Mankind And Satan


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  • Mankind And Satan


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    Chapter Three

    Adam And Satan

    Allah, all praise
    and glory is to Him, expelled Satan and got him out of what he once had. Satan
    got out expelled, cursed and disparaged. Allah, all praise and glory is to Him,
    has threatened whoever follows the devil with torment in Hellfire.

    Allah, The Most
    Exalted and Ever-Majestic, has prepared in Paradise – as we have previously
    mentioned – places to accommodate all His creatures, since the time of Adam
    (peace be upon him) till the Last Hour befalls. And He has also prepared in
    Hellfire places to all His creatures, since Adam till the Last Hour befalls. If
    all creatures obey, Allah’s Blessings in Paradise will be great enough for them
    all and if all creatures disobey, Allah’s Torment in Hellfire will come upon
    them all.

    Allah willed that
    Adam and Eve should undergo a practical experience on how they and their
    offspring can confront the evil insinuations of the devil to be fortified
    against him, and learn for sure that the devil is a liar in his promises and he
    only brings evil, misguidance and loss of blessings.

    Allah, all praise
    and glory is to Him, says what means:

    “And ‘O Adam,
    dwell, you and your wife, in paradise and eat from wherever you will but do not
    approach this tree, lest you be among the wrongdoers.’” (Al-A‘râf, 7: 19)

    From this glorious
    Ayah we learn that Adam and Eve have dwelt in a paradise or a garden but many scholars
    said that the meant garden in the glorious Ayah is the Paradise of Eternity in
    the Hereafter, which drove some orientalists and others to ask: “How can
    Satan enter the Paradise of those obedient to Allah and whisper evil to Adam
    and Eve and tempt them into sin? How can Satan, the sinner and the outcast from
    Allah’s Mercy, who is doomed to eternal torment in Hellfire, enter the Paradise
    of Eternity?”
            

    And how can Adam
    and Eve enter the Paradise of Eternity and get out of it? Although Allah, all
    praise and glory is to Him, has decreed that whoever enters the Paradise of
    Eternity will live in it forever?

    We say to them all
    that you did not understand the import of
    튃 (Jannah: Paradise) in
    the Noble Qur’an. There is what we call in Arabic language “prevalent usage”;
    the word has many meanings but is usually used for one, so whenever man says it
    that meaning specifically comes to mind. From that cause when we hear the word “Jannah”
    we only think of the Paradise of Eternity, because it is the true Paradise. But
    Allah, all praise and glory is to Him, has used “Jannah” in the Noble
    Qur’an to refer to various meanings. Linguistically, Al-Jannah means As-Satir
    [veil, screen, cover, shelter…], therefore it is used to designate a shady
    place rich in ample, diverse trees so that when man walks therein these trees
    shade and conceal him with their interlaced branches from those outside this Jannah,
    thus they no longer can see him. At the same time he finds in it all the means
    of living, hence he does not need to get out of it and that is the linguistic
    meaning of Jannah.

    It is not The Paradise of Eternity

    If we search the
    Noble Qur’an we will find that the Noble Qur’an has used the word Jannah
    for more than one meaning. The Noble Qur’an used it with its linguistic meaning
    of Satir [veil, screen, cover, shelter…] and with its religious meaning
    of the Paradise of Eternity. We find many Ayat holding these two meanings as
    the Saying of Allah, all praise and glory is to Him:

    {æóÇÖúÑöÈú áóåõã ãøóËóáðÇ ÑøóÌõáóíúäö ÌóÚóáúäóÇ
    áöÃóÍóÏöåöãóÇ ÌóäøóÊóíúäö ãöäú ÃóÚúäóÇÈò æóÍóÝóÝúäóÇåõãóÇ ÈöäóÎúáò æóÌóÚóáúäóÇ
    ÈóíúäóåõãóÇ ÒóÑúÚðÇ {
    (ÇáßåÝ¡
    18: 32)

    Which means:

    “And present to
    them an example of two men: We granted to one of them two gardens
    (6) of grapevines, and We bordered them with palm trees
    and placed between them [fields of] crops.” (Al-Kahf, 18: 32)

    And the Ayah in
    which Allah says:

    {ÃóíóæóÏøõ ÃóÍóÏõßõãú Ãóä Êóßõæäó áóåõ ÌóäøóÉñ ãøöä
    äøóÎöíáò æóÃóÚúäóÇÈò ÊóÌúÑöí ãöä ÊóÍúÊöåóÇ ÇáÃóäúåóÇÑõ áóåõ ÝöíåóÇ ãöä ßõáøö
    ÇáËøóãóÑóÇÊö} (ÇáÈÞÑÉ¡ 2: 266)

    Which means:

    “Would one of
    you like to have a garden of palm trees and grapevines underneath which rivers
    flow in which he has from every fruit?” (Al-Baqarah, 2: 266)

    And the Ayah in
    which Allah says:

    { áóÞóÏú ßóÇäó áöÓóÈóÅò Ýöí
    ãóÓúßóäöåöãú ÂíóÉñ ÌóäøóÊóÇäö Úóä íóãöíäò æóÔöãóÇáò ßõáõæÇ ãöä ÑøöÒúÞö
    ÑóÈøößõãú æóÇÔúßõÑõæÇ áóåõ ÈóáúÏóÉñ ØóíøöÈóÉñ æóÑóÈøñ ÛóÝõæÑñ} (ÓÈá 34: 15)

    Which means:

    “There was for
    [the tribe of] Saba’ in their dwelling place a sign: two [fields of] gardens on
    the right and on the left. [They were told], ‘Eat from the provisions of your
    Lord and be grateful to Him. A good land [have you], and a forgiving Lord.’”
    (Saba’, 34: 15)

    In all these
    glorious Ayat Allah, all praise and glory is to Him, used the word “Jannah
    to refer to a worldly garden or paradise.  

    Some scholars said
    that Allah, Blessed and Exalted is He, differentiated between the paradises or gardens
    of worldly life and the Paradise of the Hereafter by using the definitive form
    (ÇáÌäÉ) [Al-Jannah] to designate
    the Paradise of the Hereafter alone and the indefinite word
    (ÌäÉ) [Jannah] without"Çá (Al: equivalent to the definite article the) to designate worldly paradises or
    gardens, which is incorrect, based on the fact that a worldly garden is also
    referred to with the definite article “Al” as in the Ayah in which Allah,
    Blessed and Exalted is He, says:

    {ÅöäøóÇ ÈóáóæúäóÇåõãú ßóãóÇ ÈóáóæúäóÇ ÃóÕúÍóÇÈó ÇáúÌóäøóÉö
    ÅöÐú ÃóÞúÓóãõæÇ áóíóÕúÑö ãõäøóåóÇ ãõÕúÈöÍöíäó } (ÇáÞáã¡ 68: 17-18)

     

    Which means:

    “Verily, We
    have tried them as We tried the people of the garden, when they swore to pluck
    the fruits of the (garden) in the morning. Without saying: Inshâ' Allâh (If
    Allah will).” (Al-Qalam, 68: 17-18)

    The speech in the
    two aforesaid Ayahs is about a paradise or a garden from the gardens of this
    world. Thus, the two definite letters Alf-Lam “Al” do not mark the word Jannah
    and serve to make it only designate the Paradise of Eternity.  And here we must pause a little to
    discuss some opinions that claim that Adam and Eve used to live in the Paradise
    of Eternity and when they disobeyed Allah, He expelled them from paradise and
    send them down to live in misery on the earth!

    We reply by saying

    that such opinions are absolutely untrue, because Allah, all praise and glory
    is to Him, before creating Adam has already assigned his mission in life.
    Please read the Ayah in which Allah, The Most Exalted and Ever-Majestic, says
    what means:

    “And [mention,
    O Muhammad], when your Lord said to the angels, ‘Indeed, I will make upon the
    earth a successive authority.’” (Al-Baqarah, 2: 30)

    Thus, before creating
    Adam the purpose of creating him was his living on the earth and making it a
    prosperous place and filling it with life.

    The second
    important issue is that if Adam was expelled from paradise because he disobeyed
    what is our guilt to inherit sin and misery? That would disagree with the
    Justice of Allah embodied in His Saying, all glory is to Him, which means:

    “And no bearer
    of burdens will bear the burden of another.” (Fâtir, 35: 18)

    Each person is hold
    accountable only for his own deeds and will never be questioned about what his
    parents did, nor his forefathers nor his children, because every man bears only
    his own good or bad deeds. Hence, it is impossible that Adam lived in the
    Paradise of Eternity then he was expelled from it because he disobeyed and we
    bore the consequences of that sin. It is impossible that we inherited that sin
    and are tortured by it through our expulsion from paradise, because (according
    to that logic) had not Adam sinned we would have been living in paradise. To
    such claimers we say that this opinion opposes the Justice of Allah Who never
    allows that sin should be inherited.

    But why did Allah
    made Adam and Eve live in a paradise after creating them?

    We say that there
    is wisdom behind that, for Adam was created to receive from Allah the Law of ‘Do
    and Do not do.’
    Only through this Law life thrives on the earth. Anything
    that Allah commands to be done if not done the earth would be corrupted and
    anything that Allah forbids if done the earth would be corrupted.

    Allah, Blessed and
    Exalted is He, placed Adam and Eve in that paradise to put them through a
    practical experience in applying the Divine Law and to give them a practical
    warning against Satan mission’s of distorting the Divine Law. Satan’s mission
    is to push Adam and his offspring towards committing what Allah has forbidden
    and turn them away from doing what Allah has commanded. Thus, if Allah says: “Do
    not drink intoxicants (all kinds of alcoholic drinks)”
    the devil will
    beautify to mankind drinking intoxicants, and if Allah says: “Perform Salah
    the
    devil will beautify to them
    abandoning Salah.

    Truly, an
    experience simple in carrying out but is indeed great in its meaning and
    significance. It was a practice to Adam on what will happen to him when he
    obeys Allah and what will happen to him when he obeys Satan. Therefore, Allah,
    all praise and glory is to Him, brought Adam and provided him with all the
    means of living in a place called “Jannah” and He said to Adam (what
    means):

    “And ‘O Adam,

    dwell, you and your wife, in paradise and eat from wherever you will but do not
    approach this tree, lest you be among the wrongdoers.’ (Al-A‘râf, 7: 19)
                

    The First Heavenly Laws     

    Allah, all praise
    and glory is to Him, has clarified to Adam the merits and privileges he will
    have in this place wherein he shall dwell, saying (what means):

    “Indeed, it is
    [promised] for you not to be hungry therein or be unclothed. And indeed, you
    will not be thirsty therein or be hot from the sun.” (Tâ­-Hâ, 20: 118-119)

    Meaning in this
    paradise or garden you shall have enough food and you shall never be naked, and
    you shall never be thirsty nor feel tired; all is permissible to you except one
    tree which you should not approach nor taste its fruits.

    And that is the Law
    of Allah on the earth: He permits to us too many things and forbids only
    little. Allah, all praise and glory is to Him, warned Adam and Eve against
    their enemy Satan, saying (what means):

    “So We said, ‘O
    Adam, indeed this is an enemy to you and to your wife. Then let him not remove
    you from paradise so you would suffer.’” (Tâ-­Hâ, 20: 117)

    Truly, that was a
    sufficient warning to be alert and watchful to Satan’s enmity and close one’s
    ears to his evil insinuations and never to believe his lies.

    Allah, be ever
    gloried His Majesty and Might, gave Adam all the elements of life, from food
    that satisfied the needs of his body without any excrement. Allah, The Most
    Exalted, nourishes the fetus within its mother’s womb as much as is needed for
    it to grow without discharge of any excretion. Because food is supplied in
    proportion to growth, likewise in the paradise the food of Adam was in
    proportion to need.  

    We must repeat here
    that the paradise Adam lived in was not the
    Paradise
    of Eternity because eternal life in Paradise would only follow worldly life. It
    is the reward for faithful following of the Law of Allah in this world, thus it
    cannot precede worldly life but is subsequent to it.

    So, the paradise
    Adam lived in is a place that embraces all means and requisites of survival. We
    must notice that Allah, all praise and glory is to Him, warned Adam and Eve
    saying: “But do not approach this tree” and did not only say, “Do not
    to eat from this tree”
    …why? Because Allah wants to protect Adam and his
    offspring from temptation. Had He only said “Do not eat” it would have
    signified that it was permissible for Adam and Eve to go near the tree and sit
    beside it and contemplate its fruits, and then they would have been surely
    seduced by the tasty appearance of the fruits and their color and agreeable
    odor and consequently eat from it.  

    But Allah, Blessed
    and Exalted is He, wanted to protect Adam from his own self and from the temptation
    he might be subjected to and the soul might fail to resist. This protection
    that Allah wanted to grant to Adam, and to his offspring after him, is the only
    true protection against sinning. Because the moment you approach a thing
    forbidden by Allah your soul inclines to it, and perhaps proximity to it might
    drive you to commit that which is forbidden.

    We also observe
    that Allah, all praise and glory is to Him, commands us not to approach the
    most grievous sins, saying (what means):

     

    “That [has been
    commanded], and whoever honors the sacred ordinances of Allah – it is best for
    him in the sight of his Lord. And permitted to you are the grazing livestock,
    except what is recited to you. So avoid the uncleanliness of idols and avoid
    false statement.” (Al-Hajj, 22: 30)

    The Truth [Al-Haqq:
    one of the Beautiful Names of Allah], Blessed and Exalted is He, did not just
    say: Do not worship the idols, because this would mean that it is lawful
    to go to the places where idols are worshipped and sit there. For going and
    sitting at such places might tempt us – Allah forbid – to worship idols.  Moreover, read the Saying of Allah,
    which means:

    “O you who have
    believed, indeed, intoxicants, gambling, [sacrificing on] stone alters [to
    other than Allah], and divining arrows are but defilement from the work of
    Satan, so avoid it that you may be successful.” (Al-Mâ’idah, 5: 90)

    A strict warning,
    which means not to ever get near them. The strange thing is that sometimes you
    find some people who try to argue that Allah, all praise and glory is to Him,
    did not forbid intoxicants (all kinds of alcoholic drinks)!! And they demand to
    bring them an Ayah from the Noble Qur’an in which Allah, Blessed and Exalted is
    He, says: Intoxicants are forbidden to you!!!!    
     

     

    To such skeptics we
    say: the command of shunning and avoiding is stronger than forbidding. Had
    Allah, The Most Exalted and Ever-Majestic, said: Intoxicants are forbidden
    to you,
    the forbidden thing would only have been drinking intoxicants, and
    in such case people would have produced alcoholic drinks, traded in them,
    prepared the places where they are served and drunk, waited on their drinkers
    and sat with them. As long as we do not drink intoxicants and as long as the
    prohibition was limited to drinking we would have committed all this. But the
    command of avoidance and shunning has essentially forbidden to come near the
    places of drinking all kinds of alcoholic drinks or to produce them or trade in
    them or sit with those who drink intoxicants. Therefore, the command of
    avoidance and shunning is certainly stronger than the prohibition. That is why
    Allah, all praise and glory is to Him, ordered Adam and Eve not to come near
    the forbidden tree, otherwise they would certainly wrong themselves.

    The Start of Sin

    But what did Satan
    do? He hungered to throw down Adam and Eve into sin, so what did he do? Allah,
    all praise and glory be is Him, says:

    {ÝóæóÓúæóÓó áóåõãóÇ ÇáÔøóíúØóÇäõ áöíõÈúÏöíó áóåõãóÇ
    ãóÇ æõæÑöíó ÚóäúåõãóÇ ãöä ÓóæúÁóÇÊöåöãóÇ} (ÇáÃÚÑÇÝ: 7¡ 20)

    “But Satan whispered to them to make
    apparent to them that which was concealed from them of their private parts.’”
    (Al-A‘râf, 7: 20)

             

    The Saying of the
    Truth “
    æÓæÓ(waswas:
    to whisper evil) signifies that the dialogue passed in whispers. Al-Waswasah
    [devilish insinuation or evil whispering] is temptation to do evil, for
    the one who calls to goodness does not care if he spoke loudly; but calling to
    evil and sin is only spoken in hushed tones.

    Al-Waswasah
    in Arabic language is the ringing sound of gold. The ringing of gold and jewels
    is a sound that attracts people, tempts them and engages their attention. In Waswasah
    (evil whispering) there must be temptation, because if you wanted to turn
    people away from the Law of Allah you must lure them with winning some worldly
    pleasure.

    Here we must pause
    to interpret the Saying of Allah, “But Satan whispered to them” because
    the common misconception is that Satan first tempted Eve and then Eve tempted
    Adam and adorned to him sin until he ate from the tree and were it not for Eve,
    Adam would have remained in paradise!

    We reply be saying
    that Allah, all praise and glory is to Him, has cleared Eve of that lie. The
    part of the Ayah saying what means: “But Satan whispered to them” is a
    proof that Satan has adorned sin to Adam same as Eve. In other words, Satan
    misled both Adam and Eve, and Eve was not the one who tempted Adam but Satan
    allured them together. 

    But what was
    Satan’s aim from this evil whispering? His aim was that Adam and Eve disobey
    their Lord and be punished as he was punished by expulsion from Allah’s Mercy.
    The punishment here was the appearance of the shameful (private) parts of Adam
    and Eve. The shameful parts are the parts that make you feel shame to look at.
    Because the innate nature of man makes him feel shame to have his private parts
    disclosed before people.

    Before Adam and Eve
    ate from the tree none of them had ever seen the private parts of the other,
    not even his own private parts. Adam neither saw his own private parts nor
    those of Eve. Also, Eve neither saw her own private parts nor those of Adam.
    Allah has screened them both from each other.

    Scholars have
    exerted themselves in trying to know how the private parts of Adam and Eve were
    screened from themselves. Some said that they had coverings over them. Other
    said that the nails of Adam and Eve were long, reaching their feet, and they
    covered the private parts then by sin these nails disappeared.

    We should not
    concern ourselves with this, for Allah, all praise and glory is to Him,
    screened the private parts of Adam and Eve however He willed. By a strong
    light, because when light is strong we cannot see things through it. Light when
    weak allow us to distinguish things and when strong hides them from us. Whether
    Allah, all praise and glory is to Him, screened the private parts of Adam and
    Eve by cloth or nails or a light, the important thing is that the private parts
    were screened before their eyes.

    And The Shameful Parts of Man were Disclosed

    The question is why
    are we offended when our private parts are disclosed? The private parts are the
    organs of excretion. We are careful to uncover the parts through which we take
    in food, i.e. the mouth, but at the same time we are very careful to hide the
    parts through which excrement comes out.

    In an attempt to
    explain this some scholars said: the private parts remind us of disobeying
    Allah, because when disobedience occurred the private parts appeared.
    Therefore, we want to cover them because they are a symbol of sin, for sin is a
    shame that man ever tries to hide and feel shame of, and take pains not to be
    seen by people. When man has lawful money, he brings it out in front of all
    people, and fear nothing, but when he has stolen, ill-gotten money he tries to
    hide it from the whole world. Sin in all its states is a shame that people are
    careful to hide and conceal.

    But how did Satan
    tempt Adam and Eve? How did he make them fall into sin?

    Read the glorious Ayah relating what means:

    “He said, ‘Your
    Lord did not forbid you this tree except that you become angels or become of
    the immortal.’” (Al-A‘râf, 7: 20)

    Satan sneaked to
    them from the side of what the human soul craves and desires: an eternal life,
    endless and everlasting, and an eternal kingdom that never decays. Therefore,
    when Satan wanted to tempt Adam and Eve into eating from the tree, he said to
    Adam as the Noble Qur’an relates to us (what means):

    “Then Satan
    whispered to him; he said, ‘O Adam, shall I direct you to the tree of eternity
    and possession that will not deteriorate?’” (Tâ­-Hâ, 20: 120)

    Satan is a liar in
    what he said. Had it truly been the Tree of Eternity, Satan himself would have
    eaten from it and become immortal. But he asked Allah to keep him alive till
    the Day of Judgment, for he knew for sure that Allah is the Originator of life,
    He Alone can keep it or take it.

    Here we have to
    warn against Satan’s art in temptation, he strives to lead man to the misbelief
    that the Law of Allah, all praise and glory is to Him, harms him and profits
    him not; that true benefit is in sin. Therefore, Satan said to Adam and Eve
    that Allah has forbidden them to eat from this tree to prevent them from having
    an eternal kingdom and an eternal life, for man hates poverty and death. He
    wants to live forever. Hence, Satan came to them saying, “If you want
    eternity and sovereignty, you have this tree before you.”
    He swore to them
    by Allah as relates the Noble Qur’an saying (what means):

    “And he swore
    [by Allah] to them, ‘Indeed, I am to you from among the sincere advisors.’”
    (Al-A‘râf, 7: 21)

    Satan swore by
    Allah that he only wished to give them sincere advice, and they believed the
    satanic oath. They believed that Satan wished them goodness. Therefore, Allah,
    all praise and glory is to Him, reproached Adam and Eve for believing the
    Devil’s oath, though Allah, be ever gloried His Majesty and Might, has clearly
    shown to them that Satan is their enemy who never wishes for them any goodness
    as relates the Ayah, saying (what means):

    “And their Lord
    called to them, ‘Did I not forbid you from that tree and tell you that Satan is
    to you a clear enemy?’” (Al-A‘râf, 7: 22)

    But Adam and Eve
    who both felt deep regret, never imagined that one of the creatures of Allah
    would falsely swear by Allah. Therefore, Qatadah (may Allah be pleased with
    him) said, “The believer can be deceived by swearing by Allah.”  Meaning if you approached a believer in
    the Name of Allah you could easily deceive him.   

    ‘Abdullah bin ‘Umar
    used to manumit the slaves who performed the prayers well, thus whenever the
    slaves saw him they would start offering the prayers with solemnity and
    submissiveness. So, people said to ‘Abdullah, “The salves deceive you
    to manumit them
    .” ‘Abdullah bin ‘Umar replied, “Whoever deceives us in
    the Name of Allah we would be deceived for him
    .”

    The Truth, all
    praise and glory is to Him, says (what means):

    “So
    he made them fall, through deception. And when they tasted of the tree, their
    private parts became apparent to them, and they began to fasten together over
    themselves from the leaves of paradise.” (Al-A‘râf, 7: 22)

    Here we must stop
    and deliberate, none should think that Satan led Adam and Eve into error at one
    time, but it was preceded by a number of stages. Satan first deceived them to
    make them draw near the tree, then he adorned in their eyes the beauty of its
    fruits, their sweetness, their pleasant color and fragrance. Then he lured them
    into eating! Thus, sin occurred in stages and not at a blow. The Messenger of
    Allah (may Allah bless him and grant him peace) says, “Temptations will be presented to hearts as reed mat (is
    woven) stick by stick.”
    Consequently, we must be attentive to the
    fact that drawing near sin definitely causes us to fall into it.

    Then what happened?
    Did Adam and Eve repeat the sin and they ate time and again from the tree?
    Allah, Blessed and Exalted is He, says, “And when they tasted of the tree”,
    meaning as soon as they tasted it. There was not persistence in repeating the
    act of disobedience on their part. Right after tasting the tree the private
    parts appeared, so they hurried to hide them by leaves of the garden. This
    means that they needed more than one leaf to hide the private parts.

    This shows us the
    Justice of Allah, all praise and glory is to Him, Who first warned them against
    violation, and informed them about reward and punishment, so that punishment is
    then justly earned and deserved. That is why there is no retroactive laws in
    the Divine Legislation. In Divine Justice there is no incrimination without a
    proviso, and the proviso was forbidding Adam and Eve to draw near this tree and
    that Satan was an enemy to them. The interrogative Saying of Allah, “Did I
    not forbid you from that tree,”
     
    signifies that there is only one answer, “Yes O Lord, You did forbid
    us
    .” 

    The aim from this
    practical trial was that Allah, all praise and glory is to Him, protects Adam,
    Eve and their offspring from Satan, and make them learn well that he is a liar
    in all his promises. That he wishes for them evil even if he pretended to be a
    well-wisher.  And that the mission
    of Satan is to use all his wiles to entice Adam and his offspring into sin and
    cause them to fall into what Allah has forbidden.

    But has the battle
    ended? It did not…it continued and would continue till the Last Hour.


    (6)
    ÌäÊíä  andÌäÊÇä  is
    the dual form of garden in Arabic (i.e., two gardens), in the accusative and
    nominative cases respectively
    .

     

     

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