The History Of Palestine


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  • The History Of Palestine


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    The History of

    Palestine

    The Whole Truth

     

    History of the Arabic
    Region

    When
    Christopher Columbus discovered the new continent, which is known today as
    America, the Arabic countries were then under the rule of a great Islamic
    state, namely the Ottoman Empire, which had extended its dominion over all the
    Arabic soil and countries known today, in addition to some other Islamic
    states. Such empire was the last Islamic state that had reigned over the Arabic
    region, and that was from the year 1516 till the year 1918.

    The
    Arabic regions and the Middle East region had witnessed the rise of many
    governments and Islamic States that followed one after the other on its soil,
    according to place and time. The following table, which is compiled from
    different historic resources, shows the times of such states, and its
    geographic prevalence since the rise of Islam till the establishment of the
    Ottoman Empire:

    The
    Reign

    Ruling period

    The
    geographic realm

    The Rightly-Guided Caliphs

    632 - 661 A.D.

    Arabic Peninsula +  Bilad Al-Sham
    + Egypt + Iraq and a number of other countries.

    The Umayyad Caliphs

    611 – 750 A.D.

    The same countries +
    North  Afirca + Sind region +
    South of Spain and other countries

    The Abbasid Caliphs

    750 – 1259 A.D.

    Most of the above
    countries save Palestine.

    The Idrisid State

    788 – 974 A.D.

    Morroco.

    The Tulunid State

    868 – 905 A.D.

    Egypt and Syria.

    The Hamdanid Dynasty

    905 – 1004 A.D.

    Syria and the Arabic
    Peninsula

    The Fatmids

    909 – 1171 A.D.

    North of Africa + Egypt +
    West of the Arabic Peninsula + Bilad Al-Sham.

    The Ikhshidid State

    935 – 969 A.D.

    Egypt+
    Palestine + Syria + some of the contiguous countries.

    The Mazidyon State/The
    Zirid Dynasty

    961 – 1150 A.D.

    Middle of Iraq.

    The Aqlyoun State

    990 – 1096 A.D.

    Iraq + Peninsula + north
    of Syria.

    The Mardisid State

    1032 – 1079 A.D.

    Halab and north of Syria

    The Almoravids

    1065 – 1147 A.D.

    North of Africa

    The Almohads

    1130 – 1269 A.D.

    North of Africa

    The Ayyubid Dynasty

    1169 – 1260

    Egypt
    + Yamen + Bilad Al-Sham.

    The Marinids and Wattasid Dynasty

    1196 – 1549 A.D.

    Morroco.

    The Hafsids

    1228 – 1574 A.D.

    Tunsia.

    The Mamluk State

    1250 – 1517 A.D.

    Egypt + Bilad Al-Sham +
    west of the Arabic Peninsula.

    The Ottoman Sultans

    1281 – 1924 A.D.

    United all the arabic
    countries under it.

    Note:
    this table cites the most important countries that the aforementioned states
    had ruled and not all of them.

    This
    table reveals clearly the versatility of states that shared control, or
    contended with each others for the control of the Arabic region, the Middles
    East, and the Gulf. In addition, it pinpoints to the absence of any foreign
    influence in such regions, and especially what is now known as Israel.

    Owing
    to the fact that the Middle East is privileged with great importance due to its
    spiritual and religious value, as it was the place of descent of religions and
    messengers. In addition, it is considered the commercial crossroads, and the
    point of junction of the three most important continents at that time: Europe,
    Africa, and Asia, hence it had witnessed many wars, which drained the Arabic
    nation for long centuries, because of the external greediness and the numerous
    invasions,
    in addition to the internal dissensions, which had caused
    states to fall down, and others to rise over its debris, as shown in the above
    table. Nevertheless, the external greediness remained the severer, in
    particular with the recurrence of attempts to destroy the Islamic state, lay
    hands on it, and manipulate its nations and riches.

    The Crusades are considered one of the gravest
    invasions, under which the region had suffered the scourges of military
    expeditions, the first of which was prompted by Pope Urban II at
    Clermont in the year 1095. The historian Foucher de Chartres had talked
    about this incident in his book “Histoire du pèlerinage des Francs à
    Jérusalem”, where we quote what he said in page 122: “War is not to acquire
    just one city, but rather the region of Asia as a whole, together with its
    countless riches and treasures. Thus proceed to the sanctified tomb, and
    liberate the sacred land from the hands of the robbers, and take it to
    yourselves, for this land as the Torah has said outpours with milk and honey.”

    Among the other important invasions that the Muslims
    suffered under during this long history, is the ravaging Mongol and Tatar
    invasions, which had overthrown the Abbasid Caliphs in the year 1258, and
    destroyed Baghdad, killing from its people more than 800 thousands, their
    troops advanced towards the rest of the Middle East countries, spreading fear
    all over the region, where Syria and Palestine had fallen under their dominion.
    Then and under the circle of struggle and contention between France and
    Britain, the former, under the leadership of Napoleon Bonaparte had mounted a
    campaign against Egypt and Palestine in the Year 1897, where he occupied many
    Palestinian cities, and committed a massacre killing more than 12000 Arab
    captives. Those last wars were not less greedy and atrocious, if they were not
    even more bloody, which brought about more affliction and hardship to the Arabic
    region that rankles with its wounds, for the British and the French had broken
    up the unity of the Islamic states and occupied them, imposing on the citizens
    different systems that violate the sanctities and traditions of these nations,
    enough to recall to our minds the number of victims of the French occupation in
    Algeria, which reached million and half a million martyrs, in order for all to
    know the brutality of that occupier, who exceeded that of Tatar under the
    leadership of their savage leader Holako.

     

    Controlling The Arabic
    Region And The Emergence of Colonies

    Owing to the great number of wars that depleted the
    Islamic states and the Arabic nation, the colonizing power managed to overthrow
    the Ottoman Empire, and fetter its influence little by little. Then followed
    the signing of Sykes-Picot Agreement between France and Britain in 1916,
    through which they agreed upon dividing the Arabic region into controlling
    areas, thus they subjugated Lebanon and Syria to French dominion, while Jordan
    and Iraq were subjugated to the British dominion, as for Palestine it remained
    a small state. All this occurred without paying the least heed to the opinion
    of the people of the region, as if they did not care about the future of their
    land, or as if the people were no more than just slaves to the colonist to do
    to them whatever he wanted. Facing up this racial division and illegitimate
    control of the Arabic countries, it was the duty of the nations of the region
    to strive to liberate the Arabic lands from the British and French occupation.
    The following table shows the dates of independence of these countries,
    according to the information found in the Arab League site on the internet:

    Country

    Date
    of Independence

     

    Country

    Date
    of Independence

    Jordan

    25/5/1946

    Oman

    18/11/1950

    Emirates

    2/12/1971

    Comoros

    06/07/1975

    Bahrain

    11/08/1971

    Qatar

    09/01/1971

    Tunis

    20/03/1956

    Kuwait

    25/02/1961

    Algeria

    05/07/1962

    Lebanon

    22/11/1946

    Djibouti

    11/08/1971

    Libya

    24/12/1951

    Saudi
    Arabia

    23/09/1932

    Egypt

    28/02/1922

    Syria

    17/04/1946

    Morocco

    02/03/1956

    Sudan

    01/01/1956

    Mauritania

    28/11/1960

    Somalia

    1/07/1960

    Yemen

    26/09/1962 North

    1967 South

    Iraq

    03/10/1932

     

    Palestine

    Still
    under Zionist occupation

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

    The above table shows how all the Arabic countries
    have gained their independence, and put an end to the suppression and despotism
    of occupation, except Palestine that stills suffers
    savagery and brutality of the colonist
    without achieving its independence, and they were even expelled out of their
    land, and were driven away to contiguous countries, while others, who are
    foreigners to the region and totally different from its people in their
    conventions and customs were implanted in their place. They were embedded by
    the British colonist by the power of the arms, in revenge for the independence
    movements that emancipated the Arabic countries and lifted up high the flags of
    victory. Hence, it is rendered essential to clarify the whole story of the
    history of Palestine, so that everyone knows how the world has now reached this
    stage of dissension, contention, warfare, disturbance,  and genocide.

     

    Palestine and the
    Historical Truth

    It is considered easy to acquire accurate information
    substantiated by documented resources about the history of Palestine dating
    back to thousands of years till our contemporary time, and that because of the
    abundance of resources and studies that tackled this history, on top of the
    places that secure such information is the Palestinian Authority, and that to
    make sure that the information is free of any distortion or twisting, and in
    order for the coming generation, whether Palestinians or not, never to forget
    this history. On such basis, the Palestinian National Information Center
    working under the General Institute for Information, which in turn is
    affiliated to the Palestinian Authority, provides full historical
    information  corroborated with
    studies and researches.

    Prehistoric Palestine

    The name of Palestine:

    Palestine was known since ancient history as Kan’an
    land, where it was mentioned in the reports of one of the army leaders to King
    Mary. In addition, this name is found inscribed clearly on the obelisk of
    Adrimi, who was the king of Alkha (Tal Al-A’tshenah) during the middle of the
    fifth century before Christ. The origin of the word Palestine, as it was
    mentioned in the Assyrian records during the era of the king of Assyria
    (Addizary III) around the year 800 B.C. comes from the word Philsta, where he
    had inscribed on his obelisk that in the fifth year of his reign, his forces
    had submitted Palastu under his control, and compelled its people to pay taxes.
    Also the word Palestine was mentioned by Herodotus on Aramean basis, as we find
    him using it in referring to  a
    place on the south part of Syria or (Palestinian Syria) nearby Finithya  till the Egyptian boundaries. Moreover,
    the Romanian historians, like Agathar Chides, Strabo, and Diodoru had used such
    naming.

    During the Romanian era, the name of Palestine used to
    be called on all the sacred land, then it developed to be the official name of
    this district since the era of Hadrian, thus this name grew to be widely used
    in the Christian church, where they used to refer to it quite often in the
    Christian pilgrims reports. On the other hands, Palestine used to be a part of
    Bilad Al-Sham during the Islamic era.

    The fecundity of the Palestinian land, in addition to
    its distinguished position had made it habitable since ancient times, where it
    played an important role as a cultural junction between different places around
    the world, by virtue of its central position, which rendered it historically
    recognizable since ancient times.

    The Ancient Stone Age

    According to what the archeological discoveries have
    revealed, scientists agreed that man lived on the Palestinian land, he is known
    as man of erect stature,. Those ancestors were primarily hunters, who traveled
    in search of different herds of animals. Worth mentioning that prehistoric man
    during that period had passed through different development phases, where he
    began to develop his hunting maneuvers and his tools made of stone. During the
    third phase of the Stone Age, the thinking man appeared, where the knife made
    of long blades, constituted the primary tool used in this period. Remnants of
    that man was discovered inside caves in Palestine, like Al-Amira cave, Irc
    Al-Ahmar, Al-wad, Kubarah and other places in Negev desert. This phase marks
    the beginning of human gatherings, that represented a developed social form,
    despite the fact that such groups remained surviving on hunting and the gathering
    of provision.

    17000 – 8000 B.C.: Shifting
    from Gathering to Production

    During that phase man progressed from the phase of
    gathering to that of production, where he started to search for the spots of
    water to settle around, and collect the seeds of small plants like wheat,
    barley to plant them, in addition to practicing hunting. Thus that phase from
    the Stone age was distinguished by stability, and development of the means of
    life and production, especially after man discovered pottery, and used it in building
    and manufacturing of tools.

    8000 – 4000 B.C.: appearance of
    agricultural communities

    Man during that phase depended on fishing and
    cultivation of some cereals, but he had not yet known breeding of animals. In
    addition to such activities, there were commercial connections between
    Palestine and Turkey, as tools made of Obsidian that Turkey used to export were
    found in Ariha and other countries, in return Ariha used to export raw
    materials, like tar, salt from Dead Sea. Then in subsequent phases man learned
    how to breed animals.

    4000 – 2000 B.C.: The Closing
    of the Fourth millennium before Christianity

    That period witnessed a clear change in the economic,
    social, architectural aspects in Palestine. Probably the most distinguished
    thing in that period is the appearance of a large number of cemeteries that are
    engraved inside the rocks in Palestine. During the subsequent periods, the
    usage of metals were discovered, where man started to manufacture from it tools
    and vessels. This period also witnessed the emergence of temples, which the
    excavation processes had unveiled their presence in many Palestinian cities and
    villages. As for the development of the industrial and commercial level, it
    pinpointed the demographic growth, together with the increase of the standard
    of living and the progress of agriculture.

     

    Semites

    According to the archeological discoveries in Egypt
    and Iraq, the Semites are considered the most ancient known nations, who  lived on the Palestinian soil since the
    fourth millennium before Christ. They used to inhabit the eastern shore of the
    Mediterranean sea. As for the religious aspect, the Semites are considered
    -  originally – the tribes
    descending from Shem, the eldest son of Noah (peace be upon him). What is
    confirmed, is that the original ancient inhabitants of Palestine were all Arab,
    who migrated from the Arabic Peninsula following a drought that stroke it. Thus
    they  lived in their new native
    country “Canaan” for more than two thousands years before the appearance of the
    Prophet Moses (peace be upon him) and his followers.

    Canaanites

    According to the documented assessments, the famous
    Canaanites migration from the Arabic Peninsula occurred during the mid-third
    millennium before Christ. Though a group of the researchers have deduced that
    the Canaanites had settled in the country since the beginning of the third millennium,
    basing their assumption on the Egyptian Archeological discoveries. While others
    believe that the presence of the Canaanites dates back to seven thousands years
    ago, and that through tracing the monuments in their ancient cities, the most
    ancient of which is “Ariha” that stands erect till our day, and which is
    considered the most ancient city on earth. Although assessments of the precise
    beginning of the Canaanite presence has oscillated, what is unanimously agreed
    upon is that they were the first to inhabit this region among the ancient
    nations that were present at that time, and they were the first to erect on the
    soil of Palestine a civilization. It was mentioned in the Hebrew writings that
    Canaanites are the original inhabitants of the country, and it is also
    mentioned in Torah that they were the Amorite people. One of the most ancient
    cities that exist till our day is Ariha, Jericho, Asdod, Acco, Gaza, Al-Majdal,
    Jaffa, Askelan and Bisan. There are also many cities and villages, some of which
    still remain till our day, and others have perished. The metropolis of Canaan
    was  Shekeem.

    The Canaanites were renowned for cultivation and
    industry, they had excelled in mining, manufacturing of pottery, glass,
    clothes, and textile. In addition, they excelled in the art of architecture.
    Music and literature come on the top of the Canaanite’s civilization, where no
    other Semite population had ever cared for art and music like the Canaanites
    did, as they had quoted a lot from the music of the different nations, which
    took of the ancient Near East a home to them. As music constituted one of the
    worshipping rituals for Canaanites, thus their music rhythms, and instruments
    had spread all over the region. No one can gainsay that art and literature are
    the epitome of civilization. Thus there is no wonder when we trace the Israeli
    writings, we discover the great effort exerted by the Israelis to delude the
    whole world into thinking that they were the erectors of that grand
    civilization, and the composers of hymn, songs, and chanting. They had
    succeeded in making of this falsehood a fact in the eyes of many. But the great
    trusted historians like “Bristed” described the flourishing Canaanites city
    when the Hebrews entered it, as a city that contained luxurious and comfortable
    houses, a city that knew industry, trade, writing, and temples, thus it had a
    civilization, which the primitive Hebrew shepherds had emulated, hence they
    deserted their tents, and imitated them in building houses. Moreover, they took
    off the leather that they used to wear in the desert, to put on colorful wool
    clothes, and as time lapsed, it became hard to differentiate between the
    Canaanites and the Hebrews in the outward appearance. Then after the coming of
    the Palestinians from the seaside, and the Israelis from Jordan, the land of
    Canaan was split among three nations. Henceforth the Canaanites no longer
    became the sole masters of the country. Nevertheless, the Canaanite language
    remained the prevailing one. Since the dawn of recorded history, namely five
    thousands years ago, till the British mandate in the year 1920, Palestine had
    known only three languages: Canaanite language in the first place, then Aramean
    language, which was the language of Christ (peace be upon him), and thirdly the
    Arabic language.

    2000 B.C. – 1200 B.C.

    At the beginning of the second millennium B.C., cities
    had started to witness a certain vivacity, and new modes of architecture and
    cemeteries appeared, in addition to creation of new forms of pottery and
    weapons. Moreover, this phase was distinguished by developed commercial and
    political relationships with most of the ancient Eastern regions, particularly,
    Egypt, Bilad Al-Sham, north of Syria, and east of Turkey. Besides, such phase
    was marked by the development of pottery manufacturing and the way of selecting
    the clay and mixing it, then molding it into shapes by means of a speedy wheel,
    thus producing elegant and versatile vessels. On the other hands, this phase
    was distinguished by a thorough Egyptian hegemony over Bilad Al-Sham during the
    reign of the eighteenth and nineteenth dynasties, who  conquered the last of the Hixos kings around the year 1567
    B.C., and that through the campaigns embarked by Thutmose III on Bilad Al-Sham
    around the year 1480 B.C., also it is characterized by the disappearance of the
    strong fortresses backed up by compact layers of mud that were built by the
    Hixos. Worth mentioning here, that during that period, Palestine had witnessed
    a state of turmoil that affected the region from the northern and middle
    districts with the beginning of the reign of the eighteenth dynasty, and that
    after the expulsion of the Hixos from Egypt and their chasing them away till
    Sharohin in the north of Palestine. Such events were recorded in detailed
    manuscripts since the era of Thutmose III, among such manuscripts, one relating
    the battle of Megiddo that was under leadership of King of Megiddo and King of
    Qadish on the Syrian part, who formed a coalition, to which more than one
    thousand and twenty cities entered. Such event was also mentioned in one of
    Thutmose’s III topographical manifests, also such scripts where found inscribed
    in one of the obelisks that were erected in Karnak and Memphis.

    1200 – 550 B.C.: Era of
    Kingdoms (Iron Age):

    During that period the Palestinians considered
    themselves the legitimate successors to the Egyptian authority in Palestine,
    thus they held sway over most of its parts. They are usually referred to as the
    inhabitants of the Palestinian coast, where they established a number of the main
    cities, like Gaza, Askalan, Asdoud, A’qir, Tal As-Safy, and others. The
    Canaanite impact had manifested itself over the Palestinians, such effect can
    be traced in the names of their deities, like Dagon and A’shtartout, also the
    religious life of the inhabitants of the Palestinian coast has its Canaanite
    origin, in addition to their religious edifices, most prominent of which is the
    consecutive series of temples in Tal Al-Kasilah that was built according to the
    fashion of Canaanite temples, with a touch of Egyptian architecture. On the
    other hand, there were claims made by the Israeli archeologists concerning the
    origin of some archeological discoveries and architectures, which they
    attributed to the old Israelis, and which was known in the foreign sources as
    “collared-rimjar”.

     



    Bilad Al-Sham: Palestine, Syria, Lebanon, and Jordan

     

     

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