By: Nathif Jama Adam

Wudhu (Ablution)
Ghusl (Total Bath)
Haidh (Menstruation)
At-Tayammum (Ablution Using The Earth)
The Timings Of The Obligatory Prayers
Adhaan (Call To Prayer)
Performance Of The Salaat
How The Salaat Is Performed
Forgetfulness Prostrations (Sujuud Sahw)
Private Supplications Recited Upon completing Prayers
Things Which Invalidate The Prayer (Mubdilatu-Salaat)
Things Which Are Not Preferred In The Prayer
Other Important Notes Regarding Prayer
Congregational Prayer
The Prayer Of A Travelling Person (Musafir)
Performance Of The Prayer By One Who Is Sick
Voluntary Prayers
Juma'h Prayer (Friday Con- Gregational Prayer)
The Prayers Of The Two Feasts
Salatul-Istisqua (Rain Seeking Prayer)
Eclipse Prayer (Salatul-Kusoof)
The Witr (Odd Number) Prayer
Tarawih Prayer
Salatul-Isstikhara (Prayer To Seek Allah's Guidance)
Salatul-Janaza (Funeral Prayer)
A Summary Of The Different Types Of Prayers

Islambasics Library: Kitab Al-Salaah (The book of Prayer)

The Prayer Of A Travelling Person (Musafir)

            Islam is a religion full of mercy and because of the hardships and inconveniences which a person usually undergoes during travels, Allah (subhanahu wa ta'ala) has made certain concessions to the traveler. One of these concessions is that traveler may shorten some of the obligatory prayers. Allah says in the Holy Qur'an: “When ye travel through the earth there is no blame on you if ye shorten your prayers” (Qur'an 4:101).

            Because of this grant from Allah (subhanahu wa ta'ala), it is an established practice that a traveling Muslim may shorten the four (4) rakaats obligatory prayers into two rakaats only. Thus, the Dhuhr, Asr and lsha prayers may each be shortened into two rakaats. However, the Maghrib and the Fajr prayers cannot be shortened and are to be performed in full.

            It is also an established practice that the traveler may combine some of the obligatory prayers. Thus, the Dhuhr prayer may be delayed until the time of the Asr prayer when both will be performed; or, the Asr prayer may be brought forward to the time of the Dhuhr prayer when both will be performed. Likewise, the Isha prayer may be brought forward to the time of Maghrib prayer; or, the Maghrib prayer may be delayed until the time of Isha prayer. The Fajr prayer can neither be brought forward or delayed and has to be performed at its prescribed time.

Characteristics of combining the prayers

  1. Each prayer will be performed separately.
  2. Only one Prayer Call (ADHAN) shall be made for both prayers but two Second Calls (IQAMAHS) shall be required (i.e. one Second Call (Iqamah) shall be made separately for each prayer).
            If we may give an example, assuming that a traveler wishes to combine Dhuhr and Asr prayers by bringing the Asr prayer forward to the time of the Dhuhr prayer, the person would proceed as follows:
  1. The person would first come up with the Call for prayer "Adhaan" intending it for both the two prayers.
  2. The person would then come up with the second call "Iqamah" for the Dhuhr prayer.
  3. The person would then perform the Dhuhr prayer shortening it to two rakaats only.
  4. After completing the Dhuhr prayer, the person stands up and makes another second call "Iqamah" for the Asr prayer.
  5. The person would then perform the Asr prayer also shortened to two rakaats only.

Note: A traveler may lead the prayer as an "IMAM" of the residents of the place he is visiting. And in such a case, he (being an Imam), may perform only two rakaats for the Dhuhr or Asr, and/or Isha prayers while, the residents he is leading, shall upon his completion continue to complete the remaining two rakaats of the respective prayers. However, in such cases, it is desirable that the traveler who may act as an Imam first gives notice to the congregation regarding his position and his intention to shorten his prayer so that the congregation continues to complete the prayer.

On the other hand, if the traveler has to pray behind an Imam who is a resident of the place he is visiting, then in such case, the traveler shall pray with the Imam all the four (4) rakaats as usual.

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