JA'FAR IBN ABI TAALIB
You Resemble Your Prophet in Your Looks and Conduct.
Notice his majestic youth and blooming vigor, patience, compassion, piety, modesty, and devoutness. Notice his fearlessness, generosity, purity, chastity, honesty, and trustworthiness. Notice his magnificent nature, virtue, andgreatness. Do not let the fact that all these excelling traits were found in one man astonish you, for you are looking at a man who resembled theProphet in his looks and conduct. The Prophet gave him the epithet "Fatherof the Poor" and the agnomen "The Two Winged". You are about to meet thetwittering heavenly sparrow, Ja'far Ibn Abii Taalib, one of the great Muslimswho contributed much to shaping the conscience of life.
He embraced Islam and was raised to a high station among the early believers. On the same day, his wife, Asmaa' Bint `Umais, submitted herself to Islam. They had their share of abuse and oppression, which they withstood with courage and joy. When the Prophet (PBUH) advised his Companions to emigrate to Abyssinia, Ja'far and his wife were among those who acted upon his advice. There, they settled for a number of years, during which they had three children: Muhammad, `Abd Allah and `Awf.
In Abyssinia, Ja'far Ibn Abi Taalib was the eloquent Companion who won through in the way of Allah and His prophet, for among Allah's graces bestowed on him were his noble heart, alert mind, sagacious spirit, and fluent speech. The Battle of Mu'tah, in which he was martyred, was his most magnificent, glorious and immortal feat. Yet the Day of Al-Mujaawarah, which he executed before An- Najaashii in Abyssinia, was not less in magnificence glory and grace. In fact, it was a singular battle of words and an impressive scene.
Now, the Muslim emigration to Abyssinia did not set the fears of the Quraish to rest nor lessen their grudges and spite against the Muslims. On the contrary, the Quraish were afraid lest the Muslims should gain momentum there andincrease in number and power. If that did not happen, the Quraish's haughtinessand arrogance could not accept the fact that those fugitives had fled theirtyranny and ruthlessness and had settled in another country which the Prophet(PBUH) saw as a promising land for Islam. Therefore, the Quraish leadersdecided to send delegates to An-Najaashii with expensive gifts and the hopethat he would expel those fugitives from his country. The two chosen delegateswere `Abd Allah lbn Abi Rabii'ah and `Amr Ibn Al-Aas before they had embracedIslam.
An-Najaashii, or Negus, the emperor of Abyssinia, was an enlightened believer. Deep inside he embraced a rational and pure Christianity, void of deviation, fanaticism, and narrow-mindedness. He was renowned and highly admired for his justice. Hence, the Prophet (PBUH) chose his country for his Companions' immigration. Now, the Quraish were afraid lest they should not be able to convince him of their viewpoint. Therefore, their two delegates carriedmany expensive gifts for the bishops and archbishops of the church and wereadvised not to meet An-Najaashii until they had given those presents tothe bishops and convinced them of their viewpoint so that they would supportthem before An- Najaashii.
As soon as the two delegates arrived in Abyssinia, they met the spiritual leaders and lavished the gifts on them. Then they sent An-Najaashii his presents. Afterwards, they began to incite the priests and bishops against the Muslim immigrants and asked them to support them in their plea to An-Najaashij to expel them. A day was set for the Muslims to meet An-Najaashii and confront, before his eyes, their spiteful and mischievous enemies.
On the appointed day, An-Najaashii sat on the throne in awesome dignity, surrounded by the bishops and his retinue. Right in front of him in the vast hall sat the Muslim immigrants, enveloped by Allah's calmness, tranquility, and mercy which He had sent down upon them. The two Quraish delegates stood to reiterate their accusation which they had presented before An-Najaashii in a private meeting right before this huge audience.
They said, "Your Majesty, you well know that a group of fools have turned renegade and have taken asylum in your country. They did not embrace your religion, but rather invented their own religion that neither of us know. We are people of high rank who are related to their fathers, uncles, and tribes, so that you would surrender those wretched renegades to us.
An-Najaashii addressed the Muslims saying, "What is that religion that made you abandon your people's religion and refuse to embrace our religion?" Ja'afar stood to perform the task for which he had been chosen by mutual consultationimmediately before this meeting. Ja'far stood up slowly and gracefully, lookedwith appreciation at the hospitable king and said, "O your Majesty, we usedto be a people of ignorance. We worshipped idols, ate dead animals, committedgreat sin, severed family relations, and acted according to the law of thejungle. We used to believe that survival was only for the fittest until Allahsent from among us a Prophet (PBUH) who was known for his noble descent,honesty, trustworthiness, and chastity. He invited us to worship Allah aloneand abstain from worshipping stones and idols. He ordered us to speak nothingbut the truth and to render back our trusts to those whom they are due. Moreover,he ordered us to keep our ties of kinship intact, be good to our neighbors,and abstain from what is forbidden. He also ordered us not to commit evil,nor to say false statements, nor to eat up the property of orphans, nor toaccuse chaste women of wrong-doing without proof or witness. Hence, we believedin him and in Allah's message to him. We worshipped Allah alone. We rejectedthat which we used to associate with Him as His partners. We allowed as lawfulwhat is halaal and prohibited as unlawful what is haraam. Consequently, wewere harassed and abused by our people, who tried to turn us away from whatAllah had sent down to the Prophet (PBUH) so that we may return to idol worshipingand the evil and unlawful deeds we used to do. We were oppressed, abusedand straitened in a way that prevented us from the proper worship of Allah.They even tried to force us to turn apostate. Therefore, we fled to yourcountry and asked for asylum to escape oppression and tyranny.
When Ja'far finished his glorious words which were as clear as daylight, An-Najaashii was gripped by compassion and grace. He addressed Ja`far saying, "Do you have a scroll on which you have written the words of your Prophet?" Ja'far replied, "Yes." An Najaashii ordered, "Read it aloud." Ja'far recited a number of verses from Surat Maryam in such a slow, sweet, subdued, and captivating voice that it made An-Najaashii and all his bishops cry.
When he wiped his tears he swiftly said to the Quraish delegates, "These words, of what had descended on `lisaa (Jesus), come from the very same source as that of `Iisaa. You are free men in a free land. By Allah, I will never surrender you to them."
The meeting was over. Allah had helped the Muslims and made their feet firm; whereas the Quraish delegates were bitterly defeated. Yet `Amr Ibn Al-'Aaswas a resourceful, crafty man who could neither accept defeat nor despaireasily. Therefore, no sooner had he returned to their residence than he satturning the matter over in his mind. Then he addressed his comrade saying,"By Allah, I will go to An- Najaashli tomorrow and I will pluck the Muslimsout from this land once and for all." His comrade replied, "You must notdo that, for despite their disobedience, they are still related to us." `Amrsaid, "By Allah, I will tell An-Najaashii that they claim that `Iisaa IbnMaryam is a slave like the rest of Allah's slaves." Thus the web was spunby the shrewd delegate so as to lead the Muslims unawares right into thetrap. The Muslims were put in a fight corner, for if they said that `Iisaa was Allah's slave, they would incite the king and bishops against them, and if they denied the fact that he was human, then they would turn from their religion.
On the following day, `Amr hastened to meet the king and said, "Your Majesty, those Muslims utter an awful saying against `lisaa." At once, the bishops were agitated by this short but fatal sentence. They asked the Muslims once again to meet the king so as to clarify their religious standpoint concerning `lisaa.
When the Muslims found out about the new plot, they discussed the possibilities, then agreed to say nothing but the truth as said by the Prophet (PBUH), regardless of the consequences. Once again, the audience was held and An-Najaashii started it by asking Ja'far, "What does your religion say about Iisaa?" Ja'far,stood once again like a gleaming lighthouse and said, "We say what has descended on our Prophet (PBUH): he is Allah's slave, Messenger, His word which Hebestowed, and a spirit created by Him. An-Najaashii cried out in assent andsaid that the same words had been said by `Iisaa to describe himself, butthe lines of bishops roared in disapproval. Nevertheless, the enlightened,believing An- Najaashil declared, "You are free to go now. My land is yoursanctuary. Anyone who dares . to abuse or mistreat you in any way will beseverely punished. He addressed his retinue and pointed towards the Quraishdelegation declaring, "Give them back their presents, for I do not want them.By Allah, Allah did not take a bribe from me when He restored my kingdom;therefore, I will not be bribed against Him!"
After the Quraish delegates had been utterly disgraced, they headed backto Makkah. The Muslims headed by Ja'far went on with their secure life inAbyssinia. They settled in the "most hospitable land of the most hospitablepeople' until Allah gave them permission to return to their Prophet (PBUH),who was celebrating with the Muslims the conquest of Khaibar when Ja'afarand the rest of the emigrants to Abyssinia arrived. The Prophet's (PBUH)heart was filled with joy, happiness, and optimism.
The Prophet (PBUH) hugged him and said, "I do not know which makes mefeel happier, Khaibar's conquest or Ja'far's arrival." The Prophet (PBUH)and his Companions traveled to Makkah to perform the Umrah to make up forthe missed Umrah. Then they returned to Al-Madiinah. Ja'far was overjoyedwith the news he heard concerning the heroism and valor of his believingbrothers who had fought side by side with the Prophet (PBUH) in the Battlesof Badr, Uhud and others. His eyes filled with tears over the Companionswho had been true to their covenant with Allah and had fulfilled their obligationsas obedient martyrs. Ja`far craved Paradise more than anything in the world. He awaited impatiently the glorious moment in which he would win martyrdom.
The Battle of Mu'tah, as we have already mentioned, was imminent. Ja'far realized that this battle was his lifetime chance to either achieve a glorious victory for Allah's religion or win martyrdom in the way of Allah. Therefore, he pleaded with the Prophet (PBUH) to let him fight in this battle. Ja'far knew beyond doubt that this battle was neither a picnic nor a limited war, but rather an unprecedented crucial war, for it was against the armies of a vast and powerful empire that excelled the Arabs and Muslims in numbers, equipment, expertise, and finance. He yearned to have a role in it.
Thus, he was the second of the three commanders. The two armies met in combat on a distressful day. Ja'far would have been excused if he had been gripped by terror when he saw the 200,000 warriors.
Instead, he was gripped by overflowing exaltation, for he felt urged by the pride of the noble believer and the self-confidence of the hero to fight with his equals.
Again, hardly had the standard touched the sand as it slipped from Zaid lbn Haarithah's right hand, when Ja'far darted and picked it up and broke through the line of the enemy with incredible fearlessness.
It was the fearlessness of a man who was not so much craving victory as martyrdom. When the Roman warriors closed in upon him in an encircling move, his horse restricted his movement, so he dismounted and thrust his swordinto his enemies. Then he saw one of them approaching his horse so as tomount it.
He did not want this impure disbeliever on his horse's back, so he thrust his sword into it and killed it.
He immediately broke through the encircled Roman warriors like a hurricaneand recited these vehement lines of poetry:
How wonderful Paradise is.
I can see it approaching with its sweet and cool drink.
The time for the punishment of the Romans is drawing near.
Those unbelievers are not related to us in blood.
I must fight the Romans whenever I see one of their warriors.
The Roman soldiers were stunned by this warrior who fought like a full-armored army.
Confounded by his fearlessness, they closed in upon him in a way thatleft him no escape, for they were determined to slay him. Instantly, theystruck with their swords and cut off his right hand. Swiftly he caught thestandard with his left hand before it reached the ground. When they struckoff his left hand, he caught the standard with his upperarms. At the moment,the only thing that really mattered to him was not to let the standard ofthe Prophet (PBUH) touch the ground as long as he was alive. Although hispure body was struck down, his upperarm still hugged the standard. The soundsof its fluttering seemed to have summoned `Abd Allah Ibn Rawaahah, who darted swiftly and gripped it then galloped towards his great destiny!
Thus, Ja`far died an honorable death. He met Allah, the Most Great, the Most High, enveloped in self-sacrifice and heroism.
When Allah the All-Knower, the All-Aware, inspired His Prophet (PBUH)with the outcome of the battle and Ja'far's martyrdom, his tears flowedas he placed his spirit in Allah's hands. Then he went to his late cousin'shouse and called his children. He hugged and kissed them while his tearsflowed. Then he went back to his meeting surrounded by the Companions. Hassaanlbn Thaabit, the poet laureate of Islam, lamented the death of Ja`afar andhis Companions saying :
At daybreak a man of a blessed nature and graceful face Commandedthe believers to death.
His face was as bright as the moon.
He was a proud man who descended from Al Haashim.
He was a valiant man who rushed to help the oppressed.
He fought until he was martyred.
And his reward was Paradise where there are lush.
Ja'far was loyal and obedient to Muhammad.
If Islam lost one of Al-Haashim,
There are still honorable and pious men of them.
Who are the support and pride of Islam.
After Hassaan finished reciting his poem, Ka`b Ibn Maalik recited.
I am griefstricken over the group.
Who were struck down in succession in the Battle of Mu'tah.
They strived and fought fiercely and didn't turn their back.
Allah sent His blessings on them.
For they were pious and loyal men.
Allah made the heavy rains water their bone.
They stood firm before death in Mu'tah in obedience to Allah.
And for fear of His punishment.
They were guided by Ja'far's flag. He was the best Commander.
He broke through the line of the enemy and was struck down.
Owing to the fierce and ruthless fight.
Instantly, the bright moon darkened.
And the sun eclipsed to lament his death.
At the end, all the poor wept bitterly over the loss of their father,for Ja'afar (May Allah be pleased with him) was the "father of the poor".Abu Hurairah said, "The most generous man towards the poor was Ja'afar IbnAbi Taalib." Indeed, when he was about to die, he wanted to be the mostgenerous, selfdenying and devoted martyr. `Abd Allah Ibn `Umar said, "Iwas with Ja'far in the Battle of Mu'tah and we looked around for him. Wefound that the enemy had sprayed his body with more than ninety stabs andstrikes!"
But those killers did not scratch his invulnerable spirit. No, their swords and spears were the bridge which this glorious martyr crossed to be nearAllah, the Most Merciful, the Most High. He was raised to a high stationin heaven. His worn-out body was covered all over with the medals of war,namely, the wounds. Now, let us hear what the Prophet (PBUH) said about him:"I have seen him in Paradise. His head and wings - upper arms - were coveredwith blood!"