nextoldest mosque?" The Prophet sallallahu alehi wassalam said: "Theal-Aqsa Mosque." Abu Zharr asked: "How much time was there between[the building of the two]." The Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam replied:"Forty years." Then, he said: "Wherever you may be, at the timeof salah, you may pray for it [the earth] is all a mosque." This isrelated by the group.

    Volume2, Page 67a: The excellence of building mosques

    'Uthman reports that the Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam said:"Whoever builds for Allah a mosque, seeking by it Allah's grace, Allahwill build for him a house in paradise." This is related by al-Bukhari andMuslim.

    Ibn 'Abbas reports that the Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam said:"Whoever builds for Allah a mosque, even if it be tiny, like a bird'snest, Allah will build for him a house in paradise." This is related byAhmad, Ibn Hibban, and al-Bazzar with a sahih chain.

    Volume2, Page 67b: Supplications while going to the mosque

    It is sunnah to make supplications while going to the mosque. The followingare examples of such supplications:

    Umm Salamah reports: "When the Messenger of Allah left the house hewould say: 'In the name of Allah, I put my trust in Allah. O Allah, I seekrefuge in Thee lest I stray or be led astray or cause injustice or sufferinjustice or do wrong or have wrong done to me !" This is related by AbuDawud, an-Nasa'i, Ibn Majah, and at-Tirmizhi, who calls it sahih.

    Anas reports that the Messenger of Allah said: "Whoever says uponleaving from his house: 'In the name of Allah, I put my trust in Allah. Thereis no power or might except with Allah,' it will be said to him: 'That issufficient for you...you are guided, defended, and protected and the devil willbe driven away from you."' This is related by Abu Dawud, an-Nasa'i, andat-Tirmizhi who calls it hasan.

    Al-Bukhari and Muslim record from Ibn 'Abbas that the Prophet left for themosque saying: "O Allah, make light in my heart, and light in my vision,and light in my hearing, and light on my right, and light behind me, and lightin my nerves, and light in my flesh, and light in my blood, and light in myhair and light in my skin."

    In Muslim's version, we find "O Allah, make light in my heart and lighton my tongue, and make light in my hearing, and light in my sight, and makelight behind me, and light in front of me, and make light above me, and lightbelow me . O Allah, give me light."

    Abu Sa'id al-Khudri reports that the Prophet said: "If a man leaves hishouse to go to the prayer and says, 'O Allah, I ask You by the right of thesuppliant upon You and by the right of this walking - as I have not come out inan arrogant or unthankful manner or for show or for fame; I came out in fear ofYour anger and desiring Your pleasure - I ask You to rescue me from the Fireand to forgive my sins as no one forgives sins, save You," Allah willassign for him seventy thousand angels to ask forgiveness for him and Allahturns His face to him until he finishes his prayer." This is related byAhmad, Ibn Khuzaimah, and Ibn Majah. Al-Hafez said that it is hasan.

    Volume2, Page 69: Supplications upon entering and leaving the mosques

    It is a sunnah for one who wants to enter the mosque to enter with his rightfoot first and to say: "I seek refuge in Allah, the Exalted, and by Hishonorable face, and in His everlasting authority, [away] from the outcastSatan. In the name of Allah! O Allah, shower blessings upon Muhammad. O Allah,forgive my sins for me and open for me the doors of Your mercy."

    When one wants to leave the mosque he should step with his left foot firstand say: "In the name of Allah! O Allah, shower blessings upon Muhammad. OAllah, forgive my sins for me and open for me the doors of Your bounty. OAllah, protect me from the accursed Satan."

    Volume2, Page 69a: The excellence of proceeding to the mosque to attend salah

    Abu Hurairah reports that the Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam said:"If anyone goes back and forth to the mosque [to attend the prayers],Allah will prepare for him a feast in paradise as often as he goes back andforth." This is related by Ahmad, al-Bukhari, and Muslim.

    Abu Sa'id reports that the Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam said: "Ifyou see a man frequenting the mosque, then testify that he has faith. As Allahsays,'The attendants of Allah's mosque are those who believe in Allah and thelast day [At-Taubah 18]."' This is related by Ahmad, Ibn Majah, IbnKhuzaimah, Ibn Hibban, and by at-Tirmizhi, who says it is hasan, and byal-Hakim who says it is sahih.

    Muslim records, on the authority of Abu Hurairah, that the Messenger ofAllah said: "If anyone purifies himself in his house, and then walks toone of the houses of Allah to fulfill one of the obligations laid down byAllah, then [each one] of his steps will erase one of his sins and the nextwill raise his degrees."

    Abu ad-Darda' reports that the Messenger of Allah said: "The mosque isa house for every pious person, and Allah provides everyone whose house is themosque with comfort, leisure, and a path to Allah's pleasure, toparadise." This is related by at-Tabarani and al-Bazzar with a sahihchain.

    We have already mentioned the hadith which begins with words "Shall Inot point out to you [an act] by which Allah erases sins and raises degrees. .. ?"

    Volume2, Page 70: The prayer of salutations to the mosque (tahyyatul masjid)

    Abu Qatadah reports that the Messenger of Allah said: "When one of youcomes to the mosque, he should pray two rak'at before he sits." This isrelated by the group.

    Volume2, Page 70a: Three most excellent mosques

    Jabir reports that the Messenger of Allah said: "Prayer in theinviolable mosque [in Makkah] is like 100,000 prayers [elsewhere]. And prayersin my mosque [in Medinah] is like one thousand prayers [elsewhere]. And aprayer in Bait al-Maqdis [in Jerusalem] is like five hundred prayers [elsewhere].This is related by alBaihaqi, and as-Sayuti says it is hasan.

    Ahmad records that the Messenger of Allah said: "Offering salah in mymosque is better than one thousand prayers elsewhere, save for those offered inthe inviolable mosque. And salah in the inviolable mosque is better than salahin my mosque by one hundred prayers."

    The Prophet said: "One should not undertake a journey, save to threemosques: the inviolable mosque [in Makkah], my mosque here [in Medinah], andMasjid al-Aqsa [in Jerusalem]." This is related by the group.

    Volume2, Page 70b: Embellishing the Mosques

    Anas reports that the Messenger of Allah said: "The Hour will not cometo pass until the people vie with each other in (building) the mosques."This is related by Ahmad, Abu Dawud, anNasa'i, Ibn Majah, and Ibn Hibban whocalls it sahih. Ibn Khuzaimah's wording is: "A time will come when thepeople will vie with each other in (building) the mosques but very few willattend (the mosques)."

    Ibn 'Abbas reports that the Messenger of Allah said: "I have not beenordered to build high and lofty mosques." Abu Dawud's version adds:"Ibn 'Abbas said: 'You will certainly embellish them as the Jews andChristians embellished [their places of worship]."' The preceding hadithwas related by Abu Dawud and by Ibn Hibban who calls it sahih.

    'Umar ordered mosques to be built and would say: "Protect the peoplefrom the rain. Beware of red and yellow decorations for they distractpeople." This is related by Ibn Khuzaimah in his sahih and by al-Bukhari inmualaq form.

    Volume2, Page 71: Keeping the mosques clean and scenting them

    'Aishah reports that the Prophet ordered that mosques be built inresidential areas and that they be cleaned and perfumed. This is related byAhmad, Abu Dawud, at-Tirmizhi, Ibn Majah, and Ibn Hibban with a good chain. AbuDawud's wording is: "He ordered us to build the mosques in the residentialareas, to build them well, and to purify them. 'Abdullah would burn incensewhen 'Umar would sit on the pulpit."

    Anas reports that the Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam said: "Therewards of my ummah were placed before me, even for removing a speck of dustfrom the mosque." This is related by Abu Dawud, at-Tirmizhi, and IbnKhuzaimah who calls it sahih.

    Volume2, Page 71a: Maintaining the Mosques

    The Mosques are houses of worship and it is obligatory to keep them cleanand free of filth and noxious smells.

    Muslim records that the Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam said: "Thesemosques are not meant for urine or filth but they are for the remembrance ofAllah and the recital of the Qur'an.

    Ahmad records, with a sahih chain, that the Prophet sallallahu alehiwasallam said: "If one of you expectorates, he should cover it lest itshould besmear a believer's body or clothing and harm him."

    Ahmad and al-Bukhari record from Abu Hurairah that the Messenger of Allahsaid: "When one of you stands to pray, he should not spit in front of himas he is facing Allah when he is in prayer. And he should not spit to his rightas there is an angel on his right. So, he should spit to his left or under hisfeet and he should bury it."

    Jabir reports that the Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam said: "Whoevereats garlic, onion, or leek should not come close to our mosque for the angelsare harmed by what harms the children of Adam." This is related byal-Bukhari and Muslim.

    On Friday, 'Umar addressed the people saying: "O you people, you eat oftwo plants which I consider bad [onion and garlic] for I have seen the Prophet,when he perceived their smell from someone, he would order the man to go toal-Baqi'. Whoever eats them should suppress their odor by cooking them."This is related by Ahmad, Muslim, and an-Nasa'i.

    Volume2, Page 72: Prohibition of announcing lost objects, trading or reciting poetryin the mosques

    Abu Hurairah reports that the Messenger of Allah said: "If you hear aman announcing in the mosque about some object which he has lost tell him: 'MayAllah not return it to you for the mosques are not built for that."' Thisis related by Muslim.

    Abu Hurairah also relates that the Prophet said: "If you see someonebuying or selling in the mosque, say to him: 'May Allah not give you any profitin your trading."' This is related by an-Nasa'i and at-Tirmizhi. Thelatter calls it hasan.

    'Abdullah ibn 'Umar reports that the Peophet forbade buying and selling inthe mosque, reciting poetry in it, or announcing lost items, and he especiallyprohibited making a circle [i.e., a meeting in a circle] before the Fridayprayer. This is related by the five, and at-Tirmizhi calls it sahih.

    The poetry which is prohibited is that which ridicules a Muslim, praises awrongdoer or some lewdness, and so on. Concerning that which contains wisdom orpraises of Islam or encouragement to piety, there is nothing wrong with it. AbuHurairah reports that 'Umar passed by Hassan as he was reciting poetry in themosque. 'Umar looked at him in a disapproving manner. Hassan said: "I usedto recite when one better than you was present." He turned to Abu Hurairahand said: "I adjure you by Allah to state that you have heard theMessenger of Allah say: 'Respond for me [Hassan]. O Allah, support him with theAngel Gabriel.'" Abu Hurairah said: "Yes, [I heard it]." This isrelated by al-Bukhari and Muslim.

    Volume2, Page 72a: Begging in the mosque

    Shaikh al-Islam Ibn Taimiyah says: "Begging is forbidden whether it isin the mosque or outside it, unless there is a real need for it. If necessary, onemay beg in the mosque as long as one does not harm anyone and does not lie inbegging, or disturb the people by stepping over them or with one's loudness,for instance, when the people are listening to the Friday khutbah, and onedistracts them by one's voice.

    Volume2, Page 72b: Raising one's voice in the mosque

    It is forbidden to raise one's voice in such a way that it disturbs others'prayers, even if it is done while reciting the Qur'an. Teaching or impartingknowledge (to others) is exempt from this prohibition.

    Ibn 'Umar relates that the Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam entered uponsome people while they were praying and they were raising their voices in theQur'anic recital. The Prophet said: "One who is praying is in a privateconversation with his Lord so he should be mindful of whom he is conversingwith. And you should not raise your voices against each other in [the recitalof] the Qur'an." This is related by Ahmad with a sahih chain.

    Abu Sa' id al-Khurdi reports that the Prophet was making seclusion (i'tikaf)in the mosque and he heard the people reciting aloud. He removed the coveringand said: "Verily, each of you is in a private conversation with his Lordso you should not disturb each other. And you are not to raise your voicesagainst each other in the recitation." This is related by Abu Dawud,an-Nasa'i, al-Baihaqi, and al-Hakim who grades it sahih according to thecriteria of al-Bukhari and Muslim.

    Volume2, Page 73: Talking in the mosque

    An-Nawawi says: "It is permissible to engage in lawful conversation inthe mosque and one may discuss worldly affairs and other things and even laugh,as long as it is about something permissible. This opinion is based on thehadith of Jabir ibn Samurah who said: 'The Prophet would not rise from hisplace of the morning prayer until the sun had risen, and when the sun rose, hewould get up. And they would talk and laugh about [pre-Islamic] days ofignorance, and he would smile.'" This is related by Muslim.

    When one wants to leave the mosque he should step with his left foot firstand say: "In the name of Allah! O Allah, shower blessings upon Muhammad. OAllah, forgive my sins for me and open for me the doors of Your bounty. OAllah, protect me from the accursed Satan."

    Volume2, Page 73a: Permission to eat, drink, or sleep in the mosque

    Ibn 'Umar says: "During the time of the Messenger of Allah, we wouldsleep and take nap in the mosque, and at that time, we were young men."

    An-Nawawi said: "It is confirmed that ahl as-suffah, 'Ali, Sufyan ibnUmayyah, and a number of the companions used to sleep in the mosque. Thumamahslept there before he embraced Islam. All of that was during the time of theMessenger of Allah." Ash-Shaf'i writes in al-Umm: "If a polythiestcould sleep in a mosque, then definitely a Muslim can." In alMukhtasar itis said: "There is no harm in a polythiest staying in any mosque exceptthe inviolable mosque [in Makkah]." 'Abdullah ibn al-Harith says:"During the time of the Messenger of Allah, we would eat meat and bread inthe mosque." This is related by Ibn Majah with a hasan chain.

    Volume2, Page 73b: Clasping the hands or intertwining the fingers

    It is disliked to clasp one's hands while going to the mosque or whilewaiting for the salah in the mosque, although it is perfectly permissible to doso at other times, even in the mosque. Ka'b relates that the Messenger of Allahsaid: "When one of you makes wudu', perfects the wudu', and leaves withthe intention of going to the mosque, he should not intertwine his fingers ashe is [considered to be] in salah." This is related by Ahmad, Abu Dawud,and atTirmizhi .

    Abu Sa'id al-Khudri says: "I entered the mosque with the Messenger ofAllah while a man was sitting in the middle of the mosque with his fingersintertwined. The Messenger of Allah motioned to him but the man did not noticeor understand him. The Messenger of Allah turned and said: 'If one of you is inthe mosque, he should not intertwine his fingers as intertwining of the fingersis from the Satan, and you are in the prayer while you are in the mosque untilyou leave it."' This is related by Ahmad.

    Volume2, Page 74: Salah between walls and enclosures

    It is allowed for the imam or one who is offering salah by himself to praybetween two walls or enclosures. Al-Bukhari and Muslim record from Ibn 'Umarthat when the Prophet entered the Ka'bah, he prayed between two walls.

    Sa'id ibn Jubair, Ibrahim at-Taimi, and Suwaid ibn Ghuflah led the people insalah while they were between two columns. It is disliked for the followers topray between them if they have enough room because it cuts the row, but theymay do so if they are constrained to it.

    Anas says: "We were prohibited to offer salah between walls and wewould keep others from it." This is related by al-Hakim who says it issahih.

    Mu'awiyyah ibn Qurrah relates that his father said: "We were prohibitedto make rows between walls during the time of the Prophet and we kept othersfrom it." This is related by Ibn Majah but one of its narrator is majhul(unknown as a trustworthy person). Sa'id ibn Mansur records in his Sunan thatIbn Mas'ud, Ibn 'Abbas, and Huzhaifah prohibited it. Ibn Sayyid an-Nass said:"There is no known difference among the companions [on this point]."

     

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