Highlights On the meaning of Al-Fatiha


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  • Highlights On the meaning of Al-Fatiha


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    Interpretation of the Qur'an (Tafsir):

    To interpret the Qur'an, from an Islamic point of view, is to try to
    understand its meanings so as to follow Allah's instructions and avoid His
    prohibitions. However, we should put in mind that we will never come to a full understanding
    of the Qur'an for it is intended to be an everlasting miracle which reveals
    some of its secrets every now and then.

    In his detailed book on the interpretation of Sura Al-Fatiha, Ahmed Ibn
    Ajiba points out that the first interpreter of the Qur'an is the Prophet
    Muhammad himself many of the prophet's sayings interpret verses in the Qur'an.
    It is also said that the first interpreter of the Qur'an is Ibn Abbas. He is
    the first to write on the subject. Most of the later interpreters quote from
    his interpretation. It is also said that Ali Ibn Abi Talib, the prophet's cousin
    is the first interpreter of the Qur'an. Ibn Abbas himself said: 'I learned the
    interpretation of the Qur'an
    from Ali'.

    An interpreter of the Qur'an should have good knowledge of the Arabic
    language, history, sayings of the Prophet, Jurisprudence and other subjects as
    well. Muslims are requested to be acquainted with this field of knowledge. It
    is esteemed as a great subject because it deals with the greatest of books, the
    Qur'an. It aims at knowing the wisdom and the rules put by Allah for the good and
    happiness of humanity.

    Some interpreters of the Qur'an approach its words lexically. They try
    to understand the literal meaning of its words. Others try to understand the
    implications of the Qur'an. Some other interpreters try to give reasons for the
    revelation of specific verses in the Qur'an. The three categories of
    interpreters actually help in understanding the Our'an.

    The expansion of lslam both east and west since the second decade of its
    appearance made it necessary for Muslims to interpret the Qur'an for non-Arabs.
    One of the oldest interpretations of the Qur'an is the one written by Rafie
    Maliran Er-Riahi (died 90 After the Prophet's Higra.), Mujaliid Ibn Jabr (died
    101 A.H.) Ataa Ibn Abi Rabah (died 114 A. H.). (Shihata 6). Professor Abdallah Shihata
    categorizes the early interpreters of the Qur'an into three schools:

    1) Meccans, followers of Abd-Ullah Ibn Abbas.

    2) Kufi (in Iraq), followers of Abd-Ullah Ibn Masoud.

    3) Medinians, followers of Zayd Ibn Aslain.

     

    The most important interpreters of the Qur'an in the next generations
    include:

    1) Muqatil Ibn Sulayinan Al-Balkhi (died 150 A. H.)

    2) Sufyan Ath-thawri (died 161 A. H.)

    3) Wakieh son of Al-Garrah (died 197 A. H.)

    4) Abdel-Razzaq Ibn Hammam As-Sanaani (died 207 A. H.)

    Some of these early interpretations of the Qur'an are lost, but they are
    made use of by the famous Muhammad Ibn Garir At-Tabari (died 310 A. H.) in his
    famous and highly regarded interpretation of the Qur'an, which is so common
    nowadays.

    Based on another criterion, interpreters of the Qur'an can be classified
    into two main groups. The first is that which bases its interpretation of the
    Qur'an on texts either of the Qur'an itself or of the sayings of the Prophet Muhammad
    and his companions. At-Tabari, Saiid Ibn Al- Musayab, Salim Ibn Abdullah belong
    to this group of interpreters. The other group of interpreters thought that it
    is possible to interpret the Qur'an on the basis of their own knowledge and
    logic. Shihata points out that the gap between the two groups of interpreters
    is not very big. An interpreter is supposed to make use of the texts when available.
    But when no textual evidence is available, an interpreter is supposed to use
    his own knowledge, mind and logic to understand the meaning of the verse. (7)

    The following suras of the Qur'an were revealed to the prophet Muhammad
    in Mecca in the following chronological order:

    1) Al-Alaq

    2) Nun

    3) Al-Muz-Zammil

    4) Al-Mud-Dathir

    5) Al-Masad

    6) At-Takwir

    7) Al-Aalaa

    8) Al-Lail

    9) Al-Fajr

    10) Ad-Duha

    11) Ash-Sharh

    12) Al-Asr

    13) Al-Aadiat

    14) Al-Kawthar

    15) Al-Takathur

    16) Al-Maaoun

    17) Al-Kafirun

    18) Al-Fiyl

    19) Al-Falaq

    20) AN-Nas

    21) Al-Ekhl.21s

    22) An-Nagm

    23) Aabasa

    24) Al-Quadr

    25) Ash-Shams

    26) Al-Bumuj

    27) At-Tiyn

    28) Quraish

    29) Al-Quahaa

    30) Al-Qiyama

    31) Al-Humaza

    32) Al-Mursalat

    33) Qaaf

    34) Al-Balad

    35) At-Tariq

    36) Al-Qamar

    37) Saad

    38) Al-Aaraaf

    39) Al-Jinn

    40) Yasin

    41) Al-Furquau

    42) Fatir

    43) Mariam

    44) Taba

    45) Al-Waqiaa

    46) Ash-Shu'araa

    47) An-Naml

    48) Al-Quassas

    49) Al-Israa

    50) Yunus

    51) Hud

    52) Yusuf

    53) Al-Hijr

    54) Al-Anaam

    55) Ass-Saffat

    56) Luqman

    57) Sabaa

    58) Az-Zumur

    59) Ghafir

    60) Fussilat

    61) Ash-Shura

    62) Az-Zukhruf

    63) Ad-Dukhan

    64) Al-Jathiya

    65) Al-Ahquaf

    66) Az-Zariat

    67) Al-Ghashiya

    68) Al-Kahf

    69) AN-Nahl

    70) Noah

    71) Ibrahim

    72) Al-Anbiyaa

    73) Al-Muominun

    74) As-Sajda

    75) At-Tur

    76) Al-Mulk

    77) Al-Haqqa

    78) Al-Maarij

    79 ) An-Nabaa

    80) An-Naziaat

    81) Al-Inftar

    82) Al-Inshiquaq

    83) Ar-Rum

    84) Al-Ankabout

    85) Al-Mutatffifin

     

    Sum 96

    68

    73

    74

    111

    81

    87

    92

    89

    93

    94

    17

    100

    108

    102

    107

    109

    105

    103

    104

    112

    53

    80

    97

    91

    85

    95

    106

    101

    75

    104

    77

    50

    90

    86

    54

    38

    7

    72

    36

    25

    35

    19

    20

    56

    26

    27

    28

    17

    10

    11

    12

    15

    6

    37

    31

    34

    39

    40

    37

    42

    43

    44

    45

    46

    51

    88

    18

    16

    71

    14

    21

    23

    32

    52

    67

    68

    70

    78

    79

    82

    84

    30

    29

    83

     

     

     

     

     

    The following suras were revealed to the prophet Muhammad in Medina in
    the following chronological order;

    l) Al-Baquara

    2) A1-Anfal

    3) Al-Imran

    4) Al-Ahzab

    5) Al-Mumtahana

    6) An-Nisaa

    7) Az-Zalzala

    8) Al-Hadid

    9) Muhammad

    10) Ar-Raad

    11) Ar-Rahman

    12) Al-Insan

    13) At-Talaq

    14) Al-Bayyina

    15) Al-Hashr

    16) An-Nasr

    17) An-Nour

    18) Al-Hajj

    19) Al-Munafiqun

    20) Al-Mujadala

    21) Al-Hujurat

    22) At-Tahriem

    23) Al-]umu`ah

    24) At-Taghabun

    25) As-Saff

    26) Al-Fat'h

    27) At-Tawbah

    28) Al-Ma'ida

    2

    8

    3

    33

    60

    4

    99

    57

    47

    13

    55

    76

    65

    98

    59

    110

    24

    22

    63

    58

    49

    66

    62

    64

    61

    48

    9

    5

     

     

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