Muhammad the Prophet of Mercy


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  • Muhammad the Prophet of Mercy


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    Building
    the City of Light

    Al-Madinah consisted of various
    communities, principally Muslim Arabs from Makkah (the Muhajirun or
    Emigrants), Muslim Arabs from Yathrib (the Ansar or Supporters), the Jews
    from Yathrib, and other people who were at that time still pagans. The Prophet r set a precedent and
    promulgated for its plural society the Constitution of Al-Madinah,
    the first written democratic constitution in the world,1 giving equal rights
    as well as equal responsibilities to citizens, and establishing the principle
    of consultation with the people as a method of government. (Pardon
    them and ask forgiveness for them and consult them in the affairs. And when you
    have taken a decision, put your trust in Allah
    .)2

    The concept of constitution certainly brought about a
    revolutionary change to Arabia by providing the people with a public legal
    entity for seeking justice, in place of everyone seeking it with the power of
    his own hand or, at best, that of his family. It brought an end for all time to
    the chaos of tribalism and laid the basis for a wider institution, namely, a
    State.

    The Prophet r set another precedent
    by inviting the Jews to join this new society as an independent community
    within the Muslim
    State. The Jews accepted,
    and the agreement known as the Covenant of Al-Madinah (Constitution of
    Al-Madinah
    ) was signed in 622 A.C. where they became equal citizens of the
    new society of Al-Madinah.

    It was a giant leap for humanity that established the basis for
    treatment of non-Muslim minorities within the Muslim State,
    which was far superior to the norms of the time.

    The Constitution of Al-Madinah guaranteed for all the parties
    of the covenant equality and freedom of religion; emphasized the sanctity of
    Al-Madinah, life, and individual possessions; and prohibited crime.

    The Constitution of Al-Madinah stressed the importance of
    showing belonging and patriotism to the society. All
    residents of Al-Madinah, according to the articles of its
    Constitution, should cooperate in establishing justice, support one
    another in combating aggression, and help one another do righteous acts.

    The charter made it clear that this is a general duty shared by
    all, regardless of creeds, races, or complexions. The charter stipulated the
    following:

    1.      They (those who sign the treaty)
    should support one another in combating the attacks waged against any of them.

    2.      They, together, should back up the
    oppressed.

    3.    They, together, should fight against
    any enemy attacking Yathrib (Al-Madinah).

    The early Muslim community that
    Prophet Muhammad
    r built blossomed into a group of people who cooperated with
    people of other religions, with whom they lived in the same society of Al-Madinah,
    and fought with against whoever tried to destabilize their community.

    Mutual cooperation in worldly affairs
    encompassed all citizens of Al-Madinah, who shared a common destiny,
    neighborhood, and sometimes kinship, and extended to include economic and commercial
    fields, thus promoting
    tolerance, understanding, mutual respect, and peaceful coexistence within their society.3

    Presidency

    For ten years, Prophet Muhammad r was not only the leader of the emerging Muslim
    Ummah in Arabia, but also the political head
    of Al-Madinah.

    As the leader of Al-Madinah, Prophet Muhammad r exercised jurisdiction
    over Muslims and non-Muslims within the city.

    The legitimacy of his rule over Al-Madinah was based on his
    status as the Prophet of Islam r and on the basis of the
    Covenant of Al-Madinah.

    As the Prophet of Allah r
    he held sovereignty over all Muslims by Divine Decree, so profoundly manifest
    in the statement of the Testimony of Faith: There is no god but Allah
    and Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah
    .

    But Prophet Muhammad r
    did not rule over the non-Muslims of Al-Madinah because he was the Messenger of
    Allah. They did not recognize this particular credential of his.

    He r ruled over them by
    virtue of the tripartite covenant that was signed by the Muhajirun
    (Muslim emigrants from Makkah), the Ansar (indigenous Muslims of
    Al-Madinah), and the Jews. Thus, the Jews were constitutional partners in the
    making of the first Islamic state.

    In simple terms, the first Islamic state
    established in Al-Madinah was based on a social contract, constitutional in
    character, and the ruler ruled with the explicit written consent of all the
    citizens of the state.
    4


    1 The First Written Constitution in the World, Sh.
    Muhammad Ashraf, Lahore,
    1968. First published in England,
    1941.

    2 Translated meanings of Al-‘Imran 3: 159

    3 Details of the Constitution of Al-Madinah
    are adapted from content excerpted from: Kassim Ahmad, A Short Note on the
    Medina Charter
    ; Professor M. Hamidullah, The First Written
    Constitution
    ; Zuleyha Keskin, Fear and Fascination: The Other in
    Religion
    ; European Council for Fatwa and Research, Elections in
    non-Muslim Countries: Role of Muslims. Islamonline.net
    .

    4 Adapted from content excerpted from M. A. Muqtedar Khan,
    The Compact of Medina: A Constitutional Theory of the Islamic State.

     

     

     

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