The 200 FAQ On Muslim Belief


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  • The 200 FAQ On Muslim Belief


  • Q 126: What is the textual proof that being judged rightfully (Just Retaliation) is a fact of the Last Day from the Prophetic Sunnah?

       A--- There are so many Hadiths regarding this. Foremost among which are:

    Narrated' Abdullah (May Allah be pleased with him): The Prophet (Peace be upon him) says: "The first cases to be decided among the people (on the Day of Resurrection) will be those of blood-shed.” (Bukhari and Muslim)

    Narrated Abu Sa'id Al-Khudri (May Allah be pleased with him): Allah's Messenger (Peace be upon him) says: "When the believers pass safely over (the bridge across) Hell, they will be stopped at a bridge in between Hell and Paradise where they will retaliate upon each other for the injustices done among them in the world, and when they get purified of all their sins, they will be admitted into Paradise. By Him in Whose Hands the life of Muhammad is everybody will recognize his dwelling in Paradise better than he recognizes his dwelling in this world.’ (Sahih Bukhari)

     

    Q 127: What is the textual proof from the Glorious Qur'an that the Cistern exists?

    A--- Allah the Almighty says to His Prophet Muhammad (Peace be upon him): {Verily, We have granted you (O Muhammad (Peace be upon him)) Al-Kauthar (a river in Paradise)}. (Al-Kauthar, 1)

     

    Q 128: What is the textual proof from the Prophetic Sunnah that the Cistern exists?

       A ---There so many Hadiths pertaining to this. Foremost among which are:

    Narrated 'Uqbah Ibn 'Amir (May Allah be pleased with him): One day the Prophet (Peace be upon him) went out and offered the funeral prayers of the martyrs of Uhud and then went up the pulpit and said: "I will pave the way for you as your predecessor and will be a witness on you. By Allah! I see my Fount (Kauthar) just now and I have been given the keys of all the treasures of the earth (or the keys of the earth). By Allah! I am not afraid that you will worship others along with Allah after my death, but I am afraid that you will fight with one another for the worldly things.”(Sahih Bukhari)

    Abu Hurairah (May Allah be pleased with him) reported: Verily Allah's Messenger (Peace be upon him) said: My Cistern has its dimensions wider than the distance between Aila (Jerusalem) and Aden, and its water is whiter than ice and sweeter than the honey      diluted with milk, and its cups are more numerous than the numbers of the stars. Verily I shall prevent the (faithless) people there from just as a man prevents the camels of the people from his fountain. They said: Messenger of Allah, will you recognize us on that day? He said: Yes, you will have distinctive marks which nobody among the peoples (except you) will have,' you would come to me with blazing forehead and bright hands and feet on account of the traces of ablution." (Sahih Bukhari)

    Narrated Anas (May Allah be pleased with him): When the Prophet (Peace be upon him) was made to ascend to the heavens. He (Peace be upon him) said (after his return), "I came upon a river (in Paradise) the banks of which were made of tents of hollow pearls. I asked Jibril (Gabriel), 'What is this (river)?' He replied, "This is the Kauthar.” (Sahih Bukhari)

     

    Q 129: What is the textual proof that a Muslim must believe in the existence of Paradise and Hell­fire?

    A--- Allah the Almighty says: {Then fear the Fire (Hell) whose fuel is men and stones, prepared for the disbelievers. And give glad tidings to those who believe and do righteous good deeds, that for them will be Gardens under which rivers flow (Paradise)}. (Al-Baqarah, 24, 25)

    Narrated Ibn 'Abbas (May Allah be pleased with him): The Prophet (Peace be upon him) used to invoke Allah at night, saying, "O Allah! All the Praises are for You: You are the Lord of the Heavens and the Earth. All the Praises are for You,' You are the Maintainer of the Heaven and the Earth and whatever is in them. All the Praises are for You,' You are the Light of the Heavens and the Earth. Your Word is the Truth, and Your Promise is the Truth, and the Meeting with You is the Truth, and Paradise is the Truth, and the (Hell) Fire is the Truth, and the Hour is the Truth. Allah! I surrender myself to You, and I believe in You and I depend upon You, and I repent to You and with You (Your evidences) I stand against my opponents, and to you I leave the judgment (for those who refuse my message). Allah! Forgive me my sins that I did in the past or will do in the future, and also the sins I did in secret or in public. You are my only God (Whom I worship) and there is no other God for me (i.e. I worship none but You).” (Sahih Bukhari)

    Narrated `Ubadah (May Allah be pleased with him): The Prophet (Peace be upon him) said: "If anyone testifies that none has the right to be worshipped but Allah Alone Who has no partners, and that Muhammad is His Slave and His Messenger, and that Jesus is Allah's Slave and His Messenger and His Word which He bestowed on Mary and a Spirit created by Him, and that Paradise is true, and Hell is true, Allah will admit him into Paradise with the deeds which he had done even if those deeds were few." (Junadah, the sub-narrator said”: 'Ubadah added, 'Such a person can enter Paradise through any of its eight gates he likes. "') (Bukhari and Muslim)

     

    Q 130: What does Faith in Paradise and Hell-Fire mean?

    A--- This means to have absolute and firm belief in their existence and in that they are created at present, and that they are everlasting by the Will of Allah the Almighty Who wishes so. This also means to believe in the blessings and joys of Paradise and in the torment and terrors of Hell-Fire.

     

    Q 131: What is the textual proof that they are currently existing?

    A ---Allah the Almighty informed us that they are existing and that they are already prepared. Pertaining to Paradise, He says{Prepared for All-­Muttaqun (the pious)}. (Al 'Imran, 133) And, pertaining to Hell-Fire, He says: {Prepared for the disbelievers}. 'I (Al' Imran, 131)

    In addition, He, Glory is His, informed us that He made Adam and Eve reside in Paradise before their eating from the forbidden tree. Moreover, He informed us that the disbelievers are exposed to the Hell-Fire every morning and evening. Allah's Messenger (Peace be upon him) says: "I stood at the gate of Paradise and saw that the majority of the people who entered it were the poor, while the wealthy were stopped at the gate (for the accounts). But the companions of the Fire were ordered to be taken to the Fire. Then I stood at the gate of the Fire and saw that the majority of those who entered it were women.” (Bukhari and Muslim)

    Ibn 'Umar (May Allah be pleased with them) reported Allah's Messenger (Peace be upon him) as saying: "When anyone of you dies, he is shown his seat (in the Hereafter) morning and evening. If he is amongst the inmates of Paradise (he is shown the seat) from amongst the inmates of Paradise. And, if he is one from amongst the denizens of Hell (he is shown the seat) from amongst the denizens of Hell, and it would be said to him: That is your seat until Allah raises you on the Day of Resurrection (and sends you to your proper seat)." (Bukhari and Muslim)

    Narrated Abu Hurairah (May Allah be pleased with him): The Prophet (Peace be upon him) says: "In very hot weather delay the Zuhr Noon Prayer till it becomes (a bit) cooler because the severity of heat is from the raging of Hell-fire. The Hellfire of Hell complained to its Lord saying: Lord! My parts are eating (destroying) one another. So Allah allowed it to take two breaths, one in the winter and the other in the summer. The breath in the summer is at the time when you feel the severest heat and the breath in the winter is at the time when you feel the severest cold.” (Bukhari and Muslim)

    `A'ishah (May Allah be pleased with her) reported Allah's Messenger (Peace be upon him) as saying: "Fever is from the vehement raging of the Hell-fire, so cool it with water." (Bukhari and Muslim)

       Allah's Messenger (Peace be upon him) says: "When Allah created Paradise and Hell-fire, He sent Gabriel to Paradise saying: Go and have a look at it." (Imam Ahmed, Abu Dawud and At-Tirmidhi)

    Narrated' Abdullah Ibn 'Abbas (May Allah be pleased with them): The sun eclipsed andAllah's Messenger (Peace be upon him) offered the eclipse prayer and said: "I have been shown the Hellfire(now) and never saw a worse and horrible sight than the sight I have seen today." (Bukhari and Muslim)

       In addition, Paradise and Hell-fire were shown to the Prophet (Peace be upon him) on the Night of Isra' (Night Journey).

     

    Q 132: What is the textual proof that they are eternally existing (by the Leave of Allah)?

       A--- Allah the Almighty says pertaining to Paradise, {To dwell therein forever. That is the supreme success}. (At-Taubah, 100 & At-Taghabun, 9)

       Allah the Almighty says: {Nor shall they (ever) be asked to leave it}(Al-Hijr, 48)

       Allah the Almighty says: {A gift without an end}(Hud, 108)

    Allah the Almighty says{Whose supply is not cut off (by change of season), nor are they out of reach}. (Al-Waqi'ah, 33)

    Allah the Almighty says: {Verily, this is Our Provision which will never finish}. (Sad, 54)

    Allah the Almighty says: {Verily, the Muttaqun (the pious), will be in place of Security (Paradise). Among Gardens and Springs, dressed in fine silk and (also) in thick silk, facing each other. So (it will be). And We shall marry them to Hur[1] (fair females) with wide, lovely eyes. They will call therein for every kind of fruit in peace and security. They will never taste death therein except the first death (of this world), and He will save them from the torment of the blazing Fire}. (Ad-Dukhan, 51-56)

       Pertaining to Hell-fire, Allah the Almighty says: {Except the way of Hell, to dwell therein forever}. (An-Nisa', 169)

    Allah the Almighty says: {Verily, Allah has cursed the disbelievers, and has prepared for them flaming Fire (Hell). Wherein they will abide forever, and they will find neither Wali (a protector) nor helper}(Al-Ahzab, 64, 65)

       Allah the Almighty says: {And whosoever disobeys Allah and His Messenger, then verily, for him is the Fire of Hell, he shall dwell therein forever}.(Al-Jinn, 23)

       Allah the Almighty says: {And they will never get out of the Fire}. (Al-Baqarah, 167)

    Allah the Almighty says: {(The torment) will not be lightened for them, and they will be plunged into destruction with deep regrets, sorrows and in despair therein}. (Az-Zukhruf, 75)

    Allah the Almighty says: {Neither will it have a complete killing effect on them so that they die, nor shall its torment be lightened for them}(Fatir, 36)

    Allah the Almighty says: {Verily whoever comes to his Lord as a Mujrim (criminal, polytheist, sinner, disbeliever in the Oneness of Allah and His Messengers), then surely, for him is Hell, wherein he will neither die nor live}(Ta-Ha, 74)

    Abu Sa' id Al-Khudri (May Allah be pleased with him) reported Allah's Messenger (Peace be upon him) as saying: Death would be brought on the Day of Resurrection in the form of a white-colored ram. Abu Kuraib made this addition: Then it would be made to stand between the Paradise and the Hell. So far as the rest of the Hadith is concerned there is perfect agreement (between the two narrators) and it would be said to the inmates of Paradise: Do you recognize this? They would raise up their necks and look towards it and say: Yes, it is death. Then it would be said to the inmates of Hell-Fire. Do you recognize this? And they would raise up their necks and look and say: Yes, it is death. Then command would be given for slaughtering that and then it would be said: inmates of Paradise, there is an everlasting         life for you and no death. And then (addressing) to the inmates of the Hell-fire, it would be said: inmates of Hell-fire, there is an everlasting living for you and no death. Allah's Messenger (Peace be upon him) then recited this verse pointing with his hand to this (material) world: {Warn them, this Day of dismay, and when their affairs would be decided and they would be unmindful and they believe not}." (Maryam, 39) (Bukhari and Muslim)

     

    Q 133: What is the textual proof that the believers will see their Lord on the Hereafter?

    A--- Allah the Almighty says: {Some faces that Day shall be Nadirah (shining and radiant). Looking at their Lord (Allah)}. (Al-Qiyamah, 22,23)

    Allah the Almighty says: {For those who have done good is the best (reward, i.e. Paradise) and even more (i.e. having the honor of glancing at the Countenance of Allah the Almighty)}. (Yunus,26)

    Allah the Almighty says about the disbelievers, {Nay! Surely they (evil-doers) will be veiled from seeing their Lord that Day}. (Al-Mutaffifin, 15)

    Thus, He veiled the evil-doers from glancing at His Countenance and did not veil Himself from his godly ones.

    Narrated Qais: Jarir (May Allah be pleased with him) said: "We were with the Prophet (Peace be upon him) and he looked at the moon full moon ­and said: 'Certainly you will see your Lord as you see this moon and you will have no trouble in seeing Him. So if you can avoid missing (through sleep or business, etc.) a prayer before the sun-rise (Fajr) and a prayer before sunset (`Asr), you must do so.’ He then recited Allah's Statement: {And celebrate the praises of your Lord before the rising of the sun and before (its) setting}. (50: 39) Isma'il said: "Offer those prayers and do not miss them." (Bukhari and Muslim)

    The Prophet's saying ''as you see this moon" is by way of likening the act of seeing to seeing, and not what is seen to the sighted. This is in addition to the Hadith that reads: Narrated Abu Hurairah (May Allah be pleased with him): The Prophet (Peace be upon him) says: "When Allah ordains something on the Heaven the angels beat with their wings in obedience to His Statement which sounds like that of a chain dragged over a rock. His Statement: "Until when the fear is banished from their hearts, the Angels say, 'What was it that your Lord said?' 'They reply, {(He has said) the Truth. And He is the Most High, The Great}. (34:23) (Sahih Bukhari)

    In this Hadith, the act of hearing is likened to hearing and not what is heard to what is heard. There is nothing resembling Allah the Almighty or resembling any of His Attributes. The Prophet (Peace be upon him) cannot say anything that may imply the slightest hint that anything resembles Allah the Almighty.

    There are so many Hadiths pertaining to this issue, we mentioned in the explanation of "Sullam Al-Wusul" forty-five Hadiths on the authority of thirty of the Prophet's companions.

    Whosoever rejects this, he belies the Glorious Book and what has been revealed on Prophet Muhammad (Peace be upon him) and was among those addressed by the following verse: {Nay! Surely they (evil-doers) will be veiled from seeing their Lord that Day}. (Al-Mutaffifin, 15)

    We ask Allah the Almighty for forgiveness and pardon and to grant us glancing at His Countenance.

     

    Q 134: What is the textual proof of Shafa 'ah Intercession? Who will practice it? For the sake of whom? When?

    A ---Allah the Almighty mentioned the Intercession in numerous locations in His Glorious Qur'an. He mentioned thereof serious conditions and that it is a dominion that belongs to none but Allah. He says: {Say: To Allah belongs all intercession}. (Az-Zumar, 44)

    When will it be?

    Allah the Almighty told us that it will not be other than with His Own Leave and Permission: {Who is he that can intercede with Him except with His Permission?}. (Al-Baqarah, 255)

       Allah the Almighty says: {No intercessor (can plead with Him) except after His Leave}(Yunus, 3)

    Allah the Almighty says: {And there are many angels in the heavens, whose intercession will avail nothing except after Allah has given leave for whom He wills and is pleased with}. (An-Najm, 26)

    Allah the Almighty says: {Intercession with Him profits not except for him whom He permits}(Saba', 23)

    From whom does Allah accept Intercession?

    Allah the Almighty informed us that it will not be enjoyed by anyone but by His Leave and Permission. He also informed us that only His pious and godly worshippers are the ones to enjoy it. He says: {They will not speak except him whom the Most Gracious (Allah) allows, and he will speak what is right}(An-Naba',38)

    Allah the Almighty says: {None shall have the power of intercession, but such a one as has received permission (or promise) from the Most Gracious (Allah)}. (Maryam,87)

    For whom does Allah grant Intercession?

    Allah informed us that it will not be granted but for whom He is pleased with. He says: {And they cannot intercede except for him with whom He is pleased}. (Al-Anbiya', 28)

       Allah the Almighty says: {On that day no intercession shall avail, except the one for whom the Most Gracious (Allah) has given permission and whose word is acceptable to Him}. (Ta-Ha, 109)

    Almighty Allah does not accept or be pleased with other than the people of true and pure Monotheism and loyalty. As for the others, Allah says: {There will be no friend, nor an intercessor for the Zalimun (polytheists and wrong-doers), who could be given heed to}. (Ghafir, 18)

    Allah the Almighty says: {Now we have no intercessors, nor a close friend (to help us)}. (Ash­Shu' ara', 100, 101)

    Allah the Almighty says: {So no intercession of intercessors will be of any use to them}. (Al-Muddaththir, 48)

    He (Peace be upon him) told us that he is granted Intercession: "So they will come to me and I will ask the permission of my Lord, and I will be permitted (to present myself) before Him. When I see my Lord, I will fall down in (prostration) before Him and He will leave me (in prostration) as long as He wishes, and then it will be said to me, 'O Muhammad! Raise your head and speak, for you will be listened to; and ask, for you will be granted (your request); and intercede, for your intercession will be accepted.’ will then raise my head and praise my Lord with certain praises which He has taught me, and then will intercede.” (Bukhari and Muslim)

    He (Peace be upon him) told us that he will not intercede for the sake of all! the disobedient from among the monotheists once and for all, but he said: "Allah will allow me to intercede (for a certain kind of people) and will fix a limit whom I will admit into

    Paradise.” Then, he comes back and prostrate himself again and he is given a second group to admit into Paradise, till the end of the lengthy Hadith of the Intercession narrated by Abu Hurairah (May Allah be pleased with him) on Sahih Al-Bukhari and Muslim.

    Narrated Abu Hurairah (May Allah be pleased with him): I said: "O Allah's Messenger! Who will be the luckiest person, who will gain your intercession on the Day of Resurrection?" Allah's Messenger said: Abu Hurairah! "I have thought that none will ask me about it before you as know your longing for the (learning of) Hadiths. The luckiest person who will have my intercession on the Day of Resurrection will be the one who said sincerely from the bottom of his heart "None has the right to be worshipped but Allah.” (Sahih Bukhari)

     

    Q 135: How many kinds of Intercession are there? Which is the greatest one?

    A ---The greatest one is:

    (1) the Great Intercession on the Day of Judgment, the Day of Reckoning. This is a specialty granted to Prophet Muhammad (Peace be upon him). It is the Maqam Mahmud (a station of praise and glory) that is promised by Allah the Almighty in His Statement,

    {It may be that your Lord will raise you to Maqam Mahmud (a station of praise and glory, i.e. the honor of intercession on the Day of Resurrection)}. (Al-Isra', 79)

    That when Allah will gather the believers on the Day of Resurrection in the same way (as they are gathered in this life), and they will say, 'Let us ask someone to intercede for us with our Lord that He may relieve us from this place of ours.' Then they will go to Adam, Nuh (Noah), Ibrahim (Abraham), Musa (Moses), ('Isa) Jesus, and finally Muhammad and say, 'Don't you see the people (people's condition)?' all of them would say, 'I am not fit for this undertaking', save Muhammad who would say, "I am fit for this undertaking ". (Bukhari and Muslim)

    (2) Intercession for opening the gate of Paradise. The first to enter therefrom is Prophet Muhammad (Peace be upon him), and the first Ummah (community or nation) to enter it is his Ummah.

    (3) Intercession for the benefit of some people who are ordered to be admitted into Hell, not to enter it.

    (4) Intercession for the benefit of some monotheists who were admitted into Hell to get out from it.

    Narrated Abu Sa'id Al-Khudri (May Allah be pleased with him): The Prophet (Peace be upon him) says: "When the people of Paradise will enter Paradise and the people of Hell will go to Hell, Allah will order those who have had faith equal to the weight of a grain of mustard seed to be taken out from Hell. So they will be taken out but (by then) they will be blackened (charred). Then they will be put in the river of Haya' (rain) or Hayat (life) (the Narrator is in doubt as to which is the right term), and they will revive like a grain that grows near the bank of a flood channel. Don't you see that it comes out yellow and twisted. " (Bukhari and Muslim)

    (5) Intercession for raising the ranks of some people from among the residents of Paradise.

    The last three ones (3, 4, 5) are not peculiar to Prophet Muhammad (Peace be upon him), but he is to be advanced before other Prophets, angels, protectors and pious men who will intercede on that Day. Then, Allah the Almighty will take out with His Mercy from Hell-fire peoples without any intercession, the number of which can not be counted by other than Allah the Almighty. .

    (6) Intercession for lightening the torment of some disbelievers. This one is peculiar to Prophet Muhammad (Peace be upon him) for the sake of his paternal uncle as transmitted by Imam Muslim and other Hadith Compilations: Anas Ibn Malik (May Allah be pleased with him), reported: Allah's Messenger (Peace be upon him) said that the Hell would continue to say: Is there anything more, until Allah, the Exalted and High, would place His foot therein and that would say: Enough, enough, by Your Honor, and some parts of it would draw close to the other." (Bukhari and Muslim)

     

    Q 136: Would anybody attain salvation on the Day of Resurrection because of his deeds?

    A--- `A'ishah (May Allah be pleased with her), the wife of Allah's Messenger (Peace be upon him), reported that Allah's Messenger (Peace be upon him) used to say: Observe moderation (in doing deeds), and if you fail to observe it perfectly, try to do as much as you can do (to live up to this ideal of moderation) and be sure that none would be able to get into Paradise because of his deeds alone. They (the companions of the Holy Prophet) said: Allah's Messenger, not even thou? Thereupon he said: Not even I, but that Allah wraps me in His Mercy, and bear this in mind that the deed loved most by Allah is one which is done constantly even though it is insignificant.” (Bukhari and Muslim)

     

    Q 137: How can we compromise between the earlier Hadith and the Qur'anic verse that reads: {And it will be cried out to them: This is the Paradise which you have inherited for what you used to do}(Al-A' raf, 43)?

       A--- There is no contradiction between the previous Hadith and the Qur'anic verse. For the " deeds" mentioned in the verse are the cause behind entering Paradise and what is negated in the Hadith is the sense that the deeds turn not to be a mere cause, but they turn into a price paid for it. Indeed, if man lived the whole period of life of the world, fasting during the day, standing in prayer for Allah during the whole night, and avoiding all kinds of sins, the whole of his life would not be enough for meeting even one-tenth of the slightest blessing he is granted by Allah. How can it be then the price suitable for Paradise!

    {My Lord! Forgive and have mercy, for You are the Best of those who show mercy!}. (Al-Mu'minun, 118)

     

    Q 138: What is the textual proof that a Muslim must believe in the Divine Decree (Predestination)?

       A--- Allah the Almighty says: {And the Command of Allah is a decree determined}. (Al­-Ahzab, 38)

    Allah the Almighty says: {That Allah might accomplish a matter already ordained (in His Knowledge)}. (Al-Anfal, 42-44)

       Allah the Almighty says: {And Allah's Command must be fulfilled}. (Al-Ahzab, 37)

       Allah the Almighty says: {No calamity befalls, but by the Leave [i.e. Decision and Qadar (Divine Pre-ordainments)] of Allah, and whosoever believes in Allah, He guides his heart [to the true Faith with certainty, i.e. what has befallen him was already written for him by Allah from the Qadar (Divine Pre-ordainments)]. And Allah is the All-Knower of everything}. (At- Taghabun, 11)

       Allah the Almighty says:{And what you suffered (of the disaster) on the day (of the battle of Uhud when) the two armies met, was by the leave of Allah}. (Al' Imran, 166)

    Allah the Almighty says: {Who when afflicted with calamity, say: "Truly! To Allah we belong and truly, to Him we shall return." They are those on whom are the Salawat (i.e. who are blessed and will be forgiven) from their Lord, and (they are those who) receive His Mercy, and it is they who are the guided ones}. (Al-Baqarah, 156, 157)

    It was mentioned earlier in the Hadith of Gabriel, "And you affirm your faith in the Divine Decree about good and evil.” (Bukhari and Muslim)

       He (Peace be upon him) says: "A strong believer is better and is more lovable to Allah than a weak believer, and there is good in everyone, (but) cherish that which gives you benefit (in the Hereafter) and seek help from Allah and do not lose heart, and if anything (in the form of trouble) comes to you, don't say: If I had not done that, it would not have happened so and so, but say: Allah did that what He had ordained to do and your "if" opens the (gate)for the Satan.” (Sahih Muslim)

    Tawus (May Allah be pleased with him) reported: I found some companions of Allah's Messenger (Peace be upon him) as saying: Everything is by measure. And he further said: I heard `Abdullah Ibn 'Umar as saying: There is a measure for everything, even for incapacity and capability.” (Sahih Muslim)

     

    Q 139: How many are the ranks of affirming faith in the Divine Decree?

       A--- Affirming faith in the Divine Decree is of four ranks:

    First rank: Affirming faith in Allah's Knowledge that covers everything. Not even the weight of an atom (or a small ant) or less than that or greater in the heavens or the earth escapes His Knowledge. He knew all about His creatures before creating them: their sustenance, appointed terms, sayings, deeds, moves, secrets and public conferences, the residents of Hell from among them and also the residents of Paradise.

    Second rank: Affirming faith in the Pre­recording of all these (and others) and that He recorded and wrote down all that will exist or take place. This also covers affirming faith in Al-Lauh Al­-Mahfuz (the Book of Decrees).

    Third rank: Affirming faith in the Penetrative Will of Allah and His Comprehensive Omnipotence and that both are correlative. Both are correlative in regard with what had been and what would be, and there in no correlation between them in regard with what had not been or what would not be. For what is ever willed by Allah, it Allah, it would not certainly be, due to His Unwillingness and not to the lack of His Omnipotence over it. Allah says: {Allah is not such that anything in the heavens or in the earth escapes Him. Verily, He is All-Knowing, All-Omnipotent}. (Fatir, 44)

    Fourth rank: Affirming faith in Allah the Almighty, the Creature of everything. And that not even the weight of an atom (or a small ant) or less than that or greater in the heavens or in the earth but is created by Him. Glory is His, there is neither creator, nor Lord but He.

     

    Q 140: What is the textual proof that faith in Allah's Comprehensive Knowledge is one of faith ranks in His Divine Decree?

    A--- Allah the Almighty says: {He is Allah beside Whom La ilaha illa Huwa (none has the right to be worshipped but He) the All-Knower of the unseen and the seen}. (Al-Hashr,22)

    Allah the Almighty says: {And that Allah surrounds all things in (His) Knowledge}. (At­-Talaq,12)

    Allah the Almighty says: {The All-Knower of the Unseen, it will come to you,' not even the weight of an atom (or a small ant) or less than that or greater escapes His Knowledge in the heavens or in the earth}. (Saba', 3)

    Allah the Almighty says: {And with Him are the keys of the Ghaib (all that is hidden), none knows them but He. And He knows whatever there is in the land and in the sea,' not a leaf falls, but He knows it. There is not a grain in the darkness of the earth nor anything fresh or dry, but is written in a Clear Record}(Al-An' am, 59)

       Allah the Almighty says: {Allah knows best with whom to place His Message}. (Al-An'am, 124)

       Allah the Almighty says: {Truly, your Lord knows best who has gone astray from His Path, and He is the Best Aware of those who are guided}(An-Nahl, 125, & Al-Qalam, 7)

       Allah the Almighty says: {Does not Allah know best those who are grateful?}. (Al-An'am,53)

     

    Allah the Almighty says: {Is not Allah Best Aware of what is in the breasts of the `Alamin (mankind and jinn)}. (Al-`Ankabut, 10)

    Allah the Almighty says: {And (remember) when your Lord said to the angels: "Verily, I am going to place (mankind) generations after generations on earth." They said: "Will You place therein those who will make mischief therein and shed blood, -while we glorify You with praises and thanks and sanctify You." He (Allah) said: "I know that which you do not know"}. (Al-Baqarah, 30)

    Allah the Almighty says: {Jihad (Fighting in Allah's Cause) is ordained for you (Muslims) though you dislike it, and it may be that you dislike a thing which is good for you and that you like a thing which is bad for you. Allah knows but you do not know}. (Al-Baqarah, 216)

    Abu Hurairah (May Allah be pleased with him) reported that Allah's Messenger (Peace be upon him) was asked about the children of the polytheists, whereupon he said: "It is Allah Who knows best what they would be doing.” (Bukhari and Muslim)

    'A'ishah, the mother of the believers, said that Allah's Messenger (Peace be upon him) was called to lead the funeral prayer of a child of the Ansar. I said: Allah's Messenger, there is happiness for this child who is a bird from the birds of Paradise for it committed no sin nor has he reached the age when one can commit sin. He said: `A'ishah, per adventure, it may be otherwise, because God created for Paradise those who are fit for it while they were yet in their father's loins and created for Hell those who are to go to Hell. He created them for Hell while they were yet in their father's loins. " (Sahih Muslim)

    Sahl Ibn Sa'd (May Allah be pleased with him) reported it from Allah's Messenger (Peace be upon him) that a person performs deeds like the deeds of the people of Paradise apparently before people and he would be amongst the dwellers of Hell and a person acts apparently like the people of Hell, but (in fact) he would be among the dwellers of Paradise. " (Sahih Muslim)

    Narrated `Ali Ibn Abu Talib (May Allah be pleased with him): "We were accompanying a funeral procession in Baqi `-el-Gharqad. The Prophet (Peace be upon him) came to us and sat and we sat around him. He had a small stick in his hand then he bent his head and started scraping the ground with it. He then said: "There is none among you, and not a created soul, but has place either in Paradise or in Hell assigned for him and it is also determined for him whether he will be among the blessed or wretched." A man said: "O Allah's Messenger! Should we not depend on what has been

    written for us and leave the deeds as whoever amongst us is blessed will do the deeds of a blessed person and whoever amongst us will be wretched, will do the deeds of a wretched person?" The Prophet (Peace be upon him) said: "The good deeds are made easy for the blessed, and bad deeds are made easy for the wretched." Then he recited the verses: {As for him who gives (in charity) and is Allah-fearing and believes in the Best reward from Allah}(92.5-6) (Sahih Muslim)

     

    Q 141: What is the textual proof that faith in the Pre-recording of everything is one of faith ranks in His Divine Decree?

    A--- Allah the Almighty says: {And all things We have recorded with numbers (as a record) in a Clear Book}. (Ya-Sin, 12)

    Allah the Almighty says: (Verily, it is (all) in the Book (Al-Lauh Al-Mahfuz)}. (Al-Hajj, 70)

    He says in the debate between Moses and Pharaoh: {[Fir'aun (Pharaoh)] said: What about the generations of old? [Musa (Moses)] said: The knowledge thereof is with my Lord, in a Record. My Lord neither errs nor He forgets}. (Ta-Ha, 51, 52)

    Allah the Almighty says: {And no female conceives or gives birth but with His Knowledge. And no aged man is granted a length of life nor is a part cut off from his life (or another man's life), but is in a Book (Al-Lauh Al-Mahfuz). Surely, that is easy for Allah}. (Fatir, 11)

    All scholars of Hadith reported: We (some of the Prophet's companions) were in a funeral in the graveyard of Gharqad that Allah's Messenger (Peace be upon him) came to us and we sat around him. He had a stick with him. He lowered his head and began to scratch the earth with his stick, and then said: There is not one amongst you whom a seat in Paradise or Hell has not been allotted and about whom it has not been written down whether he would be an evil person or a blessed person. A person said: Allah's Messenger, should we not then depend upon our destiny and abandon our deeds? Thereupon he said: Acts of everyone will be facilitated in, that which has been created for him so that whoever belongs to the company of the blessed will have good works made easier for him and whoever belongs to the unfortunate ones will have evil acts made easier for him. He then              recited this verse (from the Qur'an): {Then, who gives to the needy and guards against evil and accepts the excellent (the truth of Islam and the path of righteousness it prescribes), We shall make easy for him the easy end and who is miserly and considers himself above need, We shall make easy for him the difficult end}. (XCii. 5-10) (Bukhari and Muslim)

     

     

     

    Q 142: How many Pre-ordainments are implied in this rank?

    A--- These are five, all of which belong to know ledge:

    First: Recording one's ordainments fifty thousand years before the creation of the heavens and the earth when the Pen was created by Allah the Almighty. This is called the Eternal Pre-ordainment.

    Second: The Life-time Pre-ordainment: when Allah the Almighty took the Covenant from the Children of Adam, {And (remember) when your Lord brought forth from the Children of Adam, from their loins, their seed (or from Adam's loin his offspring) and made them testify as to themselves (saying): "Am I not your Lord?" They said: "Yes! We testify," lest you should say on the Day of Resurrection: "Verily, we have been unaware of this." Or lest you should say: "It was only our fathers aforetime who took others as partners in worship along with Allah. And we were (merely their) descendants after them; will You then destroy us because of the deeds of men who practiced Al-Batil (i.e. polytheism and committing crimes and sins, invoking and worshipping others

    besides Allah)?”). (Al-A' raf, 172, 173)

    Third: The Life-time Pre-ordainment: when the Nutfah (mixed drops of male and female sexual discharge) is given life inside the womb.

       Fourth: The Annual Pre-ordainment: on Lailat Al-Qadr the Night of Might.

       Fifth: The Daily Pre-ordainment: which is carrying out all these at their proper times.

     

     

     

    Q 143: What is the textual proof of the Eternal Pre-ordainment?

    A--- Allah the Almighty says: {No calamity befalls on the earth or in yourselves but it is inscribed in the Book of Decrees (Al-Lauh Al­Mahfuz) before We bring it into existence}. (Al-­Hadid, 22)

    'Abdullah Ibn 'Amr Ibn Al-'As (May Allah be pleased with them) reported: "I heard Allah's Messenger (Peace be upon him) as saying: 'Allah ordained the measures (of quality) of the creation fifty thousand years before He created the heavens and the earth, as His Throne was upon water.’”(Muslim)

    Jabir (May Allah be pleased with him) reported that          Suraqah Ibn Malik came and said: Allah's Messenger, explain our religion to us (in away) as if we have been created just now. Whosoever deeds we do today, is it because of the fact that -the Pens have dried (after recording them) and the destinies have began to operate or these have effects in future? Thereupon, he said: The pens have dried and destinies have begun to operate. (Suraqah Ibn Malik) said: If it is so, then what is the use of doing good deeds? Zuhair said: Then Abu Zubair said something but I could not understand that and I said: What did he say? Thereupon, he said: Act, for everyone is facilitated what he intends to do.” (Sahih Bukhari)

    Narrated Abu Hurairah (May Allah be pleased with him): I said: "O Allah's Messenger! I am a young man and I am afraid that I may commit illegal sexual intercourse and I cannot afford to marry.” He kept silent, and then repeated my question once again, but he kept silent. I said the same (for the third time) and he remained silent. Then repeated my question (for the fourth time), and only then the Prophet (Peace be upon him) said: "O Abu Hurairah! The Pen has dried after writing what you are going to confront. So (it does not matter whether you) get yourself castrated or not.”(Sahih Bukhari)

     

     

    Q 144: What is the textual proof of the Life-time Pre-ordainment on the Day of Covenant?

    A--- Allah the Almighty says: {And (remember) when your Lord brought forth from the Children of Adam, from their loins, their seed (or from Adam's loin his offspring) and made them testify as to themselves (saying): "Am I not your Lord?" They said: "Yes! We testify"}. (Al-A' raf, 172)

    Ibn Ishaq Ibn Rahawaih narrated that a man said: "O Allah's Messenger! Are deeds to be initiated, or is everything already ordained?' He (Peace be upon him) said: 'When Allah the Almighty brought out the Children of Adam from his loin, He made them testify as to themselves, then He put them in His Palm and said: 'these are for Paradise and these are for Hell-:fire. The people of Paradise are facilitated for them the deeds of the people of Paradise, and the people of Hellfire are facilitated for them the deeds of the people of Hellfire. "

    In Al-Muwata' of Imam Malik: 'Vmar Ibn AI­Khattab (May Allah be pleased with him) was asked about this verse: {And (remember) when your Lord brought forth from the Children of Adam, from their loins, their seed (or from Adam's loin his offspring) and made them testify as to themselves (saying): "Am I not your Lord?" They said: "Yes! We testify, "}. (Al-A'raf, 172) He (`Umar) said: "I heard Allah's Messenger (Peace be upon him) when asked (the same question) about it saying: 'Allah, Glory is His, created Adam, then He wiped his back with His Right Hand, till He brought out. of him offspring and said: 'I created these for Paradise and (so) they will proceed to the deeds of the people of Paradise.' Then, He wiped his back and brought out of him offspring and said: 'I created these for Hell­fire and (so) they will proceed to the deeds of the people of Hellfire.’” (Malik, Abu Dawud, Ahmed and At- Tirmidhi)

       In At-Tirmidhi: 'Abdullah Ibn 'Amr (May Allah be pleased with them) said: Allah's Messenger (Peace be upon him) came out to us holding two books in his hands. He said: "'Do you know what these two books are?' We said: 'No, Allah's Messenger! Would you tell us?' He said pertaining to that in his right hand, 'This is a Book from the Lord of the Worlds, in which there are names of the people of Paradise, the names of their fathers and tribes, none will ever be added, nor taken away therefrom.’ Then, he said pertaining to that which is in his left hand, 'This is a Book from the Lord of the Worlds, in which there are names of the people of Hell-fire, the names of their fathers and tribes, none will ever be added, nor taken away therefrom. The companions of the Prophet (Peace be upon him) said: 'Why do we then labor while everything is settled down?' He (Peace be upon him) said: 'Be sure you are on the right course, and if you fail to observe this perfectly, try to do as much as you can (to live up to this ideal of moderation), the deeds of one from among the people of Paradise would be concluded with a good deed no matter what he did.’ Then, he (Peace be upon him) said: 'Your Lord accomplished (all that concerns) the slaves: a group in Paradise and a group in Hell-fire.” At-Tirmidhi said: This is a Good, Authentic Hadith.

     

    Q 145: What is the textual proof of the Life-time Pre-ordainment when the Nutfah is first created?

    A--- Allah the Almighty says: {He knows you well when He created you from the earth (Adam), and when you were fetuses in your mothers' wombs. So ascribe not purity to yourselves. He knows best him who fears Allah and keeps his duty to Him (i.e. those who are Al-Muttaqun (the pious)}.(An-­Najm, 32)

       Narrated' Abdullah Ibn Mas'ud (May Allah be pleased with him): Allah's Messenger, the true and truly inspired said: "(The matter of the Creation of) a human being is put together in the womb of the mother in forty days, and then he becomes a clot of thick blood for a similar period, and then a piece of flesh for a similar period. Then Allah sends an angel who is ordered to write four things. He is ordered to write down his (i.e. the new creature's) deeds, his livelihood, his (date of) death, and whether he will be blessed or wretched (in religion). Then the soul is breathed into him. So, a man amongst you may do (good deeds till there is only a cubit between him and Paradise and then what has been written for him decides his behavior and he starts doing (evil) deeds characteristic of the people of the (Hell) Fire. And similarly a man amongst you may do (evil) deeds till there is only a cubit between him and the (Hell) Fire and then what has been written for him decides his behavior, and he starts doing deeds characteristic of the people of Paradise.” (Bukhari and Muslim)

     

    Q 146: What is the textual proof of the Annual Pre-ordainment that takes place during Lailat Al­-Qadr (the Night of Might)?

    A--- Allah the Almighty says: {Therein (that night is decreed every matter of ordainments. As a Command (or this Qur'an or the Decree of every matter)from Us}(Ad-Dukhan, 4, 5)

    Ibn 'Abbas (May Allah be pleased with them) said: It is copied from Al-Lauh Al-Mahfuz on the Night of Might the matters of deaths, births, provisions, calamities, etc. for the whole (coming) year as decreed   by Allah. Even names of the pilgrims: it is said: so and so will perform Hajj, and so and so will perform Hajj.

     

    Q 147: What is the textual proof of the Daily Pre­ordainment?

       A--- Allah the Almighty says: {Everyday He is (engaged) in some affair (such as giving honor or disgrace to some, life or death to some, etc.)!}. (Ar-Rahman, 29)

    In AI-Hakim's Sahih, Ibn 'Abbas (May Allah be pleased with them) said: "Among the things created by Allah the Almighty is Al-Lauh Al-Mahfuz, (it is created) from a white pearl; its two covers are made of a ruby; its Pen is light; its Book is light; every day, He looks at it three hundred and sixty looks or times. In each look He creates, provides, gives life, ordains death, gives honor, grants humiliation, and does all that He wills. This is the meaning of His Saying: {Everyday He is (engaged) in some affair!} (Ar-Rahman, 29)(A Weak Hadith compiled by Al-Hakim)

     

    All these types of Pre-ordainments are details of the Eternal one that which Allah the Almighty ordered the Pen to write in AI-Lauh AI-Mahfuz. In this sense, the following Qur'anic verse was interpreted by Ibn 'Umar and Ibn 'Abbas (May Allah be pleased with them): {Verily, We were recording what you used to do (i. e. Our angels used to record your deeds)}. (Al-Jathiyah, 29)

    All this springs from Allah's Knowledge that is His Quality and Attribute, All Glory and Praise are His!

     

    Q 148: What are the requirements of Pre­ordainments?

    A ---All the Divine Books and the Prophetic Sunnah agreed upon that the Pre-ordainment does not nullify or negate acting or performing deeds and that it does not necessitate complete reliance. On the contrary, it necessitates seriousness, diligence, and being keen on performing good deeds. That's why when Prophet Muhammad (Peace be upon him) informed his honorable companions about Pre­ordainment and about the drying of the Pen, and some of them said: If it is so, then what is the use of doing good deeds?, he (Peace be upon him) says: Act, for everyone is facilitated towards what he intends to do." Then, he (Peace be upon him) recited: {As for him who gives (in charity) and keeps his duty to Allah and fears Him. And believes in Al-Husna. We will make smooth for him the path of ease (goodness). But he who is greedy miser and thinks himself self-sufficient. And belies Al-­Husna. We will make smooth for him the path for evil.}. (Al-Lail, 5-10)

    Verily, Allah the Almighty destined the ordainments and fashioned their means. He is the All Wise in all that He introduced of the means for living in this present life and the Hereafter. He facilitated for all His creatures all that He created for them. So, if the slave knows that the benefit of his forthcoming life is linked to and correlative with the means set for it in this present life, he will be more keen on acting upon and according to them. One of the Prophet's companions said when heard the Hadiths pertaining to Pre-ordainment: I have never been more diligent than I am at present."

    The Prophet (Peace be upon him) says: "Cherish that which gives you benefit (in the Hereafter) and seek help from Allah and do not lose heart.” He (Peace be upon him) said when he was told: What do you think of medicine we take as treatment and Ruqyah [2] that we apply. Can any of these defeat the Divine Decree of Allah? He (Peace be upon him) said: "All these are from among the Divine Decree. " (Ahmed, At-Tirmidhi and Ibn Majah) This means that Allah the Almighty decreed good and evil and the means for each one of them.

     

    Q 149: What is the textual proof of the third rank: affirming faith in the Willingness of Allah?

       A ---Allah the Almighty says: (But you cannot will, unless Allah wills)(Al-Insan, 30)

       Allah the Almighty says: {And never say of anything"I shall do such and such thing tomorrow." Except (with the saying), "if Allah will!"}(Al-Kahf, 23, 24)

    Allah the Almighty says: {Allah sends astray whom He wills and He guides on the Straight Path whom He wills}(Al-An' am, 39)

    Allah the Almighty says: {And had Allah willed, He could have made you (all) one nation}. (Al-­Ma'idah, 48 & An-Nahl, 93)

    Allah the Almighty says: {And if Allah had willed, He could have made them one nation}. (Ash-Shura, 8)

       Allah the Almighty says: {But if it had been Allah's Will, He Himself could certainly have punished them (without you)}. (Muhammad, 4)

       Allah the Almighty says: {(He is the) Doer of whatsoever He intends (or wills)}. (Al-Buruj, 16)

    Allah the Almighty says: {Verily, His Command, when He intends thing, is only that He says to it, 'Be!" - and it is!}. (Ya-Sin, 82)

    Allah the Almighty says: {Verily! Our Word unto thing when We intend it, is only that We say unto it: "Be!" - and it is!}. (An-Nahl, 40)

    Allah the Almighty says: {And whomsoever Allah wills to guide, He opens his breast to Islam,. and whomsoever He wills to send astray, He makes his breast closed and constricted, as if he is climbing up to the sky}. (Al-An'am, 125)

    'Abdullah Ibn 'Amr Ibn Al-'As (May Allah be pleased with them) reported that he heard Allah's Messenger (Peace be upon him) as saying: "Verily, the hearts of all the sons of Adam are between the two fingers out of the fingers of the Compassionate Lord as one heart. He turns that to any (direction) He likes. Then Allah's Messenger (Peace be upon him) said: 0 Allah! The Turner of the hearts, turn our hearts to Thine Obedience.” (Sahih Muslim)

    Narrated' Abdullah Ibn Abu Qatadah (May Allah be pleased with him): My father said: "One night we were traveling with the Prophet (Peace be upon him) and some people said: 'We wish that Allah's Messenger would take rest along with us during the last hours of the night.’ He said: 'I am afraid that you will sleep and miss the (Fajr) prayer.’ Bilal said: 'I will make you get up,’ So all slept and Bilal rested his back against his Rahila (riding-camel) and he too was overwhelmed (by sleep) and slept. The Prophet (Peace be upon him) got up when the edge of the sun had risen and said: 'O Bilal! What about your statement?' He replied, 'I have never slept such a sleep. ‘The Prophet (Peace be upon him) said: 'Allah captured your souls when He wished, and released them when He wished. 0 Bilal! Get up and pronounce the Adhan (the call to prayer) for the prayer.’ The Prophet (Peace be upon him) performed ablution and when the sun came up and became bright, he stood up and prayed.” (Bukhari and Muslim)

    Narrated Abu Musa (May Allah be pleased with him): Whenever a beggar or a person in need of something came to the Prophet (Peace be upon him), he used to say (to his companions), "Intercede (for him) and you will be rewarded for that, and Allah will fulfill what He will through His Messenger's tongue.” (Bukhari and Muslim)

    Narrated Mu' awiyah (May Allah be pleased with him): I heard Allah's Messenger saying, "If Allah wants to do good to person, He makes him comprehend the religion. I am just a distributor, but the grant is from Allah. (And remember) that this nation (true Muslims) will keep on following Allah's teachings strictly and they will not be harmed by any one going on a different path till Allah's Order (Day of Judgment) is established.” (Bukhari and Muslim)

    Abu Musa (May Allah be pleased with him) reported Allah's Messenger (Peace be upon him) as saying: When Allah, the Exalted and Glorious, intends to show mercy to an Ummah from amongst His servants He calls back His Messenger to his eternal home and makes hima harbinger and recompense in the world to come; and when He intends to cause destruction to an Ummah, He punishes it while its Messenger is alive and He destroys it as he (the Messenger) witnesses it and he cools his eyes by destruction as they had belied him and disobeyed his command.” (Sahih Muslim)

     

    Q 150: Allah the Almighty informed us in His Book, on the tongue of His Messenger, and through His Attributes that He loves the charitable, pious and patient ones and that He is pleased with those who believed and observed good deeds. And that He dislikes the disbelievers and the transgressors and He does not satisfy Himself with the disbelief of His slaves or their mischief. Though all this is only done by the Will of Allah and His Wish and that had it been His .Will, nothing of these would have been done as nothing can be observed throughout His Dominion without His Consent and Will. So, what should the answer be to the one who says: How can it be heeded that Allah wills and wishes what He dislikes or does not want?

     

    A--- One should know that "the Will" mentioned in the texts is of two meanings:

    (a) A Universal Pre-ordainment Will: which is the Divine Will that has no correlation with love or pleasantness, but, it implies disbelief, faith, deeds of obedience, deeds of disobedience, satisfactory deeds, what is beloved, and what is disliked, etc. This type of "Will" can not be escaped by anyone - believer and disbeliever -; it is inevitable. Almighty Allah says: {And whomsoever Allah wills to guide, He opens his breast to Islam; and whomsoever He wills to send astray, He makes his breast closed and constricted}. (Al-An' am, 125)

    Allah the Almighty says: {And whomsoever Allah wants to put in Al-Fitnah [error, because of his rejecting of Faith), you can do nothing for him against Allah. Those are the ones whose hearts Allah does not want to purify (from disbelief and hypocrisy)}. (Al-Ma'idah, 41)

    (b) A Legal Religious Will: which is concerned with what is pleasant and beloved by Allah, and according to which, He ordered and forbade His slaves. Almighty Allah says: {Allah intends for you ease, and He does not want to make things difficult for you}(Al-Baqarah, 185)

    Allah the Almighty says: {Allah wishes to make clear (what is lawful and what is unlawful) to you and to show you the ways of those before you, and accept your repentance, and Allah is All-Knower, All-Wise}(An-Nisa', 26)

    The Universal Will comes first in rank. In this way, the Universal and the Religious Wills correlate in regard to the obedient believer; whereas only the Universal one can be found in regard to the disobedient disbeliever. As, Allah the Almighty called upon all His slaves to please Him, but He guided from among them only those He willed. He, all Praise is His, says: {Allah calls to the Home of Peace (i.e. Paradise, by accepting Allah's religion of Islamic Monotheism and by doing righteous good deeds and abstaining from polytheism and evil deeds) and guides whom He wills to the Straight Path}(Yunus, 25)

    Allah the Almighty generalized the call, but privatized the guidance to whom He willed: {Verily, your Lord it is He Who knows best him who goes astray from His Path, and He knows best him who receives guidance}. (An-Najm, 30)

     

    [1] Hur: Very fair females created by Allah as such, not from the offspring of Adam (Peace be upon him), with intense black irises of their eyes and intense white scleras. [For details see the book Hadi Al-Arwah by Ibn Al-Qaiyim, Chapter 64, Page 147]. (Translator)

    [2] Ruqyah: Divine Speech recited as a means of curing disease. (It is a kind of treatment, i.e. to recite Surah Al-Fatihah or any other Surah of the Qur'an and then blow one's breath with salvia over a sick person's body-part). (Translator)

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