Muslim's Character

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  • Muslim's Character

  • CHAPTER 12


    Recognition of Greatness

    What would be a better way of giving comfort to hearts, of removing sorrow and of providing coolness to the eyes than that man should live the life with a healthy and peaceful heart. His bosom should be free from the disturbances of rancour, jealousy and ill feelings for others. He should be glad to see others enjoying the comforts of life, and should consider it as a favor of Allah and think that all slaves are dependent on Him. He should remember the saying of the Messenger of Allah: "O Allah ! The gifts that you have bestowed on me or on any other creatures, it is only on account of your favour, in which none is associated with You. All praises and all thanks are for You." (Abu Daud) And when a man should find some other person in difficulty, and sorrowful, he should sympathies with him, and pray to Allah to remove his difficulties and to pardon his sins, and he should remember that prayer which the Prophet had made to God: "O Allah! If you are the Forgiver, then forgive the sins of all creatures. And no slave of Yours should be in difficulty." A Muslim should live in such a way that he should be a sympathizer of the people and a sharer of the woes of humanity. He should be content and thankful for his life and should be happy with whatever Allah has given him. His self should be free from the feelings of jealousy and rancour. The corruption of heart from rancour and jealousy is a fatal disease, from such a heart faith disappears immediately, like the liquid that flows down from the hole in its container. Islam pays special attention to heart, for a black heart tarnishes righteous acts, it disfigures its attractiveness, and it stains and mars its brightness. And if the heart is glowing, then Allah bestows prosperity even on a small act of righteousness, and towards it every good rushes speedily and makes its place in it (heart). Abdullah bin A'mar narrates:  "The Messenger of Allah was asked as to what people were great (in virtue). The Prophet replied: 'One whose heart is neat and clean, and whose tongue is truthful.' He was told: 'We are aware of the truthful tongue but what is the meaning of neat and clean heart.' He replied: 'One that fears God, is free from evils, there is no sin in it, neither insubordination, jealousy nor rancour'." (Ibn Majah) Therefore, in reality the Muslim society truly is that which is based on mutual love, friendship, brotherhood, the feeling for mutual cooperation and straight dealings. There is no room for an ungrateful person in that society, no place for a person nursing jealousy and rancour in his bosom; on the contrary his condition should be like this: “And those who came after them say:. 'Our Lord I Forgive us, and our brethren who came before us into the Faith ,and leave not in our hearts rancour (or some injury), against those who have believed Our Lord I You are indeed full of Kindness, Most Merciful'." (Hashr.. 10)

    Keep away from Mutual Enmity

    When the quarrel intensifies and its roots go deeper, and its thorns become branches and branches increase in number, then the freshness of the fruits of faith is adversely affected. Softness, sympathy, satisfaction and peace which are encouraged by the Islamic teachings receive a setback. Performance of worship loses its righteousness, nor does the self get any benefit from it. Many times the mutual quarrels perturb the persons who claim to be wise. In this they take a recourse to the lowly and superficial things, and sometimes indulge in such dangerous acts which only increase difficulties and bring troubles. When a man is displeased, his eyes become prejudiced and ignore the camel and object to gnat. Such eyes do not appreciate the beauty of the peacock, for they only see its ugly feet and claws. If a slight defect is present, it turns the molehill into a mountain. And sometimes the internal rancour and jealousy affect them so badly that no hesitation is felt in inventing imaginary stories. Islam disapproves of all these manifestations of ill-feeling and advises to abstain from them. It declares their avoidance as the most virtuous form or worship. The Prophet has said: "Listen, may I not tell you something more important than salat, fasting and charity.” The people requested him to do so. He said: "To keep the mutual relationship on the right footing, because the defect in the mutual relationship is a thing which shaves a thing clean, I do not mean that it shaves the hair, but that it shaves (removes) the religion." (Tirmizi) Many times Satan is not able to persuade wise men to worship idols, but since he is very keen on misguiding and ruining men, he manages to succeed in driving them away from God, so much so that these wise men become more indifferent in respecting the rights of God than the idolaters themselves. The best method adopted by the devil for this purpose is to sow the seeds of enmity in the hearts of the people. When this enmity develops into a fire and open hostilities result, he enjoys the scene. This fire burns man's present and future into ashes and totally destroys their relationship and virtues. The Messenger of Allah has said: "The Satan has been disappointed that he would not be worshipped in the Island of Arabia, but he has not been disappointed from kindling the fire of fighting among the people." (Muslim) It means that when wickedness takes roots in the hearts, and people start hating love and brotherhood and when these are destroyed, people revert to cruelty and enmity, and break all those relations and connections for joining which Allah has given command; and thus they spread corruption on this earth.

    Do Dot Sever Relations

    Islam is fully alert in respect of the destructive causes of aggression and excesses, and tries to remedy them before they may go beyond the limit. It is common knowledge that men differ from one another in their nature and temperament. If their mutual contact does not result in clashes and estrangement, then inevitably there will appear narrowness and perturbation. For this reason Islam has formulated such principles as may keep the Muslims away from disruption and mischief, and as may generate in their hearts the feelings of love and friendship. For this purpose Islam has forbidden  its followers from severing relations and mutual enmity. In human life it so happens if the slightest excess is experienced from some other persons, then it gives us pain, and immediately we sever our relations. But Allah does not like that the mutual relationship among Muslims should be subjected to such adverse consequences. Allah's Messenger has said: "Do not sever relation. Do not indulge in mutual enmity. Do not entertain rancour and jealousy against one another, and do not be jealous of others. Be brethren among yourselves and become Allah's slaves It is not permissible for a man to have severed his relations with any of his brethren for more than three days." (Bukhari) In another tradition it is mentioned: "It is not permissible for a Momin to have no connection with another Momin for more than three days. After three days have elapsed and he happens to meet him, he should salute him. If he answers the salute, then both will share the rewards (Ajr), and if the other person does not answer the salute, the sin will be on him, and the Muslim will be innocent of the sin of severing relations." (Abu Daud) In this hadith the period of three days is kept so that during this period the intensity of anger will be reduced and his wrath will be cooled. After this it will be the responsibility of every Muslim to restore his relationship with his brethren and to revert to his old routine, as if the severing of relation was a cloud that had gathered due to some causes, till the wind blew and drew away the cloud and cleared the atmosphere. In every dispute or quarrel, a man is necessarily in one or the other condition, he is either an oppressor or the oppressed. If he is an oppressor, he has usurped the rights of others, and then he should give up this wrong policy and should reform his character. He should understand that his opponent could abandon his hostility and rancour towards him only when he takes a satisfying and pleasant step in this regard. In such a condition Islam has commanded that he should request his opponent to come to a peaceful settlement and he should please him. The Prophet has said:  "He who has harmed his brother's rights or has hurt his honor, then he should please him today, before the day comes when there will be neither dirham nor dinar with him. If he would have virtues, then they would be taken in proportion to the aggression that he had committed. If there would be no virtues in his record, then the evil deeds of the oppressed would be thrust into his (oppressor's) account." (Bukhari) This is Islam's advice for the oppressors, but those who are the oppressed and whose rights have been harmed for them the advice of Islam is that when the oppressor may ask for their pardon and may seek his Lord's forgiveness, then he should pardon him and should show softness. In such circumstances, to reject the re- quest for pardon is a great sin. It is mentioned in the tradition: “A Muslim brother apologizes to another Muslim, and the latter does not accept his apology, then on him will be the same sin as is on the person who collects a tax which is not due' (Ibn Maja) "If a person pleads his innocence to the other, and the other one rejects it, then he will not be brought to the water tank." (Tibrani) By this clear guidance for the two opposing parties, Islam fights rancour and hatred, and destroys its germs at the outset. In this way it brings the Muslim society on the high level of a life full of love, friendship and Justice. Islam considers it a meanness of the human nature and lowliness that the hatred should take roots in the; hearts and may not come out, but continue to burn in. side like a volcano. Those who nurse rancour and hatred against others in their hearts are always in search of opportunities to vent their inner hatred. They feel satisfied only when they shout in anger at the top of their voices and indulge in abuses. They hurt the feelings of others and spread corrupt and mischief on the earth. It is narrated by Ibn Abbas: "Allah's Messenger has said: May I not show you the sign of the wicked people ?” The people said: "If you are pleased, you may tell us." He said: "The most wicked person among you is he who keeps himself aloof, is harsh on his slave, and does not give any gifts to others. May I not tell you of another person more wicked than this ?” The people said: Definitely, O Messenger of Allah ! If you are pleased." He said: "He who has rancour against the people and the people have rancor against him." Then he asked: "May I not tell you of a more wicked person than this ?" The people said: 'Definitely, O Messenger of Allah ! If you are pleased." He said: "He who does not pardon the errors of others, does not accept their apologies, and does not forgive their crime." Again he asked: "May I not tell you of a more wicked person than this ?" The people said: "Definitely, O Messenger of Allah! If you are pleased." He said: "He from whom no good may be expected, and from whose wickedness there may not be security." (Tibrani) The wicked tendencies covered by this hadith are the different stages of rancour and hatred, which occur in proportion to the defect and disease. This is not a strange thing, because from the olden times the people knew about them. Even in the pre-Islam days (Jahiliyah) rancour was considered to be the lowest stage of the wicked conduct, and decent people always avoided it. A poet of that period, Antara says: "People of high position do not have rancour in their heart, One who has anger in his nature cannot reach high position,"

    Rancour and Jealousy Source of Evils

    There are many evils in the society about which Islam has warned. If we think seriously, it will not be difficult to find out their source. In spite of all these evils having different shapes and forms, they revolve round only one basic disease, and that is rancour and enmity, False accusation of innocent people is a crime, the real cause of which is ill-feeling and hatred. Since it is extremely effective in mutilating the realities and to condemn the innocent persons, Islam has declared it to be the worst kind of falsehood. Hazrat Ayesha narrates that Allah's Messenger asked his companions: "Do you know what is the worst aggression ?" They said: ,. Allah and His Messenger know it better." He said: "Before Allah the worst aggression is to make halal (permissible) for oneself the honour of another Muslim." Then he recited the following verse of the Quran : "Those who have caused pain to the Momin men and Momin women without any fault of theirs, surely they have earned the (consequences of) false accusation and open sin."  (AI-Ahzab) Undoubtedly the tendency to unnecessarily search out defects in other people and to foist it on them is the proof of meanness and wickedness. For being guilty of falsely accusing any person, Islam has decreed punishment in this world also, and it is difficult to imagine the punishment that the perpetrator of this sin will receive in the next world. Allah's Messenger has said: "He who, in order to find fault, says something about a person which was not there, Allah will throw such a man in hell till he tastes fully what he had fabricated." (Tibrani) In another tradition it is mentioned: "If a man spreads a rumor about another person of which he was innocent in order to bring him into disrepute, then it is Allah's task to melt him in fire on the Doomsday till he gets the full taste."

    Abstain from Backbiting

    The meaning of the cleanness and purity of the bosom is this that if a man does not work for the good of others, then at least he should wish well of others. But if a man who does not see any defects in others, and yet he accuses them of those defects and tries to entangle them in baseless charges, such a man is a liar, a deceiver and shameless. Allah has said: "Those who want that obscenity may spread in  the group of those who believe, for them there is very severe punishment in this world and in the next world. Allah knows and you do not know." (Noor: 19) This is a great favor of Allah on His slaves that He approves of covering the defects of the creatures, even if those defects are present. And it is not permissible for a Muslim that he should feel pleased by condemning another Muslim, even if his condemnation may be correct, because men of healthy mentality feel pain when they see others in pain, and they wish for their recovery and welfare. As regards having pleasure from the disgrace suffered by others, from relating others' defects, and from uncovering their evils, this cannot be the course of action of a true Muslim. Because of this Islam has declared backbiting as horam (forbidden), for in this the latent rancour gets a chance to come out and man is deprived of grace and blessing. Abu Huraira has narrated that Allah's Messenger has said:  "Do you know what is backbiting ?" The people said: "Allah and His Messenger know better." He said: "You remember your brother in a way that may be disliked by him." He was asked: "If my brother has the defect which I am relating, then is that also backbiting ?"  He replied: "If that defect is in him, then it is backbiting; and if the defect stated by you is not in him, then it is a false accusation." (Muslim) The etiquette and principles formulated by Islam for the security of friendships and for a safeguard against divisive tendencies includes the forbidding of telling tale (backbiting), because it creates ill-feeling among friends, and it destroys the cleanness of the hearts. The Prophet used to restrain his companions from saying things which could hurt the feelings of others. He has said: "None of you should convey to me any hurtful thing about my companions, for I want that as long as I may come to you my bosom should be clean in respect of everyone of you." (Abu Daud) If some one hears a wrong thing about some other person, then he should not widen the hole of the torn cloth by putting his finger in it. Many evil gossips die their own death, if they are left to themselves, and many statements give rise to wars, because large numbers copy them and encourage them. They are like sparks which fly carrying destruction with them. Allah's Messenger has said: "No tell-tale can enter Paradise." (Bukhari) In another tradition, the word "Qattat" has been used. Ulema say that 'Qattat' and 'Nammam' have the same meaning. But there is also a contention that Nammam is one who hears some people talking and then goes on quoting them, and Qattat is one who eavesdrop other people talking and then goes on quoting them here and there. In the hadith it is stated:  "Telling tales and rancour will go to hell. These two things cannot gather in the heart of a Muslim." (Tibrani) The essential outcome of enmity and rancour is that man should be under a wrong impression, should be in search of defects of his adversary, should grieve internally on seeing others in good position and well-placed.Islam has severely disapproved of all these things. The Prophet says: "Anyone who knows about the defect of his another Muslim brother and he has concealed it, then Allah will cover (his defects) on the Day of Judgment." (Tibrani) In another tradition, it is said: "He who has veiled the defect of a Momin, he has acted as if he, has revived a girl placed in a grave." (Tibrani) The majority of persons who are always in search of the defects of others commit more abominable crimes than those committed by the professional criminals. The hearts of such people are miles away from their Lord. To be in search of a crime in order to give it publicity is more reprehensible than actually committing that crime. What a great difference is there between these two feelings and attitudes? One feeling is that there is consideration against the things forbidden by Allah and concern for safeguarding it, while on the other side there is rancour against Allah's slaves and wish and desire to disgrace them. The first feeling may even reach the limit, but it is not so bad as the second feeling, which secures pleasure and satisfaction from the ruin of the fellow-creatures- it waits for their faltering, and laughs in their adversities.

    Keep away from Rancour

    The safety of a Muslim's bosom and its purity is such a good gift that does not allow to attach his life to his fate or fortune or his sensibilities to the people, because many times he fails to achieve something, when others succeed. Sometimes he remains among the 'also ran' in the race of life, and others go ahead. But this would be a very mean and uncivilized thing if a man is overcome by the feeling of selfishness and wishes others to sustain loss and setbacks only because he himself has not been able to forge ahead and derive benefits. Then a Muslim must be broad-minded, a benefactor of humanity and a sympathizer of the people. He should look at all things from the viewpoint of public good. He should not keep his own selfish gain in view. Generally people entertain the feelings of rancour and enmity because they see that their wishes and desires are not being satisfied, while others arc having more than their share of the spoils. This is the trouble which does not allow them to rest awhile. In the ancient times, the Devil had seen that the rank and position which he himself wanted had gone to the share of Adam; therefore, he decided that he would not allow Adam to enjoy these blessings: "Because You have thrown me out of the way, I will lie in wait for them on the straight way;(17) then will I  assault them from before them and behind them, from their right and their left, nor will you find in most of them gratitude (for your mercies)." (A'raf: 16-17) This Satanic tendency develops in the nature of the spiteful people and destroys their hearts. Islam has severely warned people to keep away from this forbidden tendency, and to give place to tranquility and satisfaction in life. Anas bin Malik narrates that we were sitting with the Prophet when he said:  "Just now a man of Paradise is coming to you." Immediately a man from Ansar  came there. His beard looked disheveled from the water of ablutions (Wuzu), and he was carrying in his left hand his shoes. On the second day also the Prophet repeated the same words, and the same man again appeared before them, in the same condition. On the third also the Prophet repeated the same thing and the man of Ansar again appeared in the same condition. When the Prophet stood up, Abdullah bin A'mar went after that man, and said to him: "I have had a quarrel with my father, and I have sworn not to go to my house for three days. If you give me shelter, it would be most desirable." He said: "It is all right," Anas says that Abdullah bin A'mar says that he spent three nights in the company of that man, but he did not find him praying in the night, but whenever he went to bed, he used to remember Allah till he used to get up for the prayer of the morning. But Abdullah bin A'mar says that he did not hear anything from his mouth except words of goodness. Abdullah says: "When three nights passed and in my eyes his conduct did not hold any importance, I told that man: 'O slave of God! I have neither quarreled with my father, nor have I severed relation with him. The fact is that I have heard the Prophet of Allah saying that a man of Paradise is coming before us, three times, and you appeared before us. Then I desired to stay with you and to see what act of yours is that - so that I may follow the same, but I did not see you doing any extraordinary work, What is the reason that the Messenger of Allah has said such a nice thing about you? He replied: "The reality is what you have seen." When I was returning he called me and said: "The reality is the same that has been witnessed by you; however, I do not keep any spite against any of my Muslim brethren, and if Allah has blessed someone with any good thing, I am not jealous of him. Abdullah bin A'mar said: "This quality of yours must have reached the Prophet of Allah." (Ahmed) In another narration the words of the hadith are as follows: "The thing that you have seen is correct. O my nephew ! I do not pass a night keeping spite against a Muslim." (Bazzar)

    Do not go near Jealousy

    Islam has declared jealousy as haram (forbidden). Allah has commanded his Messenger to seek shelter from the mischief of jealous people, because jealousy is a spark that burns inside the bosom and hurts the jealous person as well as others. The man who wishes that the good things of life should be destroyed; he becomes a source of trouble for the society. His conscience is not satisfied with anything, Allah's Messenger has said: "in the stomach of a man, the dust flying in the path of Allah and the flames of hell cannot be together, nor can the faith and jealousy dwell together in the stomach of a man," (Baihaqui) In another tradition it is mentioned:  "Keep away from jealousy, for jealousy eats up virtues in the same way as fire eats up wood." (Abu Daud) The person who hates the rewarded person or the one deserving Allah's favors and wishes that they should have been deprived of those things, for such a man there are a number of causes which repel him from the realities of life. The first cause is that he is imprisoned by the world and the lure of the wealth of the world. He fights for it, and he sheds tears for not achieving his material goal, and he entertains feeling of jealousy against those who are successful in this world. He is angry with them. This is a great misunderstanding about comprehending both the worlds; and the fact is that he has completely ignored the next world and has closed his eyes from the necessity of making preparations for that world. This negligence on his part has resulted in his reaching  this condition. It is necessary that every man should  prepare for the next world, and should be sorry for losing opportunities to do so. "0 mankind! there has come to you a direction from your Lord and a healing for the (diseases) in your hearts, and for those who believe, a guidance and a mercy. Say:  'In the bounty of Allah, and In His mercy,-in that let them rejoice,.' that is better than the (wealth) they hoard."  {Yunus.. 57-58} The man who is jealous is weak of determination, helpless, forgetful of his Lord, and unaware of his Lord's principles operative in this world. For this reason, when he fails to achieve something, he conspires and schemes against the successful people. As an. Arabic poet says: "People became jealous of the young man because they could not reach up to his successes. So every one appears to be his enemy and opponent." The proper thing for him was to turn to his Lord, to seek His favors because his treasures are not limited to or reserved for any single person. After this he should again strive for his objective. It is quite likely that what he could not achieve in his first attempt could be available in the second. Undoubtedly this is much more desirable than nursing spite and rancour in his bosom. There is a very big difference between jealousy and high ambition, in jealousy and desire and envy, in jealousy and not desiring any deviation in straight dealing, and in charity and in expressing displeasure against contamination. It is obvious that these two things cannot be placed together. Ambition is the name of the desire for reaching the high pinnacle and of achieving it, and this is the quality of Allah's faithful slaves. Hazrat Sulaiman prayed to his Lord thus: "My Lord ! Forgive me and bestow on me sovereignty such as shall not belong to any after me. Surely, You are the Bestower." (Sad: 36) A quality of the slaves of the Most Gracious that has been mentioned is that they pray to their Lord thus: "Our Lord ! Vouchsafe us comfort of our wives and of our offspring, and make us patterns (leaders) of the righteous." (Furquan: 74) To achieve Allah's blessings it is necessary to strive for it and primarily to have a sincere desire for it. To grieve internally over another person's. achieving His blessings is an abominable tendency. There is a great difference between these two. Envy is the name of the desire to have those gifts which Allah has bestowed on others. But since nursing such a desire and envy can also open the gateways of mischief, can encourage the inclination towards wrong desires, and can also incite for achieving that which is apparently beneficial but in the ultimate analysis harmful. Islam has, therefore, fixed the norms for the things for which a man can have desire and for which competition  is permissible. Allah's Messenger has said: "Excepting two things, in no other thing jealousy is permissible: One-it is permissible to be jealous of the man who has  been given wealth by Allah and who is spending it in the cause of truth unhesitatingly, and second, that man  whom Allah has blessed with wisdom, in whose light he a1 takes decisions and imparts education in it to others." The sense in which the word jealousy has been used in the hadith does not include the desire for bringing to in an end the blessing or the favour, but it means the  efforts to achieve that blessing and having envy for that  blessing has been termed as jealousy. The idea is that the thing which a man should make his objective should be great and magnificent. It is lack of ambition or courage that a man should desire for  small things, and should entertain expectations from them. There are many things which do not yield anything but distress and sorrow, and the spite against other people is generated because they think in an unhealthy hat manner as to way other people have achieved those things from which they are deprived. About such things Allah says: "In no wise covet those things in which Allah has bestowed His gifts more freely on some of you than on others, to men is allotted what they earn. And to women what they earn;  but ask Allah of His bounty; for Allah has full knowledge of all things." (Nissa.. 32) As regards disliking the untaught dealing in general conditions and matters, this is the rightful demand of justice and assertion. It has nothing to do with despicable jealousy. If we feel angry that some person has earned a lot of benefits from a little labor, or has obtained a high ranking position, then such an anger is understandable and praiseworthy. This is a kind of public welfare which has nothing to do with jealousy. Islam has been hearing and watching individuals at intervals, so that it may clean them of the impurities of spite and enmity, and may nourish in the hearts of the general people clean and pure feelings for their good, and for itself also. Every day, every week and every year arrangements are made for the cleaning of the individuals, so that their dirt and filth may be removed, defects may be done away with, and even the slightest trace of spite and rancor may not be found in the faithful heart. About the daily Farz salat (compulsory prayer) it has been clarified that its reward will not be given to a Muslim unless his heart is not found free from ill will against others, and is not bereft of all disputes, quarrel enmity and rancor against the people. Allah's Messenger has said: "There are three persons whose prayer does not rise even a fist above their heads. One is that man who leads the prayers of others who do not like it. Second is that woman who spends her night in such a way that her husband is displeased with her. And third are those two brothers who have severed their relations with each other." (Ibn Maja) Every week the acts of Muslims are evaluated. Allah sees every week what a Muslim has collected for the next world, and what feelings are hidden in his heart. If his bosom is free from spite and rancor, then he is saved from destruction, and if it is filled with the feeling of displeasure, jealousy and ill will then he remains backward in the field of action. Allah's Messenger has said:  "Every Monday and Thursday men's acts are placed before Allah. On these days Allah forgives the sins of everybody, except the polytheists. However, if there is a person who has spite and rancor against his brother, He says about them: “Leave these two alone in their condition till they come to a settlement." (Muslim) It is not correct for a Muslim that the days an nights may pass off and he should be shackled for the whole year in the chains of enmity and spite, and tied with the handcuffs of rancor and ill-will. Allah grant gifts to those who are sincere and broad-minded. In the hadith it is mentioned: “In the night of the 15th of Sha'ban, Allah acquaints himself of the conditions of His slaves. So He forgives those who seek His pardon, bestows mercy on those seeking mercy, and leaves the spiteful people alone." (Baihaqui) Even after this much cleansing if a man leaves this world carrying the dirt and filth of spite, rancor and jealousy, then he deserves to be burnt in the fire of hell. The man whose cleansing has not been possible by the , Shariah, the fire of hell will reach him and it will not be helpless in burning his sins and his enmity. Spite and jealousy and the diseases which were created by them have been condemned by Islam, and they  have developed and progressed because man is a prisoner of the world and the desires to achieve it, and the longing to enjoy the pleasures and luxuries of life to the utmost keep him in trouble. But if some one is hated for Allah, if a man gets angry in the cause of truth, or if tumultuous enthusiasm and liking is displayed to achieve righteousness and virtue, then this is quite a different matter. It is no sin for a Muslim if he severs his relation till the end of his life with such persons as disobey the commands of Allah, or who cross the limits of Shariah. If he hates such persons or declares his enmity towards them, then he cannot be blamed for that; on the contrary it is a sign of his perfect faith, selflessness and sincerity. Allah has commanded us that we should keep away from His enemies, even if they may be our relatives: "0 you who believe! Choose not your fathers nor your brethren for friends if they take pleasure in disbelief rather than faith. Whosoever of you takes them for friends, such are wrongdoers." One whose company is bad, who has the habits  meanness and of talking glibly and endlessly, to keep away from such a one is necessary. And one who has committed a wrong against Allah to punish such a one there is nothing wrong if that on is boycotted for a fixed period, because the Prophet had severed his relation with some of his wives for a period of forty days and Abdullah bin Umar did not have an relation with one of his sons till his death, because he had rejected one command of the Messenger of Allah. His father, Abdullah bin Umar narrated a hadith' which women were allowed to go to the mosques, but his son had rejected this hadith.
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