Major Sins


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  • Major Sins


  • 14) Lying About The Prophet (pbuh)

    Allah, the Most High, says,

    {On the Day of Judgment will thou see those who told lies against Allah;- their faces will be turned black: is there not in Hell an abode for the Haughty?}                                                                   (Az-Zummar: 60)

    AI-Hasan said commenting on this ayah that: they are those who say, if we want to do something we do it but if we do not want to do it we do not.

    Ibn AI-Jawziy said when interpreting the above ayah: Some schol­ars hold that lying about Allah and His Prophet (pbuh) is unbelief that puts one beyond the pale of Islam. There is no doubt that a premeditat­ed lie against Allah and His Messenger that declares something which is unlawful to be permissible or something permissible to be unlawful is pure unbelief. The question (as to when it is a major sin rather than outright unbelief) only concerns lies about other than that.

             The Prophet (pbuh) said,

    "Whoever intentionally lies about me shall have a house built in the Hell-Fire.” [1]

     

    The Prophet also said,

    "Whoever intentionally lies about me shall take a place for himself in Hell.”[2]

    The prophet said,

    "Whoever relates words purportedly from me, thinking it is a lie, is a liar." [3]

    The Prophet also said,

    "A lie about me is not the same as a lie about someone else: whoever intentionally lies about me shall take a place for himself in Hell.”[4]

    It was related that the Prophet (pbuh) said,

    "Whoever relates something from me I have not said shall take a place for himself in Hell.”[5]

    The Prophet also said,

    "The Believer is created familiarized with everything except treachery and lying.” [6]

    We ask Allah to guide and protect us; He is the Most Generous.

    15) Fleeing From the Battlefield

    Unless enemies outnumber twofold of Muslims, a Muslim is not allowed to turn his back to them. Similarly, unless it is in a stratagem of war, or to retreat to a troop (of his own), a Muslim also is forbidden to flee from the battlefield. Allah the Almighty says,

    {1f any do turn hi; back to them on such a day -unless it be in a stratagem of war, or to retreat to a troop (of his own) ­ he draws on himself the wrath of Allah, and his abode is Hell, -an evil refuge (indeed).

                                                                                                                                                        (Al-Anfal: 16)

    Abu Hurairah, may Allah be pleased with him, reported the Proph­et to have said,

    Avoid the seven destroyers, The listeners asked: "0 Messenger of Allah what are they ? '! He said, ”Associating part­ners with Allah (shirk), sorcery, taking a life which Allah has made sacred except in the course of justice, devouring usury, appropriating the property of the orphan, fleeing from the battlefield and slandering chaste believing women who would not expect to be accused of adultery.” [7]

          Ibn Abbas, May Allah be pleased with him, said,

    {When Allah revealed If there are twenty amongst you, patient and persevering, they will vanquish two hundreds.}                                                                                                                (Al-Anfal: 65)

     

           He prescribed that it is not allowed for twenty Muslims to flee from two hundred of enemies. But, when Allah revealed,

    {But (even so) there are a hundred of you, patient and preserving, they will vanquish two hundred, and if a thousand, they vanquish two thousand, with the leave of        Allah: for Allah is with those who patiently perseverer.}                                                                                                       (AI-Anfal: 66)

    Allah prescribed that it is not allowed for a hundred Muslims to flee from two hundred.”[8]

     

    16) The Leader Who Misleads His Followers, The Tyrant and The Oppressor

    Allah, the Almighty says,

    {The blame is only against those who Oppress men with wrong-doing and insolently transgress beyond bounds through the land defying right and justice: for such there will be a chastisement grievous.}    (AI-Shura: 42)

     

    The Qur'an also states,

    {Think not that Allah doth heed the deeds of those who do wrong. He but giveth them respect against a Day when the eyes will fixedly stare in horror, they running forward with necks outstretched, their heads uplifted; their gaze return­ing not towards them, and their hearts a (gaping) void!}              (Ibrahim: 42-43)

     

    And,

    {Nor did they forbid one another the iniquities which they committed: evil indeed were the deeds which they did}                                                                                                                                   (AI-Ma'idah: 79)

     

    Now let us consider the following hadiths:

           "He who deceives us is not of us." [9]

    "Oppression will be darkness on the Day of Judgment.”[10]

         "All of you are trustees and each is responsible for those entrusted to his care.” [11]

         "Any superior who misrules his followers shall go to Hell.”[12]

    "If a person who is appointed in authority over people, does not look after the people (placed under his care) with goodwill and sincerity, he will not get even the aroma of paradise.”[13]

    "Every governor will be seized on the day of Judgement in

    front of the Hell-Fire. From the back of his head he will be held by an angel. The angel, then, raises his head before Al­lah (a warning for His command). Being commanded to throw him, only after forty will the governor reach the bot­tom of a vacuum.”[14]

    "Woe to princes, woe to captains, woe to officers. On the Day of Judgement some people will wish to have their fore­lock clung to a Pleiades in torture and that they did not take the charge before.” [15]

    "On the Day of Judgement, the just judge is brought (to be reckoned), He will suffer to such an extent that he will hope that he would not have judged between any two people even with regards to a date. .”[16]

    Of the Prophet's supplication is that,

    "0 Allah! When a person who is placed in authority over my Ummah (people) is strict with them, be Thou also strict with him, and when such a person is kind on them, be Thou also kind on him.”[17]

    "0 Allah! Whoever disposes something of Muslims affairs and screens himself (by adopting a porter) away from their need and poverty, Allah will screen Himself away of his need and poverty.”[18]

               "There will come corrupt, tyrannical rulers: whoever con­firms their lies and assists them in their oppression is not of me, nor I of him, and shall not meet me at my watering place in Paradise.” [19]

    "Two classes of my Ummah (nation) are excluded from my intercession: a tyrant ruler and the one who is extreme in religion: who bears witness against them and clears him­self from them.”[20]

    "T he Oppressor ruler will suffer the severest torture on the Day of Judgement.” [21]

     

    "0 people command the right and forbid the wrong before a day in which your supplications to Allah and seeking for­giveness from Him will be unanswered. When the Jewish doctors of law and the Christian monks gave up commanding the right and forbidding the wrong, Allah cursed them by the tongue of their prophet's and then puts them on the verge of a sweeping punishment.”[22]

     

    "Whoever tries to introduce into this faith of ours (Islam) something which is not a part of it, is to be rejected (and that person is condemned).”[23]

     

    "Whoever tries to introduce some thing or adopts an innovation (in religion) he entails the curse of Allah, the angels and the whole people and will have his works not accepted.” [24]

     

    "He who shows no mercy will not be shown any.”[25]

    "Allah shows no mercy to whoever shows none to people.” [26]

    "Under Allah's shade is a just ruler when there will be no shade except Allah's.[27]

    "The just and fair people (rulers and judges) will be seated on chairs of light before Allah. Such people are those who deal justly in the matters relating to their families and other affairs entrusted to them.”[28]

    When the Messenger of Allah sent Mu'adh (may Allah be pleased with him) to Yemen he said to him,

    "Do not take the best of their articles as Zakat. Fear the call of an oppressed person, because there is no barrier between      the complaint of an oppressed and Allah.”[29]

    The Prophet also said,

    "These are three people whom Allah will not talk to, look at, or exonerate on the Day of Judgement. He mentioned among them the lying ruler.”[30]

    "You will be anxious to lead, and this will be a source of re­morse to you on the day of Judgement.”[31]

    "By Allah, I will not appoint to a public office anybody who asks for it or expresses a longing for it.” [32]

    "0 Ka'b Ibn 'Ajarah, may Allah give refuge to you from the leadership of the naives who will come after me but they will not follow my guidance or tradition.” [33]

    "He who asks to be appointed as the judge of Muslims, and then he judges justly, he will enter Paradise, but if he judg­es unjustly he will go to Hell.”[34]

     'Umar said to Abu Dharr, "Tell me a hadith you have heard from Allah’s Messenger." Abu Dharr said, "I reported the Messenger of Al­lah to have said,

    "On the Day of Judgement, the leader will be brought and then cast upon a bridge on fire. The bridge will be shaken so violently that all his joints will be amputated. Then, if he was obedient to Allah, he will pass, otherwise he will fall down in the Hell-Fire and only after fifty years he will reach the bottom.Upon hearing that, 'Umar asked, "0 Abu Dharr, who asks for it?" he replied, "It is he who his nose for Allah and placed his cheek on the earth..”[35]

    'Amr Ibn Al-Muhajir said, 'Umar Ibn Abdel Aziz said to me "When you see me deviating from the right, you should grip me and ask, 'O `Umar what are you doing?'

    17) Arrogance, Pride, Conceit, Vanity And Haughtiness

    Allah, Most High, says,


    {Moses said, "I have indeed called upon my Lord and your Lord (for protection) from every arrogant one who believes not in the Day of Account.}                                                                     
        (Ghafir: 27)

     

    {Verily He loveth not the arrogant.}                                                                               (An-Nahl: 23)

     

    The Prophet (pbuh) said,

    "Once a man was walking along in a new set of clothes, with a swagger to his step, pleased with himself, Allah caused the earth to swallow him and he will keep sinking until the Last Day.”[36]

    "Tyrants and the arrogant will be raised on the last Day as grain strewn under feet that the people will walk upon.”[37]

    Arrogance, as early Muslims said, was the first fault against Allah.

    Allah, the Almighty, says,

    {And behold, we said to the angels: bow down to Adam: and they bowed down: not so Iblis: he refused and was haughty: he was of those who reject Faith}                                                                  (AI-Baqarah: 34)

    Therefore, Faith is of no avail if arrogance exists, as is Iblis.

    The Messenger (pbuh) said, "Arrogance is belittling to admit the truth and considering

    people inferior.”[38]

    "Arrogance is refusing to acknowledge what is right and considering others to be inferior.” [39]

    "No one with the slightest particle of arrogance in his heart will enter Paradise.” [40]

     

    Allah, the Almighty, says in the Qudsi hadith,

    {Allah loveth not any arrogant boaster.}                                                   (Luqman: 18)

     

       Allah, the Almighty, says,

          "Pride is My garment and haughtiness My Mantle: whoever vies with Me for them I will throw into Hell.”[41]

    The Messenger (pbuh) said,

    "A debate took place between heaven and hell. The latter said; in me shall enter tyrant and the arrogant people: while heaven said, "In me shall enter the weak and the low­ly." Allah decided the issue by saying, You are heaven, My mercy, through you I shall have mercy on whomsoever 1 please; and you are hell, a place of punishment, through you shall chastise whomsoever like. /t is incumbent upon Me to fill both of you!”[42]

    Allah, the Almighty, says,

    {And swell not thy check (jor pride) at men. Nor walk in in­solence through the earth for Allah loveth not any arrogant boaster.}                                                                                                       (Luqman: 18)

     

    Salama Ibn Al-Akwa' recounted that a man was eating with his left hand in the presence of the Prophet (pbuh). The Prophet told him,

     "Eat with your right. To which the man replied, "/ cannot." Though nothing stopped him but arrogance. The Prophet said,' "May you not be able to. And the man could never lift his right hand to his mouth again.”[43]

    "Shall I tell you who the people of the Hell-Fire are. The cruel, the haughty and the arrogant.”[44]

    "There are three people whom Allah will not speak to, look at or exonerate on the Day of Judgement, and who will have a painful torment: he who wears the hem of his garment low (out of pride), he who reminds recipients of his charity to them and he who sells merchandise swearing that he paid more for it than he actually did.”[45]

    "What comes down the anklebones of the caftan is in Hell.”[46]

     

    The wickedest arrogance is that of someone who exalts himself over people of his learning and gloats to himself about his superiority. The knowledge of such person is of absolutely no benefit to him. Whoever learns sacred knowledge for the sake of the next world is unsettled by his learning, his heart is humbled and his ego lowered. Such a person lies in wait for his selfishness and never gives it free rein. He constantly takes his ego to task and corrects it. Were he to ne­glect it, it would diverge from the right path and destroy him. The per­son who seeks knowledge to take pride in it or gain a position of lead­ership, looking disdainfully at other Muslims, thinking them fools and making light to them all this is the most enormous arrogance and no one with the slightest particle of arrogance in his heart will enter Para­dise. There is no power nor might save in Allah Most High, Most Glo­rious.

     

    18) Bearing False Witness

    AIIah, Most High says;

    {Those who witness no falsehood and if they pass by futili­ty, they pass by it with honorable (avoidance)}

                                                                                                                     (AI-Furqan: 72)

    {And shun the word that is false}

                                                                                                                           (AI-Hajj: 30)

    It was narrated that,

    "Bearing false witness is mentioned twice as equal as asso­ciating others with Allah (in the Qur'an)"[47]

             The Prophet (pbuh) said,

    "On the Day of Judgement, the feet of the person who bore false witness will not stir from their place before their own­er is condemned to Hell.”[48]

    The author (may Allah have mercy on him) said that the one who bore false witness has committed many major sins among which is:

    (a) lying and false allegation. Allah the Most High says,

              {Truly Allah guides not one who transgress and lies}.

    (Ghafir: 28)

     

    "The believer is created familiar with everything except treachery and lying” [49]

           (b) He oppressed the one who bore witness against him as he appropriated his property, honor and soul.

           (c) He oppressed the one who bore witness for him as he brought unlawful property to him and thus made him entail the Hell-Fire."

    The Prophet (pbuh) said,

    "]f I decide in favor of a person who is not entitled to the thing, I do not allow him but a piece of fire”.[50]

             (i.e., the person receiving it will go to Hell.)

                    (d) He made what Allah forbids of property, blood and honor permissible.

     

    The Prophet (pbuh) said,

    "Shall I tell you of the worst major sins? Worshipping others with Allah, showing disrespect to parents, giving a false statement and testifying to the truth of a falsehood. And he kept repeating it until we were telling ourselves (out of sympathy for him because of the strain of repeating it) "]f only he would be silent”.[51]

     

    19) Drinking Alcohol

    Allah, Most High says,

    {O ye who believe! Intoxicants and gambling, sacrificing to stones and (divination by) arrows, is an abomination, of Satan's handiwork: Eschew such (abomination) that ye may prosper. Satan's plan is (but) to excite enmity and hatred between you, with intoxicants and gambling, and hinder you from the remembrance of Allah, and from Prayer: will ye not then abstain?}

                                                                                                             (Al-Ma'idah: 90-91)

            Thus, Allah the Exalted forbids wine and warns us of approaching it.

            The Prophet (pbuh) said,

    "A void wine, it is the mother of abomination. "[52]

            Therefore, if anyone does not avoid it, he then disobeys Allah and His Messenger and thus entails punishment.

    Allah the Almighty says,

    {But those who disobey Allah and His Messenger and transgress His limits will be admitted to a fire, to abide therein: and they shall have a humiliating punishment.}

                                                                                                                     (An-Nisa'i: 14)

    Ibn 'Abbas related that, "When the wine was forbidden, the companions (of the Prophet) met each other and said, The wine was forbidden and became equal to polytheism (Shirk)." [53]

    'Abdullah Ibn 'Amr held that, "Wine is the worst of the major sins.” [54]

                                                                                                                                                  ­

    Undoubtedly, wine is the core of abominations. Moreover, he who drinks it was cursed in various hadiths.

    "Every intoxicant is wine and every wine is unlawful. Whoever it in the world and dies addictive to it without repentance, he will not drink it in the Hereafter."[55]

     

    "Whoever drinks wine in this world it shall be forbidden for them in the next.”[56]

     

     "A drunkard is like a worshiper of an idol."[57]

                 "He who shows disrespect to his parents and the drunkard will not enter Paradise.” [58]

     

    "Three people, Allah will deprive them of Paradise; the drunkard, the one who shows disrespect to his parents and the pimp who admits what his family do of abomination”.[59]

              Further, Allah does not accept the good deeds of a drunkard. Jabir Ibn ' Abdullah relates that the Prophet (pbuh) said,

              "There are Three people from whom Allah does not accept their Prayer nor do their good deeds rise up to heaven: the fleeing slave until he returns to his masters and surrends to them, the woman who annoys her husband until he is pleased with her, and the drunkard until he becomes conscious” [60]

    The Arabic word Khamr is what befogs the mind in whatever form: soft, solid, edible or beverage.

    Abu Sa'id Al-Khudari related that the Prophet (pbuh) said,

     "Allah does not accept the Prayers from him who drinks wine so long as there is still something of it in his body” [61]

    "Whoever drinks wine Allah never accepts what he does: Whoever is intoxicated by drinking it will not have his Prayers accepted for forty morning (days). If he repents but drinks again, Allah will make him drink from the molten brass of the Hell-fire.”[62]

    "Whoever drinks wine without being intoxicated, Allah re­jects him for forty nights. If he dies during this period, he dies as an idol worshiper.”[63]

    'Abdullah Ibn Awfa said, "Whoever dies a drunkard will die as the worshiper of AI-Lat and AI-'Uzza (two idols). It is said, Do you think that the drunkard is the one who drinks it constantly? He an­swered, "But he drinks it whenever he finds it even after years.”[64]

     

    Whoever drinks wine is not considered a believer at the time of drinking. Abu Hurayrah related that the Prophet (pbuh) said,

    "A thief is not a believer at the time of committing a theft. A fornicator is not a believer at the time of committing fornication, and a drunkard also is not a believer at the time of drinking as long as they have the opportunity to repent” [65]

     

    "Whoever fornicates or drinks wine, Allah takes his faith from him as a man takes a shirt off over his head.”

     

    "The scent of Paradise is smelt five hundred years away but is not sensed by whomever shows disrespect to his parents, he who reminds of his charity to them, a drunkard or an idol worshiper.” [66]

     

    Imam Ahmad reported on the authority of Abu Musa Al-Ash'ari that the Prophet said,

    "A drunkard, a believer in sorcery or he who severs his family ties will not enter Paradise. Whoever dies while drinking wine, Allah will make him drink from the river of Ghuta which is the water flowing from the genitals of the wenches. The odor of their genitals hurt all the people of the Hell-Fire.” [67]

     

    "Allah sent me as a mercy and guidance to the worlds. I was sent to do away with musical instruments, flutes, and the affairs of the pre-Islamic period of ignorance and idols. My Lord the Almighty swore by His Majesty that if one of my servants drinks a dosage of wine, I would make him drink the like of it in the Hell-Fire. But whoever gave up it out of   fear from Me, I would give him drink from the yards of the shrine with the best fellow of drinking.” [68]

    As for those who are cursed because of drinking wine, Abu Dawud reported that the Prophet (pbuh) said,

    "Allah has cursed wine, and whoever drinks it, pours it, buys it, presses it for another, presses it for himself, carries it or accept its delivery.” [69]

    Ahmad reported on the authority of Ibn 'Abbas that the Prophet (pbuh) said,

    "Gabriel came to me and said, "0 Muhammad, Allah has cursed wine, and whoever presses it for another, presses it for himself, drinks it, carries it, accepts its delivery, sells it buys it, pours it for another or pours it for himself.[70]

    It is unlawful to visit a drunkard when he is ill so is greeting him.

             `Abdullah Ibn 'Amr Ibn AI-As (may Allah be pleased with him) said, "Do not visit the drunkard when being ill."[71]

    AI-Bukhari and Ibn 'Umar said, "Do not greet the drunkard."

    The Prophet said,

    "Do not sit with the drunkard, visit their sick or attend their funerals. On the Day of Judgement the drunkard will be brought with a black face, and his tongue dangling on his chest, flowing with saliva. Whoever sees him knowing that he is a drunkard will disgust him.”[72]

    A scholar said, they are forbidden to be visited and be greeted be­cause the drunkards are cursed and rebellious. Allah and His Messen­ger cursed them as mentioned before. Allah cursed wine and he who drinks it. If they buy and press it they will be cursed twice and if they pour it for another they will be cursed three times. Therefore, it is for­ bidden to visit or greet them unless they repent to Allah. Whoever repents to Allah. He will accept his repentance.

    Wine is forbidden as a medicine. Umm Salamah (may Allah be pleased with her) related, "Once, one of my daughters was ill, so I made wine in a container for her. Then, the Prophet entered while it was boiling. He asked, "What is this, Umm Salamah?" She replied, "It is just a medicine for my daughter." The Prophet, then, said,

     "Allah has not made a cure for you in what He has prohibit­ed to you."[73] 

    Miscellaneous hadiths narrated about wine:

                Abu Musa (may Allah be pleased with him) related that the Prophet (pbuh) said,

                    "A cask of wine was brought to the Prophet (pbuh) who said, Throw it against the wall, it is the drink of those who do not believe in Allah and the Last Day.”[74]

    "Whoever memorizes a verse (Ayah) from Allah's Book and pours wine on it every letter of this Ayah will drag him from his forehead, make him stand before Allah Most Blessed and Exalted. Then, it argues with him, and whoever is argued with by the Qur'an will be treated as an opponent. Woe to whomever is argued by the Qur'an on the Day of Judgement.” [75]

    "If a group of people gather together to have an intoxicant in this world, Allah will gather them together in the Hell-Fire. They will turn to and blame one another by saying, such and such may Allah not bless you. You brought me here." [76]

    "Whoever drinks wine in this world, Allah will make him drink from the poison of Asawid. One sip of this poison will make the flesh of his face fall in the goblet before he drinks it. Having drunk it, his flesh and skin will fall off, and it will bring pain to the people of the Hell-Fire. Behold, whoever drinks it, presses it for another, presses it for himself; carries it, accepts its delivery or eats its price are alike in entailing its sin. Allah does not accept their Prayer, Fasting or Pilgrimage until they repent. But if they die before doing repentance, Allah will make them drink pus of the Hell-Fire for every dosage they drank in this world. Beware, every intoxicant is wine, and every win is unlawful.” [77]

    The Prophet's statement "Every intoxicant is wine" included also hashish (marijuana) as will be shown later.

    It is narrated that "When the drunkards are brought to the bridge on the Fire (Sirat) they will be kidnapped by the angels of punishment to the river of Khabal. There they will drink for every glass of wine they have drunk a sip from the river of Khabal. Such a sip is so hot that if poured on to heaven, it will be burnt."

    Some of the sayings of the early Muslims about wine:

    "Ibn Mas'ud (may Allah be pleased with him) said, "Whenever a drunkard dies let him be buried crucified. Then disinter his grave to find out whether he is directed to Qiblah or not. If not, let him be crucified."

    It is narrated that once Al-FudailIbn Eyad visited one of his disciples when dying. He started to instruct the deceased the testification of Faith, 'there is no god but Allah, Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah." but the disciple could not repeat after him. When Al-Fudail repeated it again the disciple said, "I could never pronounce it. I am free of it.’ Then, Al-Fudail left weeping. Afterwards, he saw in a dream the disciple while being dragged to Fire. He asked him, "0 poor disciple, why did you turn to ignorance?"

    He replied, "0 master, when I was ill, I went to a physician who advised me to drink a glass of wine every year. It not, you would remain sick. Therefore, I used to drink it annually for treatment." If that is the abode of those who drink it for treatment. How about the others?

     When a penitent was asked, Why he repented he answered, 'I was used to entering graves. Once, I saw a dead person not directed to Qiblah. I, then, asked his kinsmen about him and they said, "He used to drink wine in the world and died without doing repentance.

    One of the righteous men said, "Having buried one of my kids, I saw him in a dream with a white hairy head. I asked, 0 my kid, I had buried you as a child, what happened to you?" A drunkard was buried beside me, father. Then Hell-Fire received him by just a puff. It was so violent that all children grew white hairy.

    Hence, we should repent to Allah the Almighty before dying disobedient and then cast into the Fire. We seek Allah's refuge from it.

    Hashish which is made from marijuana is like wine. It is unlawful and whoever smokes it should suffer the same penalty of a drunkard. Actually it is worst than wine. As it affects one's mind and perception to the extent that he may turn into effeminate or a pimp etc. Wine is also most abominated as it often leads to disagreement and fighting and they in turn take the Muslim away of Prayer and remembrance of Allah.

    Some earliest scholars held that who eats or smokes hashish should be disciplined but such disciplinary action may not reach the amount of the least prescribed legal penalty. This is because they considered it as something that befogs mind but not desired like narcotics Nevertheless, hashish is something which is desired and it is hard for the addict to renounce it. Therefore, he who eats or smoke it should be penalized like the one who drinks wine.

    Because hashish is solid the scholars are not unanimous as to whether it is filthy or not. There are three points of views as shown in the Hanbali school of jurisprudence and others: It is as filthy as wine and this is the correct point of view.

    It is not filthy due to its solidity. Solid hashish is pure but liquid hashish is filthy.

      Once, Abu Musa asked, "0 Messenger of Allah what is the ruling of Bit' and Mizr (two intoxicants beverages made in Yemen). The former is made of honey and the lather is made of barely. He added, the Prophet is so eloquent. The Prophet answered,

    “Every intoxicant that causes the negligence of Prayer is forbidden.” [78]

    "Of that which intoxicates in a large amount, a small amount is unlawful.” [79]

    In the hadith above, there is no reference to the dichotomy of intoxicants into solid or liquid. Whatever the kind or form of an intoxicant, it is unlawful. Hashish is not mentioned by the early Muslims because it was used only after the coming of Tatars to the Islamic world.

     

    Abdul-Malik Ibn Marawan recounted a story about a young man who came to him weeping because of a sin he committed. The young man asked: Is repentance available to me? Abdul-Malik said, “What did you commit of sins? I committed a grievous sin, the man declared. Abu Malik said, "You would better repent to Allah Who accepts the repentance of His servants and forgives all sins." Then, the young man said, "O leader of the believers, I was used to robbing graves. There I have seen many wondrous scenes. He asked him: "What did you see?" He said, "One night I robbed a grave where I noticed the corpse not directed to Qiblah. I was scared and started to leave but I heard someone saying, "Would not you ask why he was turned away from Qiblah? Why, I asked. He said, “Because he was not serious in Prayer.”

     

    When I stole from another grave I noticed that the corpse was turned into a pig and his neck tied by chains. I was scared and attempted to leave, but I heard someone saying, "would not you ask about his deeds, and why he was tortured?" I asked why?" He said, "He drank wine in the world and died without doing repentance.

                In the third grave I saw that the corpse was spinned into the earth by wedges of fire and that the tongue was pierced to the back of his head. I became scared and tried to go back but someone called me by

    saying,’ “Would you like to know why he was tortured?” I asked. “Why”? He said, "He did not free himself of traces of urine and was a talebearer.”

    In the fourth grave, I saw that the corpse blazing in fire. I was scared and attempted to leave but I was called would you like to know why he was tormented. I asked, “Why?” He replied he neglected prayers.

    Eventually, I stole from a fifth grave which was so wide as far as one's sight and shiny. The corpse was lying on a bed illuminated and well dressed. I honored him and tried to leave but someone called me saying, "would you like to know why he was honored?" "Why? I asked ." He said, "He was a devout young man who was brought obeying and worshipping Allah." Then Abdul-Malik commented, "This is a lesson to the sinful men and a good tiding to the devout peo­ple. May Allah count you and us among the devout and obedient peo­ple and let us be protected from the wrongdoing. He is the Most Gen­erous, the Most Bounteous.

     

     

    20) Gambling (Qimar)

        Allah says,

    {O ye who believe! Intoxicants and gambling, sacrificing to stones, and (divination by) arrows, are an abomination, of Satan's handiwork: eschew such (abomination) that ye may prosperOSatan's plan is (but) to excite enmity and hatred between you, with intoxicants and gambling, and hinder you from the remembrance of Allah, and from prayer: will ye not then abstain?}                  (5:90-91)

    Gambling connotes backgammon, chess and speculation by nuts, balls, stones and all kinds of betting. It ranks under encroaching upon people's rights that Allah has made forbidden in His saying,

    {And do not eat up your property among yourselves for vanities, nor use it as bait for the judges, with intent that ye may eat up wrongfully and knowingly a little of (other) people's property.}          (2:188)

              It was also referred to in the Prophetic saying,

    "Some people spend Allah's wealth (i.e. Muslim's Wealth) in an unjust manner, such people will be put in the (Hell) fire on the day of resurrection”[80]

     

    "The one who invites his companions: Come let us gamble”, should (expiate his sin) by giving in charity.”[81]

    Since the mere willingness to gamble requires expiation, what would be the sin of the real practice of gambling? The Muslim schol­ars have differed about the exact legal ruling on backgammon and chess in case of being played free from betting. However, the preponderant opinion is to prohibit backgammon. They established their view on the Prophetic saying,

    "He who played backgammon is like one who dyed his hand with the flesh and blood of swine" [82])

    "He who played backgammon has disobeyed Allah and His Messenger.” [83]

    Ibn ' Amr (may Allah be pleased with him) narrated,

    "Backgammon is (a kind of) gambling, and (is sinful) as eating the pork, and playing it without betting is (as prohibited) as embrocating with the swine's fat."

             Regarding chess, with or without betting, it is viewed as forbidden by most jurists, for if it includes betting, there is originally no differ­ence of opinion concerning its prohibition. But in case it is void of bet­ting, the prohibition stands more preferable.

    However, according to a narration of Imam Shaffi'i, if it is played in privacy and does not take one's mind away from obligations or ob­serving prayer on its due time, it is regarded allowable.

                    An-Nawawi (may Allah have mercy on him) when asked about chess said, "Most scholars held it forbidden. In case it leads to the neg­ligence of prayer on time or includes betting, it is strictly forbidden.

    Otherwise, it may be considered abominable"

    The basic proof to prohibit chess by most jurists is derived from Allah's saying,

    {Forbidden to you (for food) are: dead meat, blood, the flesh of swine... The division (of meat) by raffling with arrows.}                                                                                                   (Al-Ma'idah: 3)

             Sufyan and Waki' Ibn Al-Jarrah interpreted "The division (of meat) by raffling with arrows as to refer to chess.

     

    `Ali Ibn Abi Talib (may Allah be pleased with him) said, "Chess is the gambling game of the "Ajam"- Non Arabs. He has also passed by a group of people playing chess and said to them,

    "What are these idols to which you are dedicating yourselves in worship? To touch a firebrand until it gets quenched is better than touching such idols.”[84] He added, "By Allah, it is not the purpose for which you have been created". On another occasion he said, "He who plays chess is a great liar. You say to your fellow player. “You are dead”, while he is not so”. Abu Musa Al-Ash'ari said, "No one plays chess except the sinful person". It was said to Yzhaq Ibn Rahwayh: "Is there something in playing chess?”[85]

     

    He answered, "It is wholly sinful". When he was informed that the soldiers in camps were used to playing it as a means of training for war, he said, "It is impiety." Muhammad Ibn Kab Al-Karzi commented, "The least punishment that a chess player will suffer on the Day of Resurrection is to be gathered with the wrong- doers". Concerning chess Ibn 'Umar said, "It is more mischievous than backgammon." And a similar narration with the same effect was quoted from Imam Malik. It is mentioned that Ibn 'Abbas was appointed as the guardian of the property of an orphan. Among that property there existed a chess game. Thereupon, Ibn Abbas set that game on fire. Hence, if it was permitted to play that game, Ibn Abbas would not have destroyed it, since it was property of an orphan.

    Accordingly, the prohibition of chess is measured to that of wine. Ibrahim AI-Nakha'i said about chess: "It is cursed". Abu Bakr AI-Athram in his collection mentioned the Prophetic saying,

    "Daily Allah has three hundred and sixty looks which comprehend all his creatures except the sheep player- i.e. chess player- for he says" check-mate.”

    Abu Bakr AI-Ajiri related the Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) saying,

    "If you pass by those who play with these idols i.e. backgammon and chess and other amusement -do not greet them. For when they gather and are up to their elbows in playing, Satan alone with his fellows attend their game. And if one of the players averted his glance from playing, Satan would thrust him -to turn again to playing thus, they keep playing till they disperse. They are like a group of dogs that come across a cadaver, eat of it till they are fed up and then go away. In addition, the chess player usually commits lying, as he says, "mate"

    Mujahid said, "Every man when he is dying views his fellowmen whom he used to accompany. One day, a man who was used to playing chess was at the point of death. When he was asked to pronounce the Shahadah -declaration of faith- he instead said," mate" and died.

                His tongue was wrenched by the words he used to say in his life. The Prophet (pbuh) said,

    "Everyone dies in the same manner as he lives and is resurrected in the same manner as he dies”[86]

     

     

    [1] Reported byA1-H~ithami in Maima' AI-Zawa'id.

    [2] Reported by AI-Bukhari and Muslim.

    [3] Reported by Ibn Majah and Ahmad.

    [4] Reported ~ Al-Bukhari and Ahmad.

    [5] Reported by Al-Bukhari and Muslim

    [6] Reported by Ahmad and Al-Baihaqi.

    [7] Reported before.

    [8] Reported by Al-Bukhari..

    [9] .Reported by Muslim.

    [10]  Reported byAI- Bukhari and Muslim.

    [11]Reported byAl- Bukhari and Muslim.

    [12] Reported by Al-Bukhari.

    [13] Reported by Muslim.

    [14] Reported by Ahmad.

    [15] Reported by Ahmad.

    [16] Reported by Ahmad.

    [17] Reported by Muslim.

    [18] Reported by Abu Dawud.

    [19] Reported by Ahmad.

    [20] Reported by Abi' Asim in Al-Awsat.

    [21] Reported by At- Tabarani.

    [22] Reported by Ahmad, A1-Baihaqi and Al-Bazzar

    [23] Reported by Al-Bukhari and Muslim

    [24] Reported by Al-Bukhari and Muslim

    [25] Reported by Al-Bukhari and Muslim.

    [26] Reported by Al-Bukhari and Muslim

    [27] Reported by Al-Bukhari and Muslim.

    [28] Reported by Muslim.

    [29] Reported by A1-Bukhari.

    [30] Reported by Muslim.

    [31] Reported by A1-Bukhari.

    [32] Reported by A1-Bukhari.

    [33] Reported by Ahmad.

    [34] Abu Dawud.

    [35] Reported by A1-Hithmi.

    [36] Reported by AI-Bukhari.

    [37] Reported by At- Tirmidhi and Ahmad

    [38] Reported by Muslim.

    [39] Reported by AI-Hakim

    [40] Reported by AI-Bukhari.

    [41] Reported by Muslim.

     

    [42] Reported by AI-Bukhari.

    [43] Reported by Ahmad and AI-Hakim and it is an authentic hadith

    [44] Reported before.

    [45] Reported by Muslim, An-Nisa'i and Ibn Majah

    [46] Reported by AI-Bukhari.

    [47] Reported by Tirmidhi, Abu Dawud and Ibn Majah.

    [48] Reported by Ibn Majah and AI-Hakim.

    [49] Reported before.

    [50] Reported by A1-Bukhari, Muslim, Abu Dawud, An-Nasa'i, and Ibn Majah.

     

    [51] Reported before.

    [52] It is a part of a hadith reported by Ad-Darqutni, An-Nasa'i and AI-Baihaqi.

    [53]  Reported by AI-Hakim in AI-Mustadrak and it is an authentic hadith

    [54] Reported by AI-Hakim in 'Mustadrak' and it is an authentic hadith.

    [55]  Reported by Muslim, Abu Dawud, At- Tirmidhi and Ahmad.

    [56] Reported by Al-Bukhari, An-Nisa'i and AI-Baihaqi.

    [57]  Reported by Ibn Majah, Ahmad and Al-Baihaqi.

    [58] Reported before.

    [59]  Reported by Ahmad, An-Nasa'i and AI-Hakim.

    [60] Ibn khuzaimah and Ai-Baihaqi.

    [61] Reported by Ibn Hajar Ai-' Asqalani in 'AI-Matalib AI-Aliyyah' and reported by An-Nasa'i.

    [62] This has many references; the nearest narration to it is reported by Ibn Majah and An-Nasa'i.

    [63] Reported by Ibn Hajar AI-Haithami in Majma' AI-Zawa'id.

    [64] Ai-Harth mantioned it in AI-Matalb AI-'alih

    [65]  Reported before.

    [66] Reported by Ibn Hajar Ai-Haithami in Majma' AI-Zawa'id.

    [67]  Reported by Ai-Hakim and Ai-Baihaqi.

    [68] Reported by At- Tirmidhi who said it is a Gharib hadith.

    [69]  Postulated by Al-Haithami in Majma' Al-Zawa'id. It is also reported by Ahmad and At-Tabarani.

    [70] As-Suyuti attributed it to At- Tabarani in Jami' Al-Ahadith.

    [71] Reported by AI-Hakim in Al-Mustadrak and attributed by Al-Suyuti to At­Tabarani in Jami' Al-Ahadith

    [72] Reported by Ibn Al-Jawzy in the book of forged hadiths.

    [73] Reported by Ibn Hajar Ai-Haith ami in Majma' Al-Zawa'id and he said that it is

    reported by Abu Yal'la and Al-Bazzar. The transmitters upon whom Abu Ya'la

    relied are trustworthy.

    [74] Reported by Ibn Majah, Abu Ya'la and A1-Bazzar.

    [75] Not found.

    [76] Not found.

    [77] Not found.

    [78] Reported by Muslim.

    [79] Reported by At- Tirmidhi, An-Nasa'i, Ibn Majah, Abu Dawud and Ahmad.

     

     

    [80] Reported by A1-Bukhari and Ahmad.

    [81] Reported by AI-Bukhari.

    [82] Reported by Muslim.

    [83] Reported by Ibn Majah.

    [84] Reported by Ibn Kathir

    [85] Reported by AI-Suyuti.

    [86] Reported by Muslim.

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