Major Sins


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  • Major Sins


  • 29) Suicide

            Allah Most High states,

    {And kill not one another. Surely, God is Compassionate to you, but whosoever does that in transgression and wrongfully, him We shall certainly roast at afire! and that for God is an easy matter.}

                                                                                                                                                   (An-Nisa': 29-30)

     

    In his explanation to these two verses, AI-Wahidy stated, {And kill not one another,} Muslims are prohibited to murder each other because they are adherents to one religion, Islam. Therefore they are like a single person. This is the opinion of Ibn `Abbas and the majority of scholars. However other scholars are of the opinion that the prohibition in this verse is restricted to suicide. To support their opinion, the latter group of scholars quotes the following " Abu Mansour Ibn Muhammad AI-Mmsuri narrated' Arnr Ibn AI-`Aas saying, "In the battle of Zatt Al-Salasil, I had a wet dream on a cold night. The weather was so cold that I feared becoming ill if I had had a shower. Therefore, I performed dry ablution (Tayamum) and led my companions in the Dawn Prayer. On our return to Medina, the Prophet (pbuh) said to me, 'O `Arnr! "Have you led your companions in Prayer while you were in a state of major impurity?" Then I responded, "O Messenger of Allah! I read the verse, {And kill not one another! Surely God is Compassionate to you.} i.e, he had not had a shower lest it would bring his life to an end. On hearing this, the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) smiled and kept silent.”[1]

    This incident has a clear indication that' Arnr (may Allah be pleased with him) grasped the meaning of the verse as a reference to suicide and the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) did not deny this.

    {But whosoever does that, ~ refers to all prohibitions that the Surah states from its beginning according to the saying of Ibn `Abbas (may Allah be pleased with them both). Other scholars, however, are of the opinion that the reference here is to the consumption of an­other's property with no right and unlawful murder.

    {In transgression and wrongfully,}  means that those who commit murder or suicide and rebel against the Laws of Allah.

    {Him we shall certainly roast in a Fire; and that for God is an easy matter.}

             Surely, Allah is the Omnipotent Who has Power to fulfill what He has promised or warned.

             On the authority of Jundub Ibn 'Abdullah (may Allah be pleased with him) the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) said,

    "There was amongst those before you a man who had a wound. He was depressed that he took a knife and cut his hand. The blood did not cease to flow until he died. Allah the Almighty said, 'My servant has forestalled Me, and I  have forbidden paradise for him. .”[2]

             Abu Hurairah (may Allah be pleased with him) reported that the Prophet (pbuh) said,

                    "Whoever purposely throws himself from a mountain and kills himself will be in the Hell-fire falling down into it and abiding therein perpetually forever; and whoever drinks poison and kills himself with it, he will carry his poison in his hand and drink it in the Hell-fire wherein he will abide forever, and whoever kills himself with an iron weapon, he will carry that weapon in his hand and stab himself with it in the Hell-fire wherein he will abide forever.”[3]

    Thabit Ibn Al-Dahhak (may Allah be pleased with him) reported the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) to have said,

    "He who killed himself with any thing in this world will be tormented with that very thing on the Day of Judgment. Both cursing the believer and charging him with disbelief is tantamount to killing him.” [4]

    It is also stated in the Sahih that

    "The Messenger of Allah (pbuh) told his Companions about a man, who was wounded during a battle with the Prophet but he was not pa­tient and he killed himself with the tip of his sword. The Prophet (pbuh) said "that this man will to be among the people of Hell.” [5]

     

    30) Telling lies

         Allah Most High states,

           {Then let us earnestly pray and invoke the curse of Allah on those who lie!}

                                                                                                                             (Al-'Imran: 61)

           {Allah guides not one who transgresses and lies!}                                            (Ghafir: 28)

     

           {Cursed be the conjecturers (the liars).}                                      (Al-Dhariyat: 10)

     

    On the authority of Ibn Mas'ud (may Allah be pleased with him), "the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) said,

    "Adhere firmly to truthfulness for truthfulness surely leads to righteousness and righteousness leads to Paradise, and a man is recorded with Allah as a sincere one as long as he is truthful. However, lying leads to immorality and immorality leads to the Hell-Fire, and a man is recorded with Allah as a liar as long as he lies.”[6]

    He (pbuh) also said,

    "Three are the signs of the hypocrite, even if he prays, fasts, and pretends to be a Muslim: When he talks, he lies; when he makes a promise he breaks it; and when he is given a trust, he betrays it” [7]

     

    In another narration it is reported on the authority of ' Abdullah Ibn 'Vmar that the Prophet (pbuh) said,

    "Four traits if found together in a person make him a hypocrite. Whoever has one of these, possesses one of the hypocritical characteristics until he renounces it: When he speaks, he lies; when he draws a contract, he breaches it, When he makes a promise, he breaks it; and he abuses his opponents in time of dispute.” [8]

    AI-Bukhari reported in his Sahih the following hadith on the authority of Samarah Ibn Jundub (may Allah be pleased with him):

    "The Messenger of Allah (pbuh) used to ask, "Did anyone of you see a dream?" So those whom Allah wished to tell would narrate dreams to him. One morning the Prophet (pbuh) said, "Last night two persons came to me in a dream and woke me up and said to me, 'Proceed!' I set out with them... And we came to a man laying flat on his back and another man standing over his head with an iron hook, and behold, he would put the hook in one side of man's mouth and tear off that side of his face to the back of the neck and similarly tear his nose from front to back and his eyes from front to back. Then he turned to the other side of the man's face and did just as he had done with the other side. He hardly completed this side when the other side returned to its normal state. Then he returned to repeat what he had done before. I said to my two companions, 'Glory be to Allah! Who are these two persons?'... They said, 'This man is the symbol of the person who goes out of his house in the morning and tells so many lies that it spreads all over the world. '"

    Allah's Messenger (pbuh) also said,

    "The believer may be naturally disposed to any shortcoming except treachery and lying.” [9]

    Other hadith states,

    "Beware of suspicion for suspicion is the most untruthful of speech.”[10]

    "There are Three types of people with whom Allah would neither speak to on the Day of Judgment, nor would He look towards them, nor would He purify them (from sins) and there would be a tormenting chastisement for them: The aged adulterer, the lying ruler and the destitute who is full of pride.”[11]

     

    "Woe to the one who tells lies to make people laugh. Woe to him, woe to him.”[12]

     

    False oaths are more heinous than the normal lying. Allah says  about the character of the hypocrites:

     

    {And they swear to falsehood knowingly.}

                                                                                                                                       (AI-Mujadilah: 14)

     

    Furthermore, the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) said,

     

    "There are three people whom Allah will not speak to, look at, or exonerate on the Day of Judgment, and who will have a painful torment: he who withholds what he has of excessive water from a traveler in the desert, he who sells merchandise after Asr (Late Afternoon) swearing by Allah that he paid more for it than he actually did, and a man gives the pledge to a governor only for the sake of this world,' he will only be loyal if he gets something of this worldly life.” [13]

    The Messenger of Allah (pbuh) said,

    "!t is a grievous treachery to tell your brother lies when he believes what you say.” [14]

    Hadith states,

    "Whoever claimed to have seen a vision while he is lying, on the Day of Judgment he will be commanded to tide two hairs which is impossible.”[15]

    The Messenger of Allah (pbuh) said,

    "The worst sin in the sight of Allah is the false witness.”[16]

    Ibn Mas'ud (may Allah be pleased with him) said, "A servant insists on lying until a black dot be stamped over his heart and so his heart would be stamped as a whole with black color. With Allah such servant would be recorded as a liar.”[17]

    The Muslim, therefore, is required to utter only the good words to be safe from error. Al-Bukhari reported on the authority of Abu Huriarah (may Allah be pleased with him) that the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) said,

               "Whoever believes in Allah and in the Last Day should utter only                good word or he should keep silent."

    This agreed upon hadith indicates clearly that a person should not speak except with what seems to him as good.

    Abu Musa (may Allah be pleased with him) said that, "I asked the Messenger of Allah, '0 Messenger of Allah! Who amongst Muslims is the most charitable?' He (pbuh) responded,

    "The one who from his tongue and hands Muslims are safe.”[18]

     

    It is reported in the two Sahihs that,

    "A servant may utter a word while he is unaware of its con­sequences, by it he would be thrown in Hell for a distance more far than the distance between the east and west.”

    Bilal Ibn Al-Harith Al-Muzani said the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) declared,

    "A man may speak a word out of Allah's Pleasure while he is unaware of its fruits, by which Allah decree pleasure for that man until he meets Him. On the other hand, a man may speak a word out of Allah's wrath while he is unaware of its consequences, by which Allah decree for him displeasure until he meets Him. "

     

    Once a righteous man was questioned about the number of Man's faults. Thereupon, he answered, "Man's faults are innumerable but I know 8000 faults. However, man can conceal these numerous faults through keeping silent with the exception of good speak.

     

    31) The Dishonest Judge

    Allah Most High says,

    {And if any fail to judge by what Allah hath revealed, they are unbelievers.}       (AI-Ma'idah: 44)

     

            {And if any fail to judge by what Allah hath revealed, they are wrong-doers.}

                                                                                                                                                        (AI-Ma'idah: 45)

            {And if any do fail to judge by what Allah hath revealed, they are those who rebel.}

                                                                                                                                                        (AI-Ma'idah: 47)

     

    In his Mustadrak, AI-Hakim reported on the authority of Talhah Ibn 'Ubaid Allah (may Allah be pleased with him) that the Prophet (pbuh) said,

              "Verily, Allah never accepts the Prayer of a judge who judges with what Allah has not revealed.”[19]

    AI-Hakim reported also in his Sahih on the authority of Brada, (may Allah be pleased with him) that the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) said, "The judges are of three types: One type will go to Paradise and the remaining two will end up in the fire of Hell. The judge who will go to Paradise is one who understands the truth and judges accordingly. One who judges unjustly after understanding the truth will go to Hell. Likewise, the judge who judges in ignorance also will go to Hell. The Companions then asked, “What is the guilt of the ignorant one?” He (pbuh) replied,

    "Accepting the position of judge is his guilt until he gets a profound knowledge.” [20]

           On the authority of Abu Hurairah that the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) said,

    "Whoever is appointed to be a judge as if he is slaughtered without a knife.” [21]

    AI-Fudail Ibn 'Eyad (may Allah bestow mercy on him) said, 'the judge should spend a day in his job and a day in weeping over his own self."

    Muhammad Ibn Wasi' (may Allah best our mercy on him) said,

    "On the Day of Judgment, the first of men who will be called to account are the judges.”

           'Aishah (may Allah be pleased with her) said, "I heard the Messenger of Allah say,

              "On the Day of Judgment, the just judge would face a great trial   that he wishes if he were not appointed to judge between people even in the division of a palm-date.”[22]

              `Ali Ibn Abi Talib (may Allah be pleased with him) said, "I heard the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) say,

    'On the Day of Judgment, no ruler or judge but be brought before Allah, Exalted and Dignified be He, over the Sirat, then his deeds will be made public. If he was a just, Allah will save him. On the other hand, if he was unjust, the Sirat will strongly tremble to the extent that this one's organs would be scattered,' the distance between each organ would be such and such long and he will fall into Hell-Fire. "

    Makhul, moreover, said, "If I were to choose between holding the position of a judge and beheading, I would surely prefer beheading over holding this job."

    Ayub Al-Sikhtiani further said, "The more knowledge the scholar get, the more their fear of holding the position of a judge increases."

            Having told that Shuraih was appointed to be a judge, AI- Thawri commented, "They would corrupt the man."

    It was narrated that Malik Ibn Al-Mundhir appointed Muhammad Ibn Wasi', to be the judge of Basra. When Muhammad objected, Malik warned him that he would flog him if he insisted on his objection. On hearing that Muhammad disclosed, "If you do, you will be a tyran­nical ruler. However, I prefer humiliation in this world over the tor­ment in the world to come."

    Wahb Ibn Manabah said, "The more just the ruler is, the more blessing on his people Allah will descend."

    A worker wrote to `Umar Ibn `Abd AI-`Aziz, "O 'Umar! The city of Hims has been destroyed and therefore it is in need of rebuilding." `Umar (may Allah be pleased with him) replied, "Fortify it with jus­tice and clean its roads from oppression."

    However, the scholars of Islam state that the judge should not utter a judgment when he is angry, anxious or nervous. Furthermore, if a man of ignorance or immorality is appointed to be a judge, he should resign and leave the office.

     

     

     

    32) Bribery

          Allah Most High says,

    {And do not eat up your property among yourselves for vanities, nor use it as a bait for the judges, with intent that ye may eat up wrongfully and knowingly a little of (other) people's property.}

                                                                                                                                               (Al-Baqarah: 188)

    Muslims are prohibited to bribe a judge or a public officer to unfairly obtain a decision in favor of one's self against a rival or to un­lawfully consume the property of others while they are aware of the prohibition of this act.

    On the authority of Abu Hurairah (may Allah be pleased with him) that the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) said,

    "Allah's curse is on the one who offers the bribe and on the judge who accepts it.” [23]

     

             On the authority of 'Abdullah Ibn 'Amr (may Allah be pleased with him) that,

                "The Messenger of Allah (pbuh) cursed the one who offers the bribe and the one who receives it.”[24]

     

    However, the Muslim scholars affirm that bribery is prohibited when it is aimed at consuming other's property or rights unfairly. Thus, if someone finds himself in a situation in which all avenues of redressing a wrong done him, or recovering a right which has been forfeited, are blocked except through the payment of a bribe, the sin of it will not be on him but on the recipient of the bribe.

    Another narration of the hadith explains that

              "The Messenger of Allah (pbuh) cursed also the one who               arranges for the payment of a bribe. "

    Furthermore, what is mentioned above concerning the ruling of the one who offers a bribe applies to the one who arranges it, i.e., if it is aimed at obtaining fair ends, he would be sinless; and vice versa.

    Gifts to officials are a form of bribery. Abu Umamah AI-Bahli (may Allah be pleased with him) said that the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) said,

    "Whoever intercedes on behalf of his brother and therefore he offers him a gift, it would be nothing other than a grievous usury.” [25]

    Ibn Mas'ud (may Allah be pleased with him) said, "To accept a gift from your brother because of fulfilling his need is the precise meaning of consuming the forbidden things."

    Once Masruq asked Ibn Zyad to assist him in removing a wrong inflicted upon him. Having assisted him, Masruq offered Ibn Zyad a slave as a gift. Zyad, on his part, rejected the gift saying, "I have heard Ibn Mas'ud say, 'Forbidden is the gift offered because of removing a wrong from a Muslim.) "He wondered, "O Abu' Abd AI-Rahman! Is not bribery restricted to offering a bribe to judges!" He replied, "This latter is a form of Shirk (association).”[26]

    Once, a Christian man came to Imam Abi 'Amr AI-Awza'i (may Allah bestow mercy on him), who was living in Beirut, complaining of the ruler of Ba'labak and asking him to send to the ruler ordering him to stop from doing wrong to the Christian man. However, the Christian man brought with him a bottle of honey as a gift to Abi 'Amr. Therefore, Abi 'Amr commented, "If you wish I would refuse your gift and send to the ruler of Ba'labak ordering him to stop from oppressing you; and if you wish I would accept your gift. Imam' Abi 'Amr send to the ruler of Ba'labak to reduce the amount of Kharaj (land-tax) from the Christian. Consequently, the Christian took the letter and his bottle of honey and traveled to the ruler of Ba'labak. Having read the letter of Abi ' Amr, the ruler reduced 30 Dirhams from Kharaj of the Christian man.

     

    33) Women Imitating Men and Vice Versa

    The Messenger of Allah (pbuh) declared,

           "Allah curses men who imitate women and women who imitate men.”[27]

            In another narration,

    "May Allah curse the masculine woman.” [28]

    It means that the woman who behaves like men. He (pbuh) also said,

              "May Allah curse the effeminate man and the masculine woman.” [29]

            On the authority of Abu Hurairah (may Allah be pleased with him) who said that the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) said,

    "Allah curses a woman who wears a men's clothing and a man who wears a woman's dress.”[30]

                    When woman wears a man's clothing, she will incur Allah's curse upon herself and her husband as long as he does not rebuke her or try to discipline her character. The husband, in Islam, is responsible about disciplining and teaching his wife as the Glorious Qur'an commands,

    {O ye who believe! Save yourselves and your families from a fire whose fuel is men and stones.]

                                                                                                                                                     (AI- Tahrim: 6)

     

     The Messenger of Allah (pbuh) stressed this fact saying,

    "Each of you is a guardian and responsible about his subjects: The man is a guardian over his household and will be asked about them on the Day of Judgment.”[31]

    He (pbuh) said further,

    "Men would be perished because they obeyed women (in vanity).”[32]

    Abu Hurairah narrated that the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) said,

    "!t will not be a witness for two types of people who are destined for the Hell-fire: People with whips like the tails of cows, who beat the people (i.e., tyrannical rulers who are the enemies of their own people), and women who although clothed, are yet naked, seducing and being seduced, their hair styled like the tilted humps of camels. These will not enter the Garden nor its fragrance even reach them, although its fragrance reaches a very great distance.” [33]

                    The hadith depicts these women with clothed and naked ones meaning that although they are clothed by Allah's gifts, they are naked because of their ingratitude. Other scholars hold that the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) described such women as being clothed, yet naked, since they wear clothes which fail to cover the body and which are transpar­ent, revealing what is underneath.

    Such women are further described as seducing and being seduced, meaning that they behave and walk in seductive and sensuous manner. They disobey Allah and call others to do so.

    The Messenger (pbuh) likened their hairstyle to the humps, spe­cial breed of camel which has very large humps, because they put up their hair in a beehive shape from the middle of their heads.

    Nafi' said, " Once Ibn `Umar and 'Abdullah Ibn `Arnr were sitting with Al-Zubair Ibn `Abdul-Muttalib when a woman driving a flock of sheep and shouldering an arrow came to them. 'Abdullah Ibn `Umar asked, "Are you man or woman?" She said, "A woman." Thereupon 'Abdullah said to his companions, "Surely, Allah curse the women who imitate men and men who imitate women.”[34]

    Thus, the display of women's attractions is a cause for incurring Allah's curse. This display may take various forms like exposing the ornament such as gold and pearls from under the head-covering, wearing revealing and sexy clothes, using of fragrant perfumes, etc. unfor­tunately, most of women today are accustomed to these immoral fash­ions.

    By the same token, the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) stated,

    "I looked at Hell-fire and saw the majority of its inhabitants are Women. "He (pbuh) disclosed further, "I left no harmful trial to men than women.”[35]

     

    34) The Pimp and the One Who Permits his Wife to Fornicate

    Allah Most High says,

    "The adulterer cannot have sexual relations with any but an adulteress or an idolatress, and the adulteress, none can have sexual relations with her but an adulterer or an idolater; to the believers such a thing is forbidden."                                                                                                                                        (An-Nur: 3)

     

    On the authority of 'Abdullah Ibn 'V mar (may Allah be pleased with him) that the Prophet (pbuh) said,

    "Three persons shall not enter Paradise: The one who is disobedient to his parents, he who lets his wife to fornicate with another, and the woman who imitates men.”[36]

    He (pbuh) also said,

    "Three persons are prevented from entering Paradise (by Allah): The drunk, the one who is disobedient to is parents and the pimp who supports the immorality of his wife.”[37]

    Someone who suspects his wife if indecency but pretends not to know because he loves her is not as bad as someone who actually pimps for her. There is no good in a man without jealousy for his rights.

    35) Marrying Solely to Return to the Previous Husband

    Ibn Mas'ud (may Allah be pleased with him) said that

    "The Messenger of Allah (pbuh) cursed the man who marries a women after her divorce solely to permit her first husband.” [38]

    However, this ruling comes in accordance with the opinion of all men of profound knowledge like 'Umar Ibn AI-Khattab, 'Uthman Ibn 'Affan, 'Ali Ibn Abi Talib and the jurists of the successors. It is reported also by Imam Ahmad in his Musnadand An-Nasa'i in his Sunan with sahih transmission.

    Ibn 'Abbas (may Allah be pleased with him) said that the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) was asked about the ruling of the one who marries solely to permit the first husband to return to his divorced wife, whereupon he said,

    "No (it is not a legal marriage), the legal marriage should be founded on wish and desire. No marriage is permitted which is based on deception or contradiction to Allah's Book. Satisfaction of sexual desires is a condition for legal marriage.”[39]

     

    'Uqbah Ibn 'Amr said that the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) once asked, "Would I tell you about the hired billy goat?" "Yes: O Messenger of Allah!" the people said. He (pbuh) explained,

    "It is the one who marries solely to permit the first husband to return to his divorced wife. Verily, Allah Most High cursed this one and the former husband as well.”[40]

    Once a man said to Ibn 'Umar (may Allah be pleased with them) "I have married a woman with the intention of permitting her first husband to remarry her. However, I have done so without the knowledge of the previous husband and he did not command me to do this. Is there any wrong?" Ibn 'Umar (may Allah be pleased with them both) replied, "Oh, it is not legal. Permissible marriage should be based on complete desire, if you wish, you could hold her and if you wish you could divorce her. In the lifetime of the Prophet (pbuh), we used to consider the like of your marriage as illicit sexual relation."

    Moreover, there are many narrations and reports that condemn the act of marring a woman solely to return to her first husband. The following are some of these narrations:

    AI-Thram and Ibn AI-Mundhir narrated that 'Umar (may Allah be pleased with him) said, "I would stone to' death the one who marries to permit the previous husband to return to his divorced wife. I would also stone to death the first husband."

    'Umar (may Allah be pleased with him) was asked about marring a woman to permit her to return to the previous husband, whereupon he said, "It is an illicit sexual relation."

    'Abdullah Ibn Sharauk AI-`Amri said, "I heard Ibn 'Umar (may Allah be pleased with them both) when he was asked about a man who divorced his wife (his uncle's daughter) and someone else wanted to marry her to permit the former husband to remarry her. Ibn 'Umar (may Allah be pleased with him) explained, 'The former and latter are adulterers even if the marriage lasted for 20 years. However, the knowledge of the former husband by the aim of the marriage is the main criteria of incurring curse upon himself."

    A man asked Ibn 'Abbas (may Allah be pleased with him), "My uncle's son has divorced his wife and so he became regretful." Ibn `Abbas declared, "Your uncle's son disobeyed Allah and, therefore, he was inflicted with regret, whereas he obeyed Satan who will not re­lieve him." The man asked more, "What do you say in a man who wants to marry her to permit him to remarry her?" He disclosed, 'He, thus, seeks to deceive Allah, but it is Allah who deceives him."

    Ibrahim An-Nakh'i stated, "If the first husband, the second hus­band, or the woman intends to marry solely to permit the first husband to remarry his divorced wife, the marriage will be illegal."

    Sa'id Ibn AI- Musaib said concerning this issue, "It is prohibited in Islam."

    However, Malik Ibn Anas, Al-layth Ibn Su'd, Sufyan AI- Thawri, Imam Ahmad and other great scholars are of the same opinion. Iman Shafi'i considers the contract of marriage, in which one is compelled to divorce his wife to permit her former husband to remarry her, is null and void.

    36) Not Freeing Oneself of All Traces of Urine

           Almighty Allah says

    {And thy garments keep free from stain!}

                                                                                                                (AI-Mudathir: 4)

     

           On the authority of Ibn 'Abbas (may Allah be pleased with them both) who said that the Prophet (pbuh) passed by two graves and said,

    "The two are being tormented, and not for anything excessive: one of them did not free himself of traces of urine, while the other was a talebearer.”[41]

           The Messenger of Allah (pbuh) said also,

    "Purify yourselves from the remaining dirty after urination, for most of the torment in the grave is inflected because of inattention about this matter.”[42]

             Assuredly, the acceptance of prayer depends on purifying one's clothing and body from dirty.

             In his Al-Hilyah, AI-Hafiz Abu Na'ifm reported on the authority of Shufai Ibn Mati' AI-Asbahi that the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) said,

                    "Four men would increase the harms of the people of the Hell-fire; moving from the Hamim and the Jahim (different places in Hell-fire) and pleading for woe and destruction. The people of Hell would ask one another why those men increase our harm." He (the Messenger) said, "One of the four men is being put in an ark of heated stones, the second one dragging his bowels, the third one vomiting blood and pus while the fourth one is eating his flesh. Then the first one who is being put in on ark of heated stones would be asked about his guilt. Thereupon he would say I used to consume the property of others and my life come to one and without repaying those rights to its people. The same would be done with the second who would explain that he used to neglect washing the remaining dirty off his body after urination. The same would be done with the third one who would declare that he used to enjoy the evil utterance as he enjoys the immoral acts. The same, also, would be done with the fourth who would disclose that he used to backbite and slander others.” [43]

    37) Showing off in Good Work

    Allah Most High describes the hypocrites saying,

    {When they stood up to prayer, they stand without earnestness, to see of men, but little do they hold Allah in remembrance.}                                                                                                                           (An-Nisa': 142)

          He Most High also says,

    {So woe to the worshipers who are neglectful of their prayers, those who (want but) to be seen, but refuse (to supply) even) neighborly needs.}                                                                                                  (Al-Ma'un: 4-7)

     

    {O ye who believe! Cancel not your charity by reminders of your generosity or by injury-like those who spend their wealth to be seen of men.}                                                                                       (Al-Baqarah: 264)

     

    {Whoever expects to meet his Lord, let him work righteousness, and, in the worship of his Lord, admit no one as partner}                                                                                                                           (Al-Kahf: 110)

     

    On the authority of Abu Hurairah (may Allah be pleased with him) who said that the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) said,

     

    "The first of people who will be judged on the Day of Judgment will be a man who has died a martyr. He will be brought and Allah will make known to him His Favors and he will recognize them. (Allah) will say: And what did you do with them? He will say: I fought for you until I died a martyr. He will say: You have lied. You did but fight so that it might be said (of you): He is courageous. And so it was said. Then he will be ordered to be dragged on his face until he is cast into Hell-Fire. (Next) will be a man who has studied (religious) knowledge and has taught it and who used to recite the Qur'an. He will be brought and Allah will make known to him His Favors and he will recognize them. (Allah) will say: And what did you do with them? He will say: I studied (religious) knowledge and taught it and I recited the Qur'an for Your sake. He will say: You have lied. You did but study (religious) knowledge so that it might be said (of you): He is learned. And you recited the Qur'an that it might be said (of you): He is a reciter. And so it was said. Then he will be ordered to be dragged on his face until he is cast into Hell-fire. (Then) will come a man whom Allah had made rich and to whom He had given all kinds of wealth. He will be brought and Allah will make known to him His Favors and he will recognize them. (Allah) will say: And what did you do with them? He will say: I have left no way in which You like money to be spent without spending for Your sake. He will say: You have lied. You did but do so that it might be said (of you): He is generous. And so it was said. Then he will be ordered to be dragged on his face until he is cast into Hell-Fire.”[44]

     

    Al-Khattabi said, "The unfaithful men who seek people and fame with their deeds would be presented on the Day of Judgment, with all their concealed and unknown defecates and faults."

    The Messenger of Allah (pbuh) illustrated further,

    "It is shirk (association, to seek people even with the slightest deeds.”[45]

    He (pbuh) also said,

    "For yo my greatest fear is from minor Shirk (association)." people said, "What is the minor shirk, O Messenger of Allah?" He debarred, "Showing off (is that minor shirk). Allah Most High will say on the Day of Judgment, "0 you who have sought people with their actions, go to them and see if they could compensate you!"

    {But something will confront them from Allah, which they could never have counted upon!}

                                                                                                                                                        (Al-Zumar: 47)

    In their explanation to this verse, some scholars said, those people used to act seemingly good deeds, which would appear Off the Day of Judgment to evil deeds."

    Some of the successors used to say when reading this verse, {Woe to those who seek people by their deeds.} It is said further that on the Day of Judgment those people would be called by four titles: Hypocrite, deceiver, unfaithful and loser, go to the people for whose sake you have done and take your compensation since we have no compensation for you."

    AI-Hassan also commented, "Wishing to overcome the Decree of Allah, the hypocrites try to appear as righteous men.

            However, Allah would unveil their true reality before the faithful believers."

    Qatadah said, "When the person did acts to be seen by people, Allah, the Almighty says, 'look at my servant how he disregards Me."

    'Umar Ibn AI-Khattab once saw a man declining his head in Prayer, therefore he said, "O you who decline his head, raise your head, for mindfulness exists in the heart only."

    Abu Umamah saw a man weeping in Prayer in the mosque, whereupon he said, "O man, is it not better to do this in your house! (i.e., to be away from people)" Muhammad Ibn AI-Mubark used to say "It is better for everyone to show mindfulness and God-consciousness at night (in his house) for it will be solely for the Creator, whereas showing God-consciousness at day may be for the created."

               `Ali Ibn `Abi Talib (May Allah be pleased with him) said, "There are three signs for the one who works to be shown by people: Inactivity when alone and activity before people, love for estimation and abhorrence to criticism."

    AI-Fudail Ibn 'Aiad said, "Riya' (showing off) is to leave work because of people, shirk (association) is to work for the sake of people, while sincerity is to be saved from the two staffs by Allah.

     

     

    38) Learning Sacred Knowledge for the Sake of This World, or Concealing It

         Allah Most High says,

    {Those truly fear Allah among His servants who have knowledge, for Allah, is Exalted in Might, oft-Forgiving.}                                                                                                                       (Fatir: 28)

     

    This verse clearly refers to the scholars who are acquainted with Allah, Most High. Ibn `Abbas said, "What is meant, are those who are well acquainted with Allah's Might, Dignity and Power and (will) fear Him more than all other people." Mujahid and AI-Sha'bi said, "The men of knowledge are those who fear Allah."

    AI-Rabi' said further, "Whoever has no fear of Allah, he will never be decreed to be a scholar."

    Allah Most High also said,

    {Those who conceal the clear signs we have sent down, and the Guidance, after we have made it clear for the people in the Book, on them shall be Allah's curse and the curse of those entitled to curse.}

                                                                                                                                                    (AI-Baqarah: 159)

     

    This verse was revealed as a condemnation to the Jewish scholars. The clear signs refer to the Divine prescriptions, rules and penalties.

    {The Guidance} means the prophecies of Muhammad (pbuh) and his features in their book. {After we have made it clear for the people} refers to the children of Israel. {The Book} refers to the Torah. {On them} means those who conceal the truth. {And the curse of those who are entitled to curse} refers to all of creation except jinn and mankind as Ibn 'Abbas (may Allah be pleased with him) stated. Ibn Mas'ud said, "When two Muslims indulge in cursing, their curse would return to the Jews and the Christians who conceal the prophecies of and features of Muhammad (pbuh) in their books."

    Moreover, Allah Most High states,

    {And remember Allah took a covenant from the people of the Book, to make it known and clear to mankind, and not to hide it, but they threw it away behind their backs, and purchased with it some miserable gain! And vile was the bargain they made.}                                                                                      (Al-Imran: 186)

     

    Al-Wahdi stated, "These verses were revealed concerning the Jews of Medina whom Allah commanded to publicize the prophecies, features and the mission of Muhammad (pbuh) as stated in their Book, the torah. {To make it known and clear to mankind,} refers to Allah's Covenant with the Jewish scholars to make clear to the people what was in their book, including the prophecies of Muhammad (pbuh) as AI-Hasan stated {But they threw it away behind their backs} Ibn `Abbas (may Allah be pleased with them both) said, "They broke their commitment" "And purchased with it some miserable gain!" They preferred valueless and mean interests over explaining the truth. {And vile was the bargain they made.} Ibn 'Abbas (may Allah be pleased with him) commented, "They made a miserable trade and gained nothing except loss and damnation."

    The Messenger of Allah (pbuh) declared,

    "Will never smell the fragrance of Paradise, the one who seeks sacred knowledge for the sake of worldly-gain.” [46]

    The hadith reported by Abu Hurairh (may Allah be pleased with him),that was previously mentioned, explained that one of the three men who would be dragged to Hell-fire is the person who sought knowledge in order that people would call him a scholar.

    Furthermore, the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) said,

    "Anyone who seeks sacred knowledge to vie with scholars, argue with fools, or win people's hearts will go to Hell.”[47]

    He (pbuh) also said,

    "Whoever is asked about an issue of knowledge, and con­ceals it, on the Day of Judgment he would be held by a rein of fire.”[48]

                By the same token, the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) used to supplicate to Allah saying,

    "0 Allah! I seek refuge in you from knowledge which is of no use.”[49]

    He (pbuh) also said,

     

    "Whoever seeks knowledge other than for the sake of Allah, let him await his abode in Hell-fire.”[50]

    Ibn Mas'ud (may Allah be pleased with him) commented, "The more the scholar does not behave according to his knowledge, the more arrogant this scholar will be."

    On the authority of Abu Umamah (may Allah be pleased with him) who said that the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) said,

    "On the Day of Judgment, the immoral scholar will be thrown into Hell where he would be rounded with a reed like a donkey which round with quern. People would wonder saying, "You are so and so, the scholar who guided us to the straight way!" He would reply, "/ used to contradict what taught you.” [51]

    Hilal Ibn Al 'Ala' said, "Seeking sacred knowledge is arduous, learning it is harder than seeking it, applying it is harder than learning it, and remaining safe from it is even harder than applying it."

     

    39) Breach of Faith

    Allah Most High says,

    {O ye that believe! Betray not the trust of Allah and the Messenger, nor misappropriate knowingly things entrusted to you.}                                                                                                                    (Al-anfal: 27)

     

    AI-Wahidi (may Allah bestow mercy on him) said, "This verse is revealed concerning Abu Lubabah who was sent by the Prophet (pbuh) to the Jews of Banu Quraizah during the siege of Muslims to their land. The Jews said to Abu Lubabah, these families are living among the Jews, what do you say concerning the submission to the judgment of sai'd. Abu Lubabah then pointed at his throat meaning that Sa'd would sentence you to be slaughtered. Abu Lubabah said, "I have not moved from my place until I realized that I betrayed Allah and His Messenger.”

    "Nor misappropriate knowingly things entrusted to you" means that Muslims are commanded to avoid betraying their trusts as they are prohibited to betray Allah and His Messenger (pbuh). Ibn 'Abbas (may Allah be pleased with him) said, "Trust" means what Alah has entrusted Man with, i.e, the religious. Thus they are prohibited.

    AI-Kalbi explained, "Disobedience to Allah and His Messenger (pbuh) means betraying the trust. However, man is entrusted with the other trusts like the religious duties even he can unlawfully betray them in secret."

    "Knowingly" refers to the fact that man is commanded to avoid betraying the trusts as long as he undoubtedly knows the sacredness of these trusts.

    The Glorious Qur’an moreover explains, {Allah will never guide the snare of the false ones.} (Yusuf: 52) This glorious verse indicates that Allah will ever set the affairs of the treacherous ones in order. On the Day of Judgment, He will publicize their faults before people.

    The Messenger of Allah (pbuh) said,

               "Three are the signs of the hypocrite: When he talks, he lies; when he makes a promise, he breaks it and when he is given a trust, he betrays.”[52]

    He (pbuh) also said,

    "Someone who cannot keep a trust is devoid of faith. Some one who cannot keep an agreement is devoid of religion. "

    Some matters is worse than the others. A person who cheats one for a pittance is not like a person who betrays one concerning one's wife and money, perpetrating outrages.

    The Messenger of Allah (pbuh) said,

    "Fulfill your trust to the one who entrusted you and do not betray the one who betrayed you.” [53]

    Also the hadith states,

    "A believer may be naturally disposed to any shortcoming except treachery and lying.” [54]

     

    The Messenger of Allah (pbuh) declared further,

    "Allah Most High says, 'I bless the partners as long as no one betrays the other.”[55]

    "Trust is the first of characteristics to disappear among people, where as prayer is the last one and the prayer of some per­sons may be of no avail.”[56]

          The Prophet (pbuh) cautioned the Ummah saying,                              

    "Beware of treachery for it is the worst companion.” [57]

    Ibn Mas'ud (may Allah be pleased with him) explained, "On the Day of Judgment, the persons who betrayed their trust will be com­manded to fulfill it. Consequently, they would wonder, 'How can we fulfill what had been perished in the worldly life!" At this moment it would be pictured in the basest rank of Hell-fire. Having commanded to bring it from this place of Hell, the treacherous one would carry it over his shoulder and would find it heavier than the mountains of the world. As long as he reaches the top of the Hell, the trust would fall to the basest rank of Hell and it will happen forever" Ibn Ma'ud added, "Prayer is a trust, ablution is a trust, Body-worship is a trust, measuring is a trust and the' greatest form of trusts is the deposits."

     

     

    40) Reminding Recipients of one's charity to them

    Allah Most High says,

     {O ye who believe! Cancel not your charity by reminders of your generosity or by injury.}

                                                                                                                                                   (AI-Baqarah: 264)

           AI- W ahdi commented on this verse by saying, "It is the one who reminds the recipients of his charity."

           AI-Kalbi said, "It is the one who counts his charity as a favor upon Allah and injures the recipients of it."

           The Messenger of Allah (pbuh) declared,

    "There is one people whom Allah will not speak to, look at, or exonerate on the Day of Judgment, and they will have a painful torment. they are the one who wears the hem of his garment low (out of pride), he who reminds recipients of his charity to them, and he who sells merchandise swearing that he paid more for it than he actually did. "

    He (pbuh) also said,

    "Three men will never enter Paradise. Those disobedient to their parents, the drunkards and the one who used to remind the recipients of his charity with his grace.” [58]

     

    Another narration to this Hadith states,

    "Paradise is not the abode for the fraud, the niggard and the person who reminds the recipients of his charity.”[59]

    Furthermore, The Messenger of Allah (pbuh) said,

    "Beware of reminding others by your grace for it would nullify the recompense and reward: The Messenger (pbuh) then recited. {O ye who believe! Cancel not your charity by reminders of your generosity or by injury.} (AI-Baqarah: 264)

     

    Once Ibn Sireen heard a man reminding another man of his grace to him so he said, "It is better to keep silent for there is no good in beneficence when it is counted.

    Some wise men used to say, "Whoever reminds others with his beneficence, will have no compensation for it. Moreover, who is admired by his deed will have no reward for it."

     

    [1] Reported by Abu Dawud.

    [2] Reported by AI-Bukhari.

    [3] Reported by A1-Bukhari and Muslim.

    [4] Reported by A1-Bukhari.

    [5] Reported by A1-Bukhari and Muslim.

    [6] Reported by A1-Bukhari and Muslim.

    [7] Agreed upon.

    [8] Reported by AI-Bukhari and Muslim.

    [9] Reported by AI-Bukhari.

    [10] Reported by AI-Bukhari.

    [11] Reported by Muslim.

    [12] Reported by Abu Dawud and AI- Tirmidhi.

    [13] Reported by A1-Bukhari and Muslim.

    [14] Reported by Abu Dawud.

    [15] Reported by AI-Bukhari and Muslim.

    [16] Reported by AI-Bukhari and Ahmad

    [17] Reported by Malik in AI-Muwata'.

    [18] Reported by A1-Bukhari and Muslim.

    [19] Reportd by AI-Hakim.

    [20] Reported by Al-Tirmidhi.

    [21] Reported by Al- Tirmidhi

    [22] Reported by Ahmad.

    [23] Reported by At -Tirlllidhi.

    [24] Reported by At- Tirlllidhi.

    [25] Reported by Abu Dawud.

    [26] Mentioned by A1-Haithami in in Magama' Al-Zawa'd.

    [27] Reported by AI-Bukhari.

    [28] Reported by Abu Dawud.

    [29] Reported by A1-Bukhari.

    [30] Reported by Abu Dawud.

    [31] Reported by AI-Bukhari.

    [32] Reported by Ahmad

    [33] Reported by Muslim.

     

    [34] Reported by AI-Bukhari.

    [35] Reported by Muslim.

     

    [36] Reported by AI-Hakim

    [37] Reported by AI-Nasa'i.

    [38] Reported by At-TimJidhi.

    [39] Reported by Ibn Majah.

    [40] Mentioned by Ibn Hagar in Majma' Al-Zawaid and reported by Ibn Majah.

     

    [41] Reported by AI-Bukhari

    [42] Reported by Ad-DarQutni.

    [43] Mentiond by Abi Abd Ibn Ad-Dunijah in the book of As-Samt.

     

    [44] Reported by Muslim.

    [45] Reported by Ibn Majah.

    [46] Reported by Abu Dawud.

    [47] Reported by Al- Tirmdhi

    [48] Reported by Abu Dawud

    [49] Reported by Abu Dawud.

    [50] Reported by Al- Tirmidh.

    [51] Reported by Al-Bukhari and Muslim.

    [52] Agreed upon.

    [53] Reported by Ahmad.

    [54] Reported by A1-Bukhari.

    [55] Reported by Abu Dawud.

    [56] Reported by Ibn Hajar Al-Haithami in Majma' Zawaid.

    [57] Reported by Abu Dawud.

    [58] Reportd by An-Nasai'.

    [59] Reported by At- Tirmidhi.

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