Women In Islam versus Judaeo-Christian Tradition The Myth & The Reality


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  • Women In Islam versus Judaeo-Christian Tradition The Myth & The Reality



  • Notes

    1.The Globe and Mail, Oct. 4,1994.
    2.Leonard J. Swidler, Women in Judaism: the Status of Women in
    Formative Judaism (Metuchen, N.J: Scarecrow Press, 1976) p. 115.
    3.Thena Kendath, "Memories of an Orthodox youth" in Susannah Heschel,
    ed. On being a Jewish Feminist (New York: Schocken Books, 1983), pp.
    96-97.
    4.Swidler, op. cit., pp. 80-81.
    5.Rosemary R. Ruether, "Christianity", in Arvind Sharma, ed., Women in
    World Religions (Albany: State University of New York Press, 1987) p.
    209.
    6.For all the sayings of the prominent Saints, see Karen Armstrong, The
    Gospel According to Woman (London: Elm Tree Books, 1986) pp. 52-62. See
    also Nancy van Vuuren, The Subversion of Women as Practiced by
    Churches, Witch-Hunters, and Other Sexists (Philadelphia: Westminister
    Press) pp. 28-30.
    7.Swidler, op. cit., p. 140.
    8.Denise L. Carmody, "Judaism", in Arvind Sharma, ed., op. cit., p.
    197.
    9.Swidler, op. cit., p. 137.
    10.Ibid., p. 138.
    11.Sally Priesand, Judaism and the New Woman (New York: Behrman
    House,    Inc., 1975) p. 24.
    12.Swidler, op. cit., p. 115.
    13.Lesley Hazleton, Israeli Women The Reality Behind the Myths (New
    York: Simon and Schuster, 1977) p. 41.
    14.Gage, op. cit. p. 142.
    15.Jeffrey H. Togay, "Adultery," Encyclopaedia Judaica, Vol. II, col.
    313. Also, see Judith Plaskow, Standing Again at Sinai: Judaism from a
    Feminist Perspective (New York: Harper & Row Publishers, 1990) pp.
    170-177.
    16.Hazleton, op. cit., pp. 41-42.
    17.Swidler, op. cit., p. 141.
    18.Matilda J. Gage, Woman, Church, and State (New York: Truth Seeker
    Company, 1893) p. 141.
    19.Louis M. Epstein, The Jewish Marriage Contract (New York: Arno
    Press, 1973) p. 149.
    20.Swidler, op. cit., p. 142.
    21.Epstein, op. cit., pp. 164-165.
    22.Ibid., pp. 112-113. See also Priesand, op. cit., p. 15.
    23.James A. Brundage, Law, Sex, and Christian Society in Medieval
    Europe ( Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1987) p. 88.
    24.Ibid., p. 480.
    25.R. Thompson, Women in Stuart England and America (London: Routledge
    & Kegan Paul, 1974) p. 162.
    26.Mary Murray, The Law of the Father (London: Routledge, 1995) p. 67.
    27.Gage, op. cit., p. 143.
    28.For example, see Jeffrey Lang, Struggling to Surrender, (Beltsville,
    MD: Amana Publications, 1994) p. 167.
    29.Elsayyed Sabiq, Fiqh al Sunnah (Cairo: Darul Fatah lile'lam
    Al-Arabi, 11th edition, 1994), vol. 2, pp. 218-229.
    30.Abdel-Haleem Abu Shuqqa, Tahreer al Mar'aa fi Asr al Risala (Kuwait:
    Dar al Qalam, 1990) pp. 109-112.
    31.Leila Badawi, "Islam", in Jean Holm and John Bowker, ed., Women in
    Religion (London: Pinter Publishers, 1994) p. 102.
    32.Amir H. Siddiqi, Studies in Islamic History (Karachi: Jamiyatul
    Falah Publications, 3rd edition, 1967) p. 138.
    33.Epstein, op. cit., p. 196.
    34.Swidler, op. cit., pp. 162-163.
    35.The Toronto Star, Apr. 8, 1995.
    36.Sabiq, op. cit., pp. 318-329. See also Muhammad al Ghazali, Qadaya
    al Mar'aa bin al Taqaleed al Rakida wal Wafida (Cairo: Dar al Shorooq,
    4th edition, 1992) pp. 178-180.
    37.Ibid., pp. 313-318.
    38.David W. Amram, The Jewish Law of Divorce According to Bible and
    Talmud ( Philadelphia: Edward Stern & CO., Inc., 1896) pp. 125-126.

    39.Epstein, op. cit., p. 219.
    40.Ibid, pp 156-157.
    41.Muhammad Abu Zahra, Usbu al Fiqh al Islami (Cairo: al Majlis al A'la
    li Ri'ayat al Funun, 1963) p. 66.
    42.Epstein, op. cit., p. 122.
    43.Armstrong, op. cit., p. 8.
    44.Epstein, op. cit., p. 175.
    45.Ibid., p. 121.
    46.Gage, op. cit., p. 142.
    47.B. Aisha Lemu and Fatima Heeren, Woman in Islam (London: Islamic
    Foundation, 1978) p. 23.
    48.Hazleton, op. cit., pp. 45-46.
    49.Ibid., p. 47.
    50.Ibid., p. 49.
    51.Swidler, op. cit., pp. 144-148.
    52.Hazleton, op. cit., pp 44-45.
    53.Eugene Hillman, Polygamy Reconsidered: African Plural Marriage and
    the Christian Churches (New York: Orbis Books, 1975) p. 140.
    54.Ibid., p. 17.
    55.Ibid., pp. 88-93.
    56.Ibid., pp. 92-97.
    57.Philip L. Kilbride, Plural Marriage For Our Times (Westport, Conn.:
    Bergin & Garvey, 1994) pp. 108-109.
    58.The Weekly Review, Aug. 1, 1987.
    59.Kilbride, op. cit., p. 126.
    60.John D'Emilio and Estelle B. Freedman, Intimate Matters: A history
    of Sexuality in America (New York: Harper & Row Publishers, 1988)
    p. 87.
    61.Ute Frevert, Women in German History: from Bourgeois Emancipation to
    Sexual Liberation (New York: Berg Publishers, 1988) pp. 263-264.
    62.Ibid., pp. 257-258.
    63.Sabiq, op. cit., p. 191.
    64.Hillman, op. cit., p. 12.
    65.Nathan Hare and Julie Hare, ed., Crisis in Black Sexual Politics
    (San Francisco: Black Think Tank, 1989) p. 25.
    66.Ibid., p. 26.
    67.Kilbride, op. cit., p. 94.
    68.Ibid., p. 95.
    69.Ibid.
    70.Ibid., pp. 95-99.
    71.Ibid., p. 118.
    72.Lang, op. cit., p. 172.
    73.Kilbride, op. cit., pp. 72-73.
    74.Sabiq, op. cit., pp. 187-188.
    75.Abdul Rahman Doi, Woman in Shari'ah (London: Ta-Ha Publishers, 1994)
    p. 76.
    76.Menachem M. Brayer, The Jewish Woman in Rabbinic Literature: A
    Psychosocial Perspective (Hoboken, N.J: Ktav Publishing House, 1986) p.
    239.
    77.Ibid., pp. 316-317. Also see Swidler, op. cit., pp. 121-123.
    78.Ibid., p. 139.
    79.Susan W. Schneider, Jewish and Female (New York: Simon &
    Schuster, 1984) p. 237.
    80.Ibid., pp. 238-239.
    81.Alexandra Wright, "Judaism", in Holm and Bowker, ed., op. cit., pp.
    128-129
    82.Clara M. Henning, "Cannon Law and the Battle of the Sexes" in
    Rosemary R. Ruether, ed., Religion and Sexism: Images of Woman in the
    Jewish and Christian Traditions (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1974) p.
    272.
    83.Donald B. Kraybill, The riddle of the Amish Culture (Baltimore:
    Johns Hopkins University Press, 1989) p. 56.
    84.Khalil Gibran, Thoughts and Meditations (New York: Bantam Books,
    1960) p. 28.
    85.The Times, Nov. 18, 1993.
    Note in addition: This manuscript has been published by WAMY, 1995.

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