Major Sins


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  • Major Sins


  • 49) Loudly Lamenting for the Dead or When Afflicted with an Adversity

                 In Sahih Muslim, Ibn Mas'ud (may Allah be pleased with him) reported, "The Prophet (pbuh) said that,

    “He who slaps his cheeks, rips his pockets, or calls out the cries of the pre-Islamic period of ignorance is not of us.” [1]

               Abu Musa AI-Ash'ari (may Allah be pleased with him) reported that,

    "The Messenger of Allah (pbuh) cleared himself from the woman who loudly lament, the one who shaves or plucks out her hair when being afflicted with an adversity, and the one who rips off her clothes.” [2]

    All these types are prohibited according to the consensus of the scholars. It is also prohibited to dishevel one's hair, slap the cheeks, scratch the face and to wail and burst into loud lamenting.

    Umm 'Attiyyah (may Allah be pleased with her) said,

    "Among things upon which we gave the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) the oath of allegiance was to refrain from loud lamenting.” [3]

    Abu Hurairah (may Allah be pleased with him) said, "The Messenger of Allah (peace and blessing be upon him} said,

    "Two qualities in people are unbelief attacking another's ancestry, and wailing over the dead.” [4]

    On the authority of Abu Sa'id Al-Khudri (may Allah be pleased with him) who said,

    "The Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings be upon him) has cursed the woman who loudly wails for the dead and whoever listens to her.”[5]

    On the authority of Abu Burda who said,

                "Once Abu Musa Al-Ash'ari was sick and consequently he fell unconscious in the lap of a woman from his family. She, in turn, cried loudly and he could not stop her. When he became conscious, he said, "I cleared myself from what the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) cleared himself i.e., the woman who loudly laments, the one who shaves or plucks out her hair when being afflicted with an adversity and the one who rips her clothes.” [6]

    On the authority of An-Nu'man Ibn Bashir (may Allah be pleased with him) who said,

    "Once' Abdullah Ibn Rawaha fell unconscious. Consequently, his sister started wailing over him saying, 'O so and so.' When he became conscious, he said, 'You never said something, unless it was said to               me are you so and so.” [7]

    It is also reported in the two Sahihs that, "The Messenger of Allah (pbuh) said,

                   "In his grave, the dead is tortured with what he was lamenting over?” [8]

                 On the authority of Abu Musa (may Allah be pleased with him) who said,

    "Never has a person died and his people wail upon him say­ing, 'O our master, our sustainer, or the so and so, and two angels not be entrusted with his torture saying, weren't you so and so?”[9]

    The Prophet (pbuh) said,

    "If the woman who loudly laments the dead does not repent before the time of her death, she will be raised on the Day of Judgment wearing a garment from a tar and a coat of mail from scabies.”[10]

             The Prophet (pbuh) also said,

    "It is forbidden for me to make two foolish sounds, the one when being granted with a blessing; amusement, playing and the flute of Satan, and the other when being afflicted with an adversity; scratching one's face, ripping one's pock­ets and crying.” [11]

    AI-Hasan said, "Two sounds are cursed, the sound when being granted with a blessing and the sound when being afflicted with an adversity.” [12]

            The Messenger of Allah (peace and blessing be upon him) also said,

            "The people who loudly wail will be made into two rows in the Hell-Fire and will bark at the people of the fire as dogs do.” [13]

    AI-Awza'i said, once 'Umar Thn AI-Khattab heard some people weeping, consequently, he entered upon them along with others and started beating them until he reached the woman who was wailing. He also beat her to such an extent that her veil (Hijab) fell down. He commented saying, 'Beat her! She is wailing and there is no sanctity for such people. She does not weep out of being affected with your adversity, rather she sheds tears to take your money. This only harms your dead in their graves and the ones who are still alive in their homes. She also prohibits committing to patience which is the command of Allah and encourages despair which Allah forbids."

    Loudly lamenting means to raise one's voice with wailing and mentioning the good traits of the dead. It is also said that it means that to weep over the dead by mentioning his good traits.

    The scholars said it is not allowed to raise your voice when weeping. As for weeping over the dead without wailing or loud lamenting, it is not forbidden. In Sahih of Al-Bukhari and Muslim, Ibn 'Umar (may Allah be pleased with him) reported that, "The Messenger of Allah (peace and blessing be upon him) visited Sa'd Ibn 'Ubadah along with `Abdul-Rahman Ibn 'Awf, Sa'd Ibn Abi Waqas and 'Abdullah Ibn Mus'ud (may Allah be pleased with them all).

    Thereupon the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) wept. Upon seeing the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) in this state, the people also wept. The Prophet said,

    "Don't you hear?! Allah does not torment the people because of the tears of the eye or the grief of the heart. Rather, He torments or bestows His mercy upon the people because of the returns of "this" and he pointed to his tongue.” [14]

    In the two Sahihs, it is also reported on the authority of Usarnah Ibn Zayd that "The son of the daughter of the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) came to Messenger when he was dying. Thereupon, the eyes of the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) were soaked with tears. Sa'd said,

    “O Messenger of Allah what is this?' The Prophet said, "This is a mercy which is created by Allah within the hearts of His servants and Allah will only shower His mercy upon       the merciful ones (amongst His servants)” [15]

              In Sahih AI-Bukhari, it is reported on the authority of Anas (may Allah be pleased with him) that,

    "The Messenger of Allah (pbuh) entered upon his son, Ibrahim, while he was dying. Thereupon the eyes of the Prophet (pbuh) started to shed tears. 'Abdul-Rahman Ibn 'Awf said to him, 'You too, Messenger of Allah!' The Prophet commented, 'OIbn Awf, it is a mercy' and repeated it twice and said, 'The eyes shed tears, the heart is grieved, but we do not say anything except what pleases Allah and for your death we are very sad, O Ibrahim.”[16]

    As for the Sahih hadith which states,

    "The dead will be tortured with the weeping of his family over him.” [17]

    It is not to be taken literally, it is interpreted differently by various scholars. The most evident meaning is, but Allah knows best, that the weeping may be for some other reasons such as the deceased person may have advised his family to do so prior to his death.

    The followers of Shafi'i said, "The weeping over the dead is allowed before and after his death. But it is preferable for it to be done before the death according to the hadith which states, "Let them (weep), but when his soul is really taken, do not allow anyone (to weep)." Shafi'i and his followers stated that weeping after the death is only reprehensible but it is not forbidden. They interpreted the previous hadith as follows, "It is reprehensible to let them weep (after the death)."

    The woman who loudly laments the dead will be tormented in such way because she, in so doing, orders the people to be despondent and impatient and this is in contradiction to what Allah and his Messenger has ordered. Allah the Almighty has said,

    {O ye who believe! Seek help with patient perseverance and prayer: for God is with those who patiently persevere and say not of those who are slain in the way of Allah: "They are dead" Nay, they are living, though ye perceive (it) not. Be sure We shall test you with some thing of fear and hunger, some loss in good, lives and the fruits (of your toil), but give glad tidings to those who patiently persevere, who say, when afflicted with calamity: To Allah we belong, and to Him is Our return.}                      (AI-Baqarah: 153-156)

     

    'Ata' reported Ibn' Abbas to have said, "This means that Allah will support such people and will never disappoint them. Allah the Almighty said, {Be sure we shall test you.} i.e., Allah will treat such kind of people the same way He treated the afflicted people. That is because Allah knows the returns and consequences of all things and He is in no need for the afflicted to know the result but He just deals with them in such way.

    So, whoever is patient, he will be rewarded for his patience and whoever is impatient, will be deprived of such reward then Allah said,{ with something of fear and hunger.} Ibn 'Abbas said, {fear}means fear from the enemy and hunger means famine and drought. 4 Some loss in goods p, means loss and decrease in property and death of animals. {Lives} means loss of lives through death, killing, disease and old age. {And the fruit} means decrease in needs of people and the fruits will be imperfect. Then Allah the Almighty ended the Ayah with giving good news to those who are patient to indicate that whoever was afflicted with these calamities and was patient, he is promised by Allah to be rewarded, Allah the Almighty said, "But give glad tidings to those who patiently persevere." Then Allah described them saying, {who say when afflicted with calamity.} i.e., they were afflicted with what previously mentioned. To be afflicted with good thing is not affliction. { They say, to Allah we belong.} i.e., we are the servants of Allah and He can dispose with us with whatever He will. {And to Him is our return.} This will be through death. The return to Allah means that He will be the only Sovereign. That is because some people govern in this world, but as soon as they are deprived of it, they know the whole matter will be in the Hands of Allah, the Almighty.

            On the authority of `Aishah (may Allah be pleased with her) who said, "The Messenger of Allah (pbuh) said,

               "Whatever the calamity a believer is afflicted with, he will be compensated for it, even the sting of the thorn.” [18]

            The Messenger of Allah (pbuh) said,

               "Whoever is afflicted with a calamity, let him remember the calamity of my death for it is the greatest of all.” [19]

    The Messenger of Allah (pbuh) said,

    "The son of a person died and Allah the Almighty said to the angels, 'Did you take the soul of the son of my servant.'They will reply, 'Yes.' Allah will say, 'Did you take the fruit of his heart.' They will reply, 'Yes.’ Allah will say, 'What did my servant say.' They will say, 'He praised You and sought the reward from You.' Allah will say 'Build a house for my servant in Paradise and call it the house of praise.” [20]

    The Messenger of Allah (pbuh) also said,

    "The Almighty Allah said in a hadith Qudsi, "The reward of my believing servant, if I take the soul of his bosom friend in this world and he was patient and sought the reward from Me, will be nothing except Paradise.” [21]

    The Prophet (pbuh) also said,

    "Among those things which bring happiness to the son of Adam is to be satisfied with what Allah has destined for him,' and among things which bring him wretchedness is to        be dissatisfied with Allah's blessing.” [22]

    On the authority of 'Umar Ibn AI-Khattab who said, "When the angel of death (peace be upon him) takes the soul of the believers, he will stand at the door of his house. There will be among his family the one who slaps her face, the one who dispersed her hair and the one who wails and bursts in loud lamenting. Thereupon the angel of death will say, "For what you display your anxiety and fear? By Allah, I did not decrease the span of life of anyone of you, nor decrease the provision of anyone of you, nor did I oppress anyone of you. So, if you complain and anxiety was upon me be sure that, I only was ordered to do so. And if they were upon your dead, by Allah he has nothing to do but to surrender. And if they were upon your Lord, by Allah you disbelieved in him. Surely I will return to you many times until I took you all. The Messenger of Allah (pbuh) commented,

    "By whom in whose hands my soul is, if they saw his place and heard his words, they would be surprised and would weep upon themselves."

    Consolation

    On the authority of' Abdullah Ibn Mas'ud (may Allah be pleased with him) that he said, "The Prophet (pbuh) said,

              "Whoever offers the consolation to the afflicted person, he will be rewarded with the same.” [23]

    On the authority of Abu Barzah (may Allah be pleased with him) who said, "The Prophet (pbuh) said to Fatimah (may Allah be pleased with her),

    "Whoever offers consolation to the person who is bereaved of his/her child, he will be clothed with Burd (certain kind of garment) in Paradise.” [24]

                  On the authority of 'Abdullah Ibn Amr Ibn AI-As (may Allah be pleased with both of them) who said, "The Messenger of Allah (pbuh) said to his daughter Fatimah (may Allah be pleased with her),

    "For what reason did you go out from your house. 0 Fatimah?" she said, "I went to the people of this house and asked Allah to shower his mercy upon their dead and I offered them consolation.” [25]

    On the authority of Amr Ibn Hizam who said, "The Prophet (pbuh) said,

    "Never does a believer offer his afflicted brother consola­tion and Allah cloth him out of his Honour on the Day of Judgment.”[26]

    Consolation means that to bring patience and mention to the deceased's kin what can relieve their sadness and lighten their calamity. It is recommended that it includes commanding the good and forbidding the evil. It also comes under the saying of Allah,

    {Help ye one another in righteousness and piety but help ye not one another in sin and rancor! }

                                                                                                                                                       (AI-Maidah, 2)

     

    This is the most indicative verse concerning the matter of consolation.

    Consolation is preferable before and after burying the dead. The followers of Ash-Shafi'i said, its time starts from the time when the soul is taken and lasts for three days after burying the dead. Some scholars said, consolation is not preferable after three days of dying, for consolation appeases the heart of the afflicted person and this mostly takes place within three days and therefore there is no need to renew his sadness. This same position was held by the majority of the scholars. Abu Al-Abbass said, there is no wrong to offer consolation after three days since the event lasts forever. An-Nawawi (may Allah bestow mercy upon him) said, "What is agreed upon is that it should not be offered after three days except in two cases: when the one who offers the consolation is absent or the afflicted person was absent as well. And they are expected to return after three days. Offering consolation after burying the dead is better than doing it before burying, for before burying, the people of the dead are engaged with preparing him and alienation is intensified after burying. This may be done if no anxiety appeared on the part of the people of the dead.

    Otherwise, consolation should be offered to bring quietness to them.

    It is also reprehensible to gather in a particular place to receive the consolation. This means that the people of the dead should not gather in a certain place and the people go to offer them consolation. The formula of consolation is well known. The best of what can be said in this respect is what is reported in the two Sahihs on the authority of Usamah Ibn Zayed (may Allah be pleased with him) who said that, "One of the daughters of the Prophet (pbuh) sent to him and told him that one of her children is dying. The Messenger of Allah (pbuh) said to the man,

     

    "Return to her and tell her that, to Allah is what He has taken and to him is what He has given and to everything is an appointed term with Allah. So, order her to be patient and seek the reward from Allah.” [27]

    An-Nawawi (may Allah bestow mercy upon him) said that, "This hadith is one of the most comprehensive rules of Islam which includes many religious matters, whether they are principles, subsidiary matters, good manners, patience towards all kinds of calamities, worries and discusses many other things.

    "To Allah is what He has taken." means that the whole world is His. Therefore, He does not take what is yours but what is His as a trust to you." To him is what he has given" means that what he has granted you with is not out of His Sovereignty but it is His and He disposes it as He wills. "To everything there is an appointed term with Allah" means that you should not be anxious for the one whose soul was taken by him, completed his span in this life and it is impossible to delay or precede his appointed time. Upon being sure of all this, you should be patient with what has afflicted you.

    On the authority of Mu'awiyyah Ibn Iyas from his father (may Allah be pleased with him) who said once the Prophet (pbuh) did not see one of his Companions and he asked about him. The Companions replied,

    "0 Messenger of Allah, his son who you have seen has died. Thereafter, the Prophet (pbuh) met him and asked him about his son and he told him that he died. The Prophet consoled him then said,

    "Which of them is most beloved to you, to enjoy this worldly­ life with your son or to come tomorrow and find that your son preceded you to open whichever of the doors of Paradise you want. The man replied, "0 the Prophet of Allah, of course to advance me to Paradise and find it open for me is most beloved. The Prophet said, this is granted to you. The companions asked, “is it exclusive for him or is it general for all Muslims? The Prophet replied, "For all Muslims.” [28]

    On the authority of Abu Hurairah (may Allah be pleased with him) who said,

    "The Messenger of Allah (pbuh) went out to AI-Baqr and he saw a woman wailing on a grave. He said to her, "0 the servant of Allah, fear Allah and be patient". She replied, "0 the servant of Allah, if you were afflicted with what I have been, you would excuse me!" The Prophet said to her, "0 servant of Allah, fear Allah and be patient.” She replied, "0 the servant of Allah, I heard what you said, so let me alone. Abu Hurairah said, "The Prophet let her alone and there was a man who witnessed this scene and came to this woman and asked her what did this man (the Prophet) say to her? She told him what he said and with what she replied him. The man asked her did you know him? She replied, "No, By Allah." He said, "Woe to you! He is the Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings be upon him). Thereupon, she quickly walked towards him until she reached him and said, "0 Messenger of Allah, I will be patient". The Prophet said, "Patience is at the time of the suddenness of the calamity.” [29]

    This means that the patience is more virtuous at the suddenness of the calamity, but after that, solace, of course, takes place.

    In Sahih Muslim, it is reported that,

    "Once one of Abu Talha's sons died. His wife, Umm Salim said to his family, don't tell Abu Talha and I will tell him myself upon returning of Abu Talha, she offered the dinner for him and he ate and drank. Then she made up herself more than she did for him before that and Abu Talha had sexual intercourse with her. Upon realizing that he satisfied himself from her, she said, 0 Abu Talha, what do you say about some people who lent something to others, then they demanded their right, do other people have the right to deny them this thing? He replied, "No". Umm Salim said, "Deem your son as a trust which returned to Allah. Abu Talha got angry and said, do you leave me until I stain myself with you then you told me about my son. This, by Allah will never cause me to be patient. Then he went to the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) and told him about what had happened. The Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings be upon him said, "May Allah bless your night for you both.[30]

    In another narration, it is reported that,

    "With the best and all-embracing good, no one is granted something better than patience.” [31]

    Ali Ibn Abi Talib (may Allah be pleased with him) said to Al-Ashas Ibn Qays, "Be committed to patience and count your dead as a trust which returned to Allah's keeping, otherwise you are behaving the way the animals do.”

    A wise man wrote to an afflicted man saying, "You lost what you have been afflicted with, so do not let its compensation i.e., the reward, miss you also." Another man said, "The sane person does on the first day of his calamity what the foolish person does on the fifth day of his calamity."

    It is well-known that the passing of time consoles and relieves the afflicted person. Therefore the law-giver ordered the people to be patient on the suddenness of calamity. Once Ash-Shafi'i (may Allah be pleased with him) was told that Abdul-Rahman Ibn Mahdi lost one of his sons and he was very anxious and distressed because of his death. Thereupon, Ash-Shafi'i sent him a message saying, "O my brother console yourself with what you console others with and detest from yourself what you detest from other's doings. Be sure that the most grievous calamity is the one which deprives the person the delight and the reward, so what do you say about the combination of these two thing and the doing of a sin? So hasten to your destiny while it is near to you before demanding it while it goes far from you. May Allah grant you patience at times of calamity and reward you and us for it."

    A man wrote to some of his brothers to console him because of the death of his son saying" "As long as the son is living, he is a source of sadness and trial for his father, but when he dies he becomes a prayer and a mercy for his father. Therefore, don't be sad for what you missed, you missed his sadness and trial and do not lose the prayer and mercy which Allah offers you.

    Musa Ibn Al-Mahhdi consoled Ibrahim Ibn Salamah on the death of his son saying, "Was not he a source of happiness although he was a calamity and a trial but when he died, he became a source of sadness then he became a prayer and mercy?

            A man consoled another saying, "the one who will be a reward for you in the hereafter is better than the one who was a source of your delight and happiness in the worldly life." It is also reported that Abdullah Ibn 'Umar (may Allah be pleased with him) buried one of his sons and laughed at the grave. He was asked do you laugh while you are still standing at the grave? He replied, I was to over come by

    Satan. Ibn Jarih (may Allah be pleased with him) said, "Whoever is not be patient at the time of calamity and deem his dead as a trust which is in Allah's keeping, he will behave the way the animals do." Hamid AI-Araj said, "I saw Sa'id Ibn Jubair saying to his son and looking at him, I know a particular characteristic of you. He was asked what is it? He replied, "He will die and I will deem him as a trust which is returned to Allah's keeping.

    AI-Hasan Al-Basri (may Allah be pleased with him) reported that,

    "A man was very sad because of the death of his son and he complained this to him. AI-Hasan said, "Was your son absent from you before his death? The man replied, "Yes, his absence was more than his attendance. AI-Hasan said,"So deem his absence forever but this time will be the most rewarding for you. The man said, O Abu Sa'id, You appeased my anxiety about my son.

    Once 'Umar Ibn 'Abedul-' Aziz entered upon his son while he was ill and said, "0 my son, how are you?" He replied, "I found myself in the truth." 'Umar said, O my son, to be in my scale! It is more beloved for me to be in your scale ('Umar mean that his sins are more than his son's." The son replied, "O my father, to be granted what you love is more beloved to me than to be granted what I love."

                    Once, 'Urwah was attacked by disease in his leg and he was obliged to cut it off and he cut it off himself despite he was an old man. He did not leave out his oft-frequently remembrance which he used to do on this night, but he recited Allah's saying,

    {Bring as our early meal, truly we have suffered much fatigue at this (stage of) our journey}

                                                                                                                                                                  (AI-Kahf: 62)

    He (may Allah be pleased with him) also said, "OAllah! If You afflicted me, you truly relieved me and if you took something, truly you saved me many others. You took one organ and saved for me many others and you took a son and saved me many others. On the same night a man from Banu Abs entered upon Al-Walid Ibn Abd ul-Malik. AI-Walid asked him about his eye. The man said, "I spent one night in the peak of a valley and I didn't know anyone from Bany , Abd who may be more rich than me. Then we were afflicted with a torrent. Consequently, all my property, family and children were destroyed with exception of a camel and a son. The camel was very reluctant and it ran away and I started to follow it. I did not leave my son except for a short distance and I heard his crying. I returned to him and I found his head under its belly and it killed him. Then I followed the camel to catch it, but it kicked me with its foot and it disfigured my face and blinded my eye. Then I became deprived of my family, my property, my son and my camel." Thereupon, AI-Walid said, "Take this man and bring him before 'Urwah so he knows that there are many others who are more afflicted than him."

    It is also reported that, when 'Uhman (may Allah be pleased with him) was attacked and beaten, he said while blood was flowing upon his beard, "There is no God but Allah, Glory be to you. Truly I was one of those who wronged themselves. O Allah! I seek Your help against them and I seek Your help in all my affairs.O Allah! I ask You to grant me patience on what You afflicted me with.

     

    AI-Mada'ni said, "I saw in the desert a very beautiful woman and I said, "By Allah, this woman is surely a very prosperous and rich. She said, "By Allah, this is not true, I suffered many distresses and worries and I will tell you my story. I was married to a man and we had two children. On the day of 'Eidul-Adha (Feast of Sacrifice), their father slaughtered a sheep and they were playing. The elder son said to his younger brother, do you want me to show you how my father slaugh­tered the sheep? The younger son said, 'Yes'. Then the elder son slaughtered his brother and when he saw his brother bleeding he was very scared and ran away towards the mountain and a wolf devoured him. His father followed him to bring him back, but he lost his way in the desert and he died from hunger and I became lonely. Al-Mada'ni asked her, "How are you with patience?" She said, "If it accompanies me, I will abide by it, but it was a wound and I recovered."

    On the authority of Ibn Abbas (may Allah be pleased with him) who said,

    "I heard the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) saying, "Whoever has two sons and they died in his lifetime, he will enter Paradise. Aishah asked, "May my father and mother be a compensation for you! What about the one who has one son?" The Messenger of Allah (peace and blessing be upon him) said, "He will have the same reward" 'Aishah proceeded, "What about the one who has none of your Ummah?' He said, "I am the fore-runner of my Ummah and they were not afflicted with a more grievous calamity than mine (death).” [32]

                    One the authority of Abu Ubaidah (may Allah be pleased with him) from his father who said, "The Messenger of Allah (pbuh) said,

                        "Whoever has three sons and they died in his lifetime before attaining the age of puberty, they will be a protection for him from the Hell-Fire." Abu AI-Darda, and in another narration Abu Dharr, said, "I introduced two sons. The Prophet said, "They will bring you the same reward. Ubai Ibn Ka'b, the muster of the readers of the Glorious Qur'an said, "I introduced one. The Prophet (pbuh) said, "He will bring you the same reward, but this is at the time of the suddenness of the calamity.” [33]

    On the authority of Waki' who said,"There was a son for Ibrahim AI-Harbi and he was eleven years when he memorized the Glorious Qur'an and was knowledgeable in Fiqh and Hadith. He died and I went to console his father. He said to me," I was longing for his death." I said, O Abu Ishaq, how could you say something like that while you enjoy such a status among the scholars? Your son was grown up, memorized the Qur'an and was knowledgeable in Fiqh and Hadith. He said, I saw in a dream as if we it was the Day of Judgment and there were many children who are carrying cups of water and met the people to give them water. The Day was very hot and I said to one of them, give me some water. He looked at me and said you are my father. I said who are you? He said, we are the children who died in the religion of Islam and we foreran our fathers to give them the water to drink. For this reason I hoped for his death."

    Muslim reported on the authority of Abu Hasan who said that,

    "I said to Abu Hurairah talk with us about something that may relieve us from our sadness concerning our dead.” He said, they are the boys of Paradise and they meet their fathers or their parents and catch their clothes or hands and don't leave them until they enter Paradise.” [34]

    Malik Ibn Dinar (may Allah be pleased with him) said, " At the be­ ginning of my life I indulged in every type of amusement and wine­ drinking. I bought a slave girl and I had a sexual intercourse with her and she gave birth to a girl. I loved the girl in the true sense of the word. She grew up and started to walk. Whenever I wanted to drink she came and poured it before my hands. When she was two years old she died and I was very distressed and sad because of her death. Then when it was the fourteenth night of Sha'ban I slept and I was very in­toxicated. I saw in my dream as if we are on the Day of Judgment and I was raised from my grave. Then there was a dragon following me and wanted to eat me. I fled from it but it did not leave me alone. The more I ran fast, the more it hurried and I was very fearful. On my way I passed by an old man with a clean and pure clothes and feeble body. I said, I entreat you to protect me from this tannin which want to eat and destroy me. He said to me, O my son I an a very old man and I am not able to face this tannin. But pass and hurry and may Allah protect you against it. I ran away and it. Followed me. I was very near to the layers of the fire while they were boiling and I was about to fall into them. I heard someone saying; rescue this wretched person before his enemy reaches him. Thereupon the gates were open and curtains were pulled up and there were children, with faces like the moon, looking at me. My daughter was amongst them and when she saw me she went down to a scale of light and beat it with her its right hand and conse­quently the tannin ran away. She sat in my lap and said, O my father,

    {has not the time arrived for the believers that their hearts in all humility should engage in the remembrance of Allah and of the truth which has been revealed to them)}                         (AI-Haddid: 16)

     

    I said to her, "O my daughter do you know the Glorious Qur'an? She replied, "We know it more than you, I said, "O my daughter, what do you do here? We are the Muslim children who died and were placed here until the Day of Judgment awaiting you." I asked her, "O my daughter what is this dragon who wants to destroy me? She said, "O my father, this is your odious deeds you strengthened it until it wants to destroy you. I asked her who is this feeble man? She said, "This is your good deeds you weakened it until it was unable to face your odious deeds. So repent to Allah and be not among those who are destroyed." Then I rose from my sleep and I repented to Allah from this time.

    Therefore, contemplate (may Allah have mercy towards you) the blessing of the death of children, whether male or female, while they are younger. Their parents will have the reward of them if they are pa­tient and seek the compensation from Allah and say, praise be to Al­lah, to Allah we belong and to him is our return. They, in return, have what Allah has promised them,

    {Who say, when afflicted with calamity: to Allah we be­long.}                                            (AI-Baqarah: 156)

     

    i.e. we and our property is for Allah and He has the right to dis­pose with it as He wills. And to Him is our return." this is an admis­sion that every thing will be destroyed and every thing will return to Allah.

    On the authority of Thawban (may Allah be pleased with him) who said, "The Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings be upon him) said,

    "Never is a person afflicted with calamity unless it is due to two things, either because of a sin which will not be forgiven except by this calamity or because of a certain status which he will never attain except through this calamity.” [35]

    Sa'id Ibn Jubair said,

    "This nation was given something at time of calamity which the Prophets preceding it were deprived of i.e.,

    {To Allah we belong and to Him is our return." He proceeded to say, "If the Prophets were granted with it, it would be given to Jacob (pbuh) who said, "How great is my grief for Yusuf}                           (Yusuf: 84)

     

               On the authority of Umm Salamah (may Allah be pleased with her) who said, I heard the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) saying,

    "Never is a person afflicted with a calamity and say, "To Allah we belong and to him is our return. Allah! Reward me in my calamity and compensate me with something better than it, and Allah not reward him and compensate him with something better than it." Umm Salamah said, when Abu Salamah died, I said, who is better than Abu Salamah then I said it and Allah compensated me with the Messenger of Allah (pbuh).” [36]

     

    On the authority of AI-Shu'bi who said, Shuraih said, when I have been afflicted with a calamity. I thank Allah four times, I thank Him that He did not afflict me with something more grievous than it, I thank Him for granting me patience for it. I thank Him that he helped me to review what I hope of reward and I thank Him that he did not make it in my religion. Allah the Almighty said,

    {They are those on whom (descended) blessings from their Lord, and mercy, and they are the ones that receive guid­ance.}                                                                                                     (AI-Baqarah: 157)

     

    Here blessings mean mercy and forgiveness. {They are the ones that receive guidance} means, they are the ones who are guided to review their works and deeds. It is also said that they are the ones who are guided to Paradise and rewards.

    One the authority of Sa'id Ibn AI-Musayyab from 'Umar Ibn AI­ Khattab (may Allah be pleased with him) who said in his comment on, {They are the ones on whom (descended blessings from their Lord, and mercy}, how blessed they are. He said also, {they are the ones that receive guidance.} how blessed is this promotion. [37]

    As for the person who is afflicted with a calamity and he displayed his dissatisfaction through wailing and bursting in loud lamenting, slapping one's cheeks, ripping one's pockets, dishevelling, shaving, cutting off, or plucking out one's hair. He will invoke Allah's wrath and curse upon himself whether he is a man or a woman.

    It is also reported that beating over one's thighs at the time of ca­lamity deprives the person the reward. It is also reported that,

    "Whoever is afflicted with a calamity and he tears his clothes, slaps his face, rips his pockets or plucks out his hair, he resembles the one who takes his arrow and wants to fight Allah."

    It is previously mentioned that Allah does not torture the people because of the tears of the eyes or the grief of the heart. Rather He tor­tures them for the returns of their tongues and what they say at the time of affliction of loud lamenting and crying. It is also previously mentioned that the dead is tortured with what he was lamented with. So, if the woman laments and says O my sustainer, O my helper, or the one who clothes me, the person will be tortured and it will be said to him, are you her sustainer, are you her helper, are you the one who clothes her? Therefore, loud lamenting is not allowed for it enraged the grief and encourages impatience. It "also goes against the satisfac­tion with Allah's destiny and submitting to Allah's orders.

    Salih AI-Mari said, once one Thursday evening I was among the graves and sleep overcome me. I saw in my dream as if the graves were cracked and the dead were raised and sat in many sessions (cir­cles) and upon them there were covered plates descended. There was amongst them a young man who was tormented with all types of torture. I went to him and asked, O young man, why are you tortured from amongst these people? He said to me, O Salih, I entreat you to transfer what I will say to you and pay the trust arid be merciful to rescue me from my grief, may Allah the Almighty make you the one who will bring me salvation. When I died and my mother gathered many women and lamented and wailed over me every day.

    I was tormented with their wailing and the fire surrounded me from all directions because of what they said. May Allah not reward her with any good because of me. Then he started weeping until I wept due to his state. He then said O Salih go to my mother, and he told me about her place, and say to her, why do you torment your son? She brought me up and protected me against misfortunes and when I died she threw me into the torture. O my mother, if you saw my state, the chains in my neck, the cuffs in my feet, and the angels of torture beating me, you will be merciful towards me. If you do not give up what you say of wailing and lamenting, Allah will judge between you and me on the Day of Judgment. Salih said, I woke up in fear and stayed in my place until the time of dawn. In the morning, I went to this village and I had no concern except to reach the house of the mother of this young man. I asked about her and I reached her. The door of her house was blackened and the sound of lamenting and wail­ing was heard from outside of the house. I knocked the door and there came an old woman and said what do you want? I said, I want the mother of the youth who died. She asked what do you want from her? She is engaged with her grief. I said to her summon her for I have a message for her from her son. She entered and told her. The mother came out wearing black clothes and her face was black out of oft wailing and weeping. She asked me who I was? I said, I am Salih AI­ Mari. Yesterday I was at the graves and so and so have happened to me with your son. I saw him tortured and saying, O my mother, you brought me up and protected me against misfortunes and when I died you threw me into the torture. If you do not give up what you say of wailing and lamenting, Allah will judge between you and me on the Day of Judgment. Upon hearing that, she fell unconscious. When she restored her state, she grievously wept and said Omy son it is so cher­ished to me and if I knew, I would never do it and I repent to Allah from my doing. Then she entered her house, changed her clothes and gave me a suite filled with Dirhams and said, O Salih, give these Dir­hams in charity on behalf of my son.

    Salih said goodbye to her, supplicated to Allah for her, went away and gave the dirhams in charity. On the night of the next Thursday, I went to the graves as I used to do and I slept. I saw in my dream that the people in the cemetery rose from their graves and sat in circles and upon them the plates were descended. The young man was very happy and delightful amongst them and to him there came a plate and he took it. When he saw me, he advanced towards me and said, O Sa­lih, may Allah reward you in the best way for me, Allah the Almighty relieved me from the torture because my mother gave up wailing and lamenting. The reward of charity also reached me. Sahih said, what are these plates? These are the presents of the living people to their dead, from charity, recitation of the Qur'an and supplication. They de­scended upon them every night of thus. It is said this is the present of so and so to you. So, return to my mother and send peace upon her and say to her may Allah reward you in the best way for me. I received the reward of your charity on behalf of me and you will join us soon, so prepare yourself. Salih said, "I awake and come to the house of the mother of this youth after some days. I found a bier at its door. I asked for whom this bier is placed? They replied, for the mother of the youth. I offered prayer upon her and she was buried beside her son in this grave. I supplicated Allah for them and went away. We ask Allah to cause us to die while we are Muslims and join us to the righteous people and protect us from the Fire, for He is Ever-Generous, Ever­ Relenting and Ever-Merciful.

     

    50) Excess Against Others

    Allah, the Almighty said,

    {The blame is only against those who oppress men with wrong-doing and insolently transgress beyond bounds through the land, defying right and justice: for such there will be a chastisement grievous}

                                                                                                                                                          (Ash-Shura: 42)

     

    The Prophet (pbuh) said,

    "Allah has inspired to me that you are all to be humble and that no one should exalt himself above another.” [38]

    It is also reported that,

    "If a mountain transgresses against the other, Allah will make the one that transgressed it into dust.”[39]

    The Prophet (pbuh) also said,

    "There is no sin whose owner is more deserving to be tor­tured by Allah in this world along with punishment in the Hereafter than the one who transgresses against others and severs the relation with one's kin.”[40]

    Allah, the Almighty caused the earth to swallow up Qarun when he transgressed against his people. Concerning him, Allah the Almighty said,

    {Qarun was doubtless, of the people of Moses but he act­ed insolently towards them.}             (Al-Qasas: 76)

    Allah, the Almighty also said,

              {Then we caused the earth to swallow up him and his house.................. }                    (Al-Qasas: 81)

     

    Ibn Al-Jawzi (may Allah have mercy upon him) said, the schol­ars are in disagreement about the identification of Qarun's transgres­sion. Ibn 'Abbas said that he designate for the adulteresses a sum of money to charge Moses (pbuh) with this heinous crime. Ad-Dahak said he transgressed by disbelief in Allah, the Almighty. Qatada said he transgressed through exalting himself. Ata' Al- Khurasani said, he transgressed through making his clothes longer than the peoples by a span. And Al-Mawrdi said, he served under the Pharaoh and he trans­gressed and oppressed the children of Israel.

    Concerning Allah's saying" {Then we caused the earth to swal­low up him and his house} the scholars said, "When Qarun ordered the adulteresses to charge Moses as previously mentioned, Moses got angry and he supplicated Allah against him. Allah the Almighty re­vealed to him saying, "I ordered the earth to obey you so order it with whatever you want. Moses said, 'O earth, swallow him,' so it swallowed him until his bed was sunk into the earth. When Qarun saw this he entreated Moses by the kinship. But Moses said, 'O earth, swal­low him and it took him until his feet were sunk.' Moses continued to supplicate until Qarun was completely swallowed by the earth. There­ upon Allah revealed to him, O Moses how harsh you are. By my honor and Glory, if he entreated me, I would respond to him! Ibn 'Abbas said, Allah caused the earth to swallow him up until he reached to the lowest earth.

    Samrah Ibn Jundub said, whenever the earth swallowed him he would return back to normal and the process would be repeated. Muqatif said, "When Qarun was destroyed, Banu Israel said, "It is Moses who destroyed him to take his property and his house, so Allah caused the earth to swallow him up after three days; {And he had not (the least little) party to help him against Allah)} i.e., to protect him from Allah, {Nor could he defend himself} i.e. he could not prevent what Allah has revealed him of chastisement.

     

    52) Overburdening and Arrogance against others

    This includes overbearing the weak, the male slave, the female slave, the wife and the beast. Allah, the Almighty ordered us to deal in kindness towards these varieties. He said,

    {Serve Allah and join not any partners with Him, and do good to parents, kinsfolk, orphans, those in need, neighbors who are of kin, neighbors who are strangers, the companion by your side, the way-fairer( ye meet) and what your right hands possess: for Allah  loveth not the arrogant, the vainglorious}

                                                                                                                                                                (An-Nisa': 36)

     

    Concerning Allah's saying,

                  {Serve Allah, and join not any partners with Him}

    Al-Wahidi said "Ahmad Ibn Ibrahim Al-Mahragjani told us on the authority of Mu'adh Ibn Jabal (may Allah be please with him) who said, once I was riding behind the Prophet (pbuh) on a donkey. The Prophet said, O Mu'adh, I said, here I am! At your service O Messenger of Allah. He said,

                   "Do you know what are the rights of Allah towards His servants and what are the rights of the servants towards       their Lord? I said, "Allah and His Messenger know best.  He said, "The rights of Allah towards His servants is to worship Him and ascribe not any partners unto Him and the right of servants towards their Lord is to torment not the one who does not ascribe any partner unto Him.” [41]

    On the authority of Ibn Mas'ud (may Allah be pleased with him) who said, "Once a bedouin came to the Prophet (pbuh) and said, O the Prophet of Allah, counsel me? The Prophet said,

    "Do not ascribe anything unto Allah, even if you are cut up into pieces or burnt and do not delay the prayer from its ap­pointed times for it is the trust of Allah. And do not drink wine for it is the key of every evil.”[42]

    Allah, the Almighty said, {and do good to parents} this means that the person should deal gently and be kind to his parents. He should not be harsh in his response to them. He should be before them as the slave before his master. {Kinsfolk}  Allah means that theperson should have good relations with them and be kind towards them. {Orphans} the person should be merciful towards them and rub their heads. Those in need, By spending some of his money and returning gratitude. Neighbors who are of kin, means those with whom you have a kinship. They have the right of kinship, the right of a neighborhood and the right of Islam. Neighbors who are "strangers" are those with whom you have no kinship.

    On the authority of ' Aishah (may Allah be pleased with her) "The Prophet (pbuh) said,

    "Gabriel continued to counsel me concerning the neighbor until I thought that he would designate to him a share of inheri­tance.” [43]

            On the authority of Anas Ibn Malik (may Allah be pleased with him), "The Messenger of Allah (pbuh) said,

               "On the Day of Judgment, the neighbor will hang himself to his neighbor saying, "0 Lord, you granted my brother many blessings and deprived me any. I spent my night suffering the hunger while he was very satisfied. Ask him why he was very stingy and prevented me any of the blessings You granted to him.” [44]

    Concerning Allah's saying, {The companion be our side} Ibn `Abbas and Mujahidsaid, he is the one who accompanies you in trav­el, he has the right of the neighbor and the right of companionship. (The wayfarer is the weak and you should guide him to what he wants. Ibn `Abbas said a person should receive the wayfarer with hos­pitality and should feed him until he goes away." What your right hands possess, they are the slaves, whether male or female. The per­son should provide for him and should forgive him his mistakes. Con­cerning Allah's saying, {for Allah loveth not the arrogant, the vain­glorious}, Ibn 'Abbas said, "What is meant by arrogant is the one who exalted in himself (very proud) who does not observe Allah's rights. By the vainglorious, Allah means the one who exalts himself over people by the blessings which Allah has granted him.

    On the authority of Abu Hurairah (may Allah be pleased with him) who said, "the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) said,

    "While a man, from those who preceded you, wearing a garment was walking arrogantly and in a vainglorious way, he was swallowed by the earth and he will be driven in it until the Day of Judgment."

    Usamah said I heard Ibn 'Umar saying, “I heard the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) saying,

              "Whoever drags his clothes out of conceit, Allah will not look at him on the Day of Judgment.” [45]

                       In this death disease, the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) used to advise    people with prayer and with what their right hands possess saying,

              “Allah, Allah, be heedful of prayer and what your right hands possess.” [46]

            In another narration, it is reported that,

    "Good treatment of what the person owns is a good omen and ill-treatment is a bad omen.” [47]

    The Messenger of Allah (pbuh) said,

    "The one who treat what he owns in an evil way will never enter Paradise.” [48]

    Ibn Mas'ud (may Allah be pleased with him) said,

              "Once I was beating my slave with a whip and I heard a voice from behind me saying, "0 Abu Mas'ud, know that Allah is more able than you on this slave" Ibn Mas'ud said, I will never beat any slave again 'f In another narration, (the whip fell down from my hand because of the fear of the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) in another, "I said, he is free for the sake of Allah, the man said, if you did not do it, the fire would scorch you.” [49]

           Imam Muslim also reported that from the hadith of Ibn 'Umar (may Allah be pleased with him) who said, "The Messenger of Allah (pbuh) said,

    "Whoever beats his slave for something which he did not do, or slaps him, its expiation is to free him.” [50]

             Hakim fun Hizam (may Allah be pleased with him) said that, "The Messenger of Allah (pbuh) said,

                 "Allah will torture those who torture people in this worldly life” [51]

               In another narration, it is also reported,

    "Whoever unjustly beats anyone with a whip, it will be re­taliated on him on the Day of Judgment.” [52]

    The Messenger of Allah (pbuh) was asked,

    "How many times should we forgive the servant? He re­plied, "Seventy times a day.” [53]

    Once the Prophet (pbuh) was holding a Siwak (tooth-stick) in his hands and he called his servant, but he was late for some minutes. The Prophet said,

    "If there was no retaliation, I would beat you with this Si­wak.”[54]

    Abu Hurairah (may Allah be pleased with him) had a black slave girl and he raised a whip on her but he said, "If there was no retalia­tion, I would beat you until you fell unconscious but I will sell you to the One Who will pay your price in full from me and he freed her for the sake of Allah.

    Once, a woman came to the Prophet (pbuh) and said,

    "0 Messenger of Allah, I said to my slave girl, '0 adulteress! He said, 'Is she truly as you say?' She said, 'No' He said, 'She would seek justice from you on the Day of Judgment.’ Thereupon, she returned to her slave girl and gave her a whip and said to her 'beat me.' The salve girl refused to do so. She freed her and returned to the Prophet (pbuh) and told him about that. He said, 'May what you did be an expiation for your accusing her of such a thing.” [55]

              In the two Sahihs, the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) said,

    "Whoever charged his slave with an accusation while he is innocent from it, he will be flogged on the Day of Judgment as retaliation unless he was as he said.” [56]

    In another narration,

                "The slave should be fed and clothed and should not be burdened with something beyond his capacity.” [57]

    In his death-disease, the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) used to advise his Companions saying,

              "Be heedful of prayer and of those whom your right hands possess. Feed them from what you feed yourselves and clothe them from what you clothe yourselves. Do not burden them with something beyond their capacity. In case you burden them, you should help them to fulfill it. Do not torment the creatures of Allah, for Allah made you the owners.” [58]

    Once, a group of people entered upon Salman AI-Parisi (may Allah be pleased with him) while he was the governor of AI-Mada'in and they found him soaking a paste for his family. They said to him, would you not leave the slave girl to do this? He (may Allah be pleased with him) said, "We sent her for some concerns (affairs) and we hated to burden her with another thing." An early Muslim said, "Do not beat the slave for every fault, but count them for him. And in case he disobeyed Allah, beat him for this and remind him with his faults.

    It is heinous maltreatment to the slave, both male and female to separate him from his children or his brothers. The Prophet (pbuh) isreported to have said,

    "Whoever separates a slave and his/her children, Allah will separate him and his beloved ones on the Day of Judgment.” [59]

    Ali Ibn Abi Talib (may Allah honor his face) said,

    "The Messenger of Allah (pbuh) granted me two slave brothers. I sold one of them and thereupon the Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings be upon him) said, "Bring him back again and repeated it.” [60]

    It is also a heinous maltreatment to both the slave, male and female and to beasts to leave them until they get angry. The Messenger of Allah (pbuh) is reported to have said,

    "It is a sufficient sin for a person to prevent those whom he owns his food.” [61]

    It is mistreatment to a beast if it is: treated in a harsh manner, imprisoned, deprived of its food, or to burden it with that which is beyond its capacity. Concerning this Allah says,

    {There is not an animal (that lives) on the earth, nor a being that flies on its wings, but (forms part of) communities like you}                                                                                               (AI-An'am: 38)

     

    It is reported that,

    "These communities will be brought on the Day of Judgment while the people will be brought on the Day of Judgment. While the people are standing, there will be judgment amongst the animals to such an extent that the bald-headed sheep will retaliate from the horny and the atom from another.. Then it will be said to them, 'Be dust.’ At this moment the disbeliever will say, "Woe unto me! Would that I were (mere) dust! “ [62]

    This is evidence that there will be Judgment between the animals and the human being to such an extent that if a person unjustly beat an animal, or made it thirsty, prevented it food, or burdened it with that which is beyond its capacity, it will retaliate against him on the Day of Judgment in an equal way. To support this, we have the following evi­dence from the two Sahihs: Abu Hurairah (may Allah be pleased with him) said, "The Messenger of Allah (pbuh) said,

    "A woman was tortured for a cat she imprisoned until it died. She went to Hell because of it, having neither fed it nor watered it, for she confined it and would not let it go to forage on the small creatures of the earth.” [63]

    In Sahih Al-Bukhari, it is reported that,

    "The Messenger of Allah (pbuh) saw (in his dream) a woman hanged in the Hell and a cat scratching her face and breast and torturing her as she tortured it in worldly life by imprisoning it and preventing it the food.” [64]

    This is applied to all kinds of animals. By the same token, the one who burdens the animals with that which beyond their capacity, they will retaliate against him on the Day of Judgment. In Sahih Al­ Bukhari, it is reported that, "The Messenger of Allah (pbuh) said,

    "Once there was a man driving a cow, he mounted it and beat it. Consequently, it said, "We have not been created for this, but for ploughing.” [65]

    This is a cow and Allah caused it to speak to defend itself against oppression or to be used for something contrary to that for which it was created. Therefore, whoever unjustly burdens an animal with something beyond its ability, it will retaliate from him on the Day of Judgment in an equal way.

     

    Abu Sulaiman AI-Darani said, "Once I mounted a donkey and I beat it twice or thrice. Consequently it raised its head and said, "O Abu Sulaiman, there will be a retaliation on the Day of Judgment. So, belittle or do it more, as you like! Abu Sulaiman said, I will never beat anything again.

              Once' Abdullah Ibn 'Umar passed by a group of boys from Qu­raish who used a bird as a target and shot at him. They made every false shoot for its owner. Upon seeing Ibn 'Umar, they run away. Ibn 'Umar said, who did that? May Allah curse the one who did that?

                "The Messenger of Allah (pbuh) cursed the one who takes anything possessing life as a target.” [66]

    In another narration,

    "The Messenger of Allah (pbuh) forbade that animals be imprisoned for killing.” [67]

    Even with what the Shari'ah allowed us to kill from animals, such as scorpions, snakes, mice and vicious dogs, "We are ordered to take their lives at once and should not torture them. The Messenger of Al­lah (pbuh) said,

    "If killing is to be done, do it in the best manner, and when you slaughter, do it in the best manner by first sharpening the knife and putting the animal at ease.” [68]

    Likewise, the animals should not be burned by fire. In an authenti­cated hadith, the Messenger of Allah, (pbuh) is reported to have said,

    "Previously I ordered you to burn so and so with fire. Since there is no one who could torture with fire except Allah, if you found them, kill them (and do not burn them).” [69]

    Ibn Mas'ud said,

    "Once we went out with the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) on a journey. He was engaged in fulfilling some of his needs. We saw a sparrow with its two children. We took its children and thereupon, it started to shout. The Prophet (pbuh) came and said, "Who made this sparrow grieve for its children? Return it's (children back to it). Likewise, the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) asked us about a co long of ant's which we burnt. And he said, "Who burned this colong?' We replied, "It was us." The Prophet (pbuh) said, "No one should torture anything with fire except its Lord.” [70]

    This is evidence that it is not allowed to kill or torture with fire even a lice, fleas or otherwise. It is also forbidden to kill any animal merely for sport. The Prophet (pbuh) said,

    "If someone kills a sparrow for sport, the sparrow will cry out on the Day of Judgment, Lord!. Ask this person why he killed me in vain and did not kill me for any useful purpose.” [71]

    It is also detested to hunt birds during the period when they hatch their eggs or slaughtering an animal before its mother. Ibrahim Ibn Adham (may Allah bestow mercy upon him) reported,

    "Once a man slaughtered a calf before its mother. Thereupon Allah caused his hand to become paralyzed."

    It is also highly recommended to free a slave, whether male or female. Abu Hurairah (may Allah be pleased with him) said, "The Prophet (pbuh) said,

    "Whoever frees a believing slave girl, Allah will, with every organ of hers, free his organs from the Hell-Fire, even her private parts will be an expiation for his.” [72]

            Abu Umamah (may Allah be pleased with him) reported the Prophet (pbuh) saying,

                 "Any Muslim frees a believing, male slave, he will be a salvation for him from the Hell-Fire. Every organ of his will be expiation for his organs. Any Muslim who frees two believing slave girls, they will be a salvation for him from the Hell-Fire. Every organ of theirs will be expiation for his organs. And any Muslim woman who frees a believing slave girl, she will be a salvation for her from the Hell-Fire. Every organ of hers will be an expiation for her organs.” [73]

     

    52) Hurting One's Neighbor

    In the two Sahihs, it is reported that the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) said,

    "By Allah, he does not believe. By Allah, he does not believe. By Allah, he does not believe." Someone asked, "Whom, Messenger of Allah? And he said, "He whose neighbor is not safe from his evil conduct.” [74]

    In another narration, it is reported that,

    "The one whose neighbor is not safe from his evil conduct will not enter Paradise.” [75]

               The Messenger of Allah (pbuh) was asked about the greatest of sins and he said,

    "To ascribe a partner to Allah and He is the one who created you, to kill your son with fear of being fed with you, and to commit fornication with the wife of your neighbor.” [76]

    In another narration, it is reported that,

    "The one who hurts his neighbor, does not believe in Allah, nor in the Last Day.” [77]

    "Neighbors are of three kinds, a kin Muslim neighbor, he has the right of a neighbor, the right of Islam and the right of kinship. The Muslim neighbor, he has the right of a neighbor and the right of Islam. And the disbelieving neighbor, he has the right of a neighbor.” [78]

    Ibn 'Arnr (may Allah be pleased with him) had a Jewish neighbor. Whenever he slaughtered sheep, he used to say, "Carry some of it for our Jewish neighbor.” [79]

             It is reported that,

    "On the Day of Judgment, the poor neighbor will hang himself on to the rich neighbor saying, 'O Lord! Ask him why he deprived me of his charity and closed his door before me.” [80]

    The neighbor should endure the evil conduct of his neighbor for it is a good treatment to him. A man came to the Prophet (pbuh) and said,

    "0 Messenger of Allah, teach me a deed which if I do it, I will enter Paradise. The Prophet said, "Deal with good conduct". He asked, "How Messenger of Allah? The Prophet said, 'Ask your neighbors, if they say that you deal with good conduct, then you are as they said, and if they say that you deal in bad conduct, then you are as they said.” [81]

    The Prophet (pbuh) is reported to have said,

    "Whoever shuts his door before his neighbor because of fear of him or his family and property, he is not a believer. And the one whose neighbor is not safe from his evil con­duct is not also a believer.” [82]

               The Messenger of Allah (pbuh) also said,

    "For a person, to commit fornication with ten women is lesser than to commit it with the wife of his neighbor and to steal from ten houses is lesser than to steal from the house of his neighbor.” [83]

           In Sunan Abu Dawud, Abu Hurairah (may Allah be pleased with him) reported that, "Once a man came to the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) complaining about his neighbor to him. The Prophet said,

    "Go and be patient. He came again twice or thrice. Then the Prophet said, "Go and place your belongings on the road.” The man went and did that. The people passed by him asking him about his affairs. He told them about his neighbor. The people cursed his neighbor saying, "May Allah cause him such and such and supplicated on him. Thereupon his neighbor came to him and said, "0 my brother, come back to your house and you will never see anything you hate again.” [84]

    A person should endure the harms and hurts of his neighbor even if he was a Dhimi (none. Muslim living in Muslim country). Sahl Ibn `Abdullah At- Tustri (may Allah have mercy upon him) reported that, "He had a Dhimi neighbor and from his water closet, there was a hole flowing into the house of Sahl. Sahl used to put a vessel under this flowing hole until all rubbish gathered in it and threw it during the night to conceal himself from the people. Sahl continued to do that for a long period until the time of his death come. He sent for his magian neighbor and summoned him saying, "Enter this house and look into it. He entered and saw the hole with rubbish flowing from it into the vessel and he said, what is this, which I see? Sahl said, this is from a long period, I receive it during the day and threw it during the night. The time of my death has come, and I fear that the manners of other people might not endure you, otherwise I would not tell you. So do what do you see. The magian said, O an old man, you treat me in such a way from a long period and I am still indulging in my disbelief? Stretch your hand to me, I testify that there is no god but Allah and that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah. Then the soul of Sahl was taken.

     

     

    [1] Reported by A1-Bukhari.

    [2] Reported by AJ-Bukhari and Muslim.

    [3] Reported by A1-Bukhari.

    [4] Reported by Muslim.

    [5] Reported by Abu Dawud

    [6] Reported by An-Nasa'i.

    [7] Reported by AJ-Bukhari.

    [8] Reported by AI-Bukhari and Muslim.

    [9] Reported by At-Tirmidhi.

    [10] Reported by Muslim.

    [11] Reported by At- Tirmidhi.

    [12] Reported by Ibn Hajar Al-Haithami in Majma' Al-Zawa'id.

    [13] Reported by Ibn Hajar Al-Haithami in Majma' Al-Zawa'id.

     

    [14] Reported by AI-Bukhari.

    [15] Reported by AI-Bukhari.

    [16] Reported by AI-Bukhari.

    [17] Reported by Al-Bukhari.

    [18] Reported by A1-Bukhari.

    [19] Reported by Ad-Darimi.

    [20] Reported by At- Tirmidhi.

    [21] Reported by AI-Bukhari.

    [22] Reported by At- Tirmidhi.

    [23] Reported by At- Tirmidhi.

    [24] Reported by At-Tirmidhi

    [25] Reported by Abu Dawud

    [26] Reported by Ibn Majah.

    [27] Reported before.

    [28] Reported by An-Nasa'i

    [29] Reported by AI-Bukhari.

    [30] Reported by A1-Bukhari.

    [31] Reported by A1-Bukhari.

    [32] Reported by At- Tirmidhi.

    [33] Reported by At- Tirmidhi.

    [34] Reported Muslim.

    [35] Reported by A1-Mundhiri .

    [36] Reported by Muslim.

    [37] Reported by AI-Hakim.

    [38] Reported by Muslim.

    [39] Reported by As-Suyuti.

    [40] Reported by Ibn Majah.

    [41] Reported by A1-Bukhari.

    [42] Reported by Ibn Majah.

    [43] Reported by A1-Bukhari.

    [44] Reported by A1-Asbahani in At-Targhib wa At-Tarhib.

    [45] Reported by A1-Bukhari.

    [46] Reported by Abu Dawud

    [47] Reported by Abu Dawud

    [48] Reported by Ibn Majah.

    [49] Reported by Muslim.

    [50] Reported by Muslim.

    [51] Reported by Muslim.

    [52] It is previously mentioned

    [53] Reported by At- Tirmidhi.

    [54] Reported by Ibn Hajar.

    [55] Reported by AI-Hakim in AI-Mustadrak.

    [56] Reported by AI-Bukhari.

    [57] Reported by Muslim.

    [58] It is previously mentioned.

    [59] Reported by At-Tirmidhi.

    [60] Reported by At-Tirmidhi.

    [61] Reported by Muslim.

    [62] Reported by Muslim.

    [63] Reported by AI-Bukhari.

    [64] Reported by AI-Bukhari

    [65] Reported by AI-Bukhari.

    [66] Reported by Al-Bukhari.

    [67] Reported by Al-Bukhari.

    [68] Reported by Muslim.

    [69] Reported by AI-Bukhari.

    [70] Reported by Abu Dawud.

    [71] Reported by An-Nasa'i.

    [72] Reported by Al-Bukhari.

    [73] Reported by Abu Dawud.

    [74] Reported by Al-Bukhari

    [75] Reported by Muslim.

    [76] It is previously mentioned.

    [77] Reported by AI-Bukhari.

    [78] Reported by AI-Suyuti.

    [79] Reported by AI-Bukhari in AI-Adab AI-Mufrad.

    [80] Reported by AI-Bukhari in AI-Adab AI-Mufrad.

    [81] Reported by AI-Hakim in AI-Mustadrak.

     

    [82] Mentiorled in AI-Jami' AI-Kabir.

    [83] Reported by AI-Bukhari in AI-Adab AI-Mufrad

    [84] Reported by Abu Dawud.

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