The 200 FAQ On Muslim Belief

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  • The 200 FAQ On Muslim Belief

  • Q 151: What is the textual proof of the fourth rank: Affirming faith that Allah is the Creator of everything?

    A ---Allah the Almighty says: {Allah is the Creator of all things, and He is the Wakil (Trustee, Disposer of affairs, Guardian) over all things}. (Az-Zumar, 62)

       Allah the Almighty says: {Is there any creator other than Allah who provides for you from the sky (rain) and the earth?} (Fatir, 3)

       Allah the Almighty says: {This is the creation of Allah. So show Me that which those (whom you worship) besides Him have created}. (Luqman, 11)

    Allah the Almighty says: {Allah is He Who. created you, then provided food for you, then will cause you to die, then (again) He will give you life (on the Day of Resurrection). Is there any of your (so-called) partners (of Allah) that do anything of that?}. (Ar-Rum, 40)

       Allah the Almighty says: {While Allah has created you and what you make!}. (As-Saffat, 96)

    Allah the Almighty says: {By Nafs (Adam or a person or a soul), and Him Who perfected him in proportion; then He showed him what is wrong for him and what is right for him}. (Ash-Shams, 7, 8)

       Allah the Almighty says: {Whomsoever Allah guides, he is the guided one, and whomsoever He sends astray, - then those! They are the losers}. (Al-A'raf, 178)

       Allah the Almighty says: {But Allah has endeared the Faith to you and has beautified it in your hearts, and has made disbelief, wickedness and disobedience (to Allah and His Messenger (Peace be upon him) hateful to you}. (Al-Hujurat, 7)

    Narrated Imam Al-Bukhari on the authority of Hudhaifah, "Verily, Allah creates every maker and his making (i.e. what he makes).” (Sahih Bukhari)

    Zaid Ibn 'Alqam (May Allah be pleased with him) reported: I am not going to say anything but only that which Allah's Messenger (Peace be upon him) used to say. He used to supplicate: "O Allah, I seek refuge in Thee from incapacity, from sloth, from cowardice, from miserliness, decrepitude and from torment of the grave. Allah, grant to my soul the sense of righteousness and purify it, for Thou art the Best Purifier thereof Thou art the Protecting Friend thereof, and Guardian thereof Allah, I seek refuge in Thee from the knowledge which does not benefit, from the heart that does not entertain the fear (of Allah), from the soul that does not feel contented and the supplication       that is not responded.” (Sahih Muslim)


    Q 152: What does the following statement of the Prophet (Peace be upon him) mean: "And all the goodness is in Your Hand; and the evil is not (attributed) to You”?

    A--- This means that all the Acts of Allah the Almighty are pure and absolute good as they are attributed to Him and emanate only from Him. They have no relation to evil. As Allah the Almighty is All Wise, All Just, and all His Acts are Wisdom and Justice. He settles everything in their proper locations. Whereas, were there any degree of evil included in the ordainment, it would be on the part of the slave whom may be inflicted with destruction due to what he has earned himself, in just and full measure. Allah the Almighty says: {And whatever of misfortune befalls you, it is because of what your hands have earned. And He pardons much}. (Ash-Shura, 30)

    Allah the Almighty says: {We wronged them not, but they were the Zalimun (polytheists, wrong­doers)}. (Az-Zukhruf, 76)

    Allah the Almighty says: {Truly! Allah wrongs not mankind in aught; but mankind wrong themselves}. (Yunus, 44)


    Q 153: Do the slaves have any kind of will or ability over their acts?

    A--- Yes, they have ability and will over their acts. Their acts are actually attributed to them. They are charged therewith, rewarded and punished with accordance thereto, and Allah charged only with what they can afford. He affirmed this in His Glorious Qur'an and the Prophetic Sunnah. But, they show ability only for what He enabled them, they show will only for what He willed, they can do only what He makes them doers thereto. Just as they could not create themselves, they can not create their acts. Thus, their ability, will, and acts follow His Ability, Will and Acts, as He is their Creator and the Creator of their ability, will, and acts. Moreover, their ability, will, and acts are not the same as Allah's Ability, Will, and Act, just as they are not Him Himself. Allah the Almighty is far above this! But, their created acts suit them and are actually attributed to them. Allah is the real Doer, and the slave is the real influenced (creature), Allah is the real Guide, and the slave is the real guided (creature), thus, He attributed each of the two acts to each doer. He says: {He whom Allah guides, he is the rightly guided}. (Al-Kahf, 17) By attributing guidance to Allah and receiving guidance to the slave. As the guidance-giver is unlike the guidance ­receiver, the guidance is unlike receiving guidance. By the same token, Allah the Almighty misleads whomsoever He wills, and that slave is seen as a real astray. This is the same of Allah's Acting regarding His slaves. So, he who attributes the act and the influence to the slave, he becomes a disbeliever; and he who attributes both to Allah, he becomes a disbeliever; and he who attributes the act to the Creator and the influence to the creature, he is the true believer.


    Q 154: How can we answer the following question: Isn't Allah Able to make all His slaves obedient and guided believers?

    A--- Yes, He is Able to do so as He Himself showed in His Glorious Qur'an saying, {And had Allah willed, He could have made you (all) one nation, but He sends astray whom He wills and guides whom He wills. But you shall certainly be called to account for what you used to do}. (Al-­Ma'idah, 48 & An-Nahl, 93)

    Allah the Almighty says: {And had your Lord willed, those on earth would have believed, all of them together}. (Yunus, 99)

    But, that which He did to them is the requirement of His Wisdom, and the sign of His Lordship, Worship and Names and Attributes. Thus, whosoever says: "Why are there - from among His slaves -the obedient and the disobedient?" This is just like his saying: "Why are there among His Names: the Harm Inflicting and the Benefit Giver, the Giver and the Preventer, the Humiliator and the Raiser, etc." As His Acts are the requirements of His Names and the effects of His Attributes. Thereupon, objecting to His Acts, is like objecting to His Names, Attributes, Worship and Lordship: {Glorified is Allah, the Lord of the Throne, (High is He) above all that (evil) they associate with Him! He cannot be questioned as to what He does, while they will be questioned}. (Al-Anbiya', 22, 23)


    Q 155: What is the position of affirming faith in the Divine Decree in religion?

    A--- Affirming faith in the Divine Decree is required by Tawhid (Oneness of Allah), and affirming faith in the means bringing forth its good and blocking up its evil is required by Iman (Faith). However, the matter of religion can not be sound or perfect unless one believes in the Divine Decree and be obedient to Shar'(Legislation). As the Prophet (Peace be upon him) affirmed the matter of Divine Decree, then he answered the one who said to him: "Allah's Messenger! Should we not then depend upon our destiny and abandon our deeds? Thereupon, he (Peace be upon him) said: Acts of everyone will be facilitated according to that which each has been created for so that whoever belongs to the company of the blessed will have good works made easier for him and whoever belongs to the unfortunate ones will have evil acts made easier for him.” (Sahih Bukhari)

    Thus, whoever negates the Divine Decree falsely claiming its contradiction with the Legislation, he disables the Knowledge and Ability of Allah, and declares the slave independent and creator of his own deeds. Hence, he appoints another god besides Allah, rather, he claims that all creatures are creators.

    Whoever holds it as an argument against Shar’ (Legislation), negating the ability and the right to choice of the slave granted by Allah the Almighty to him and accordingly is charged with duties, and falsely claiming that Allah charged His slaves with what they can not afford. In doing this, he attributes injustice to Allah the Almighty, tracing the footsteps of the Cursed One, Satan who said: {Because You have sent me astray, surely I will sit in wait against them (human beings) on Your Straight Path}. (Al­-A'raf, 16)

    As for the true believers, they believe in the Divine Decree about good and evil, and in that Allah is the Creator of all this. They submit themselves to the Legislation: orders and forbidding. They adjudicate themselves to it in secret and public. They believed that guidance and misleading are at Allah's Hand. He guides whom He wills with His Grace, and misleads whom He wills with His Justice and He is the Best Knower of the places proper for receiving His Grace and Justice: {Verily, your Lord it is He Who knows best him who goes astray from His Path, and He knows best him who receives guidance}. (An-Najm, 30)

    They also believe in that He has Perfect Wisdom and Penetrative Argument, and that reward and punishment are dependent on Legislation and not on Divine Decree. They only console themselves with Divine Decree on time of calamities, but when they are given a good virtue, they attribute it to its owner, saying: {All the praises and thanks be to Allah, Who has guided us to this, and never could we have found guidance, were it not that Allah had guided us!}. (Al-A'raf,43)

    They do not say as said by the dissolute {This has been given to me only because of the knowledge I possess}. (Al-Qasas, 78)

    When they commit a sin, they say: {Our Lord! We have wronged ourselves. If You forgive us not, and bestow not upon us Your Mercy, we shall certainly be of the losers}. (Al-A' raf, 23)

       They do not say as said by the Devil: {O my Lord! Because you misled me!}(Al-Hijr, 39)

    When they are afflicted with a calamity, they say: {Truly! To Allah we belong and truly to Him we shall return}. (Al-Baqarah, 156)

    They do not say as said by those who disbelieved: {Who say to their brethren when they travel through the earth or go out to fight: "If they had stayed with us, they would not have died or been killed," so that Allah may make it a cause of regret in their hearts. It is Allah that gives life and causes death. And Allah is All-Seer of what you do}. (Al' Imran, 156)


    Q 156: How many are the branches of Iman (Faith)?

    A--- Allah the Almighty says: {It is not Al-Birr (piety, righteousness, and each and every act of obedience to Allah, etc.) that you turn your faces towards east and (or) west (in prayers); but Al-Birr is (the quality of) the one who believes in Allah, the Last Day, the Angels, the Book, the Prophets and gives his wealth, in spite of love for it, to the kinsfolk, to the orphans, and to Al-Masakin (the poor), and to the wayfarer, and to those who ask, and to set slaves free, performs As-Salat (Iqamat­as-Salat), and gives the Zakah, and who fulfill their covenant when they make it, and who are patient in extreme poverty and ailment (disease) and at the time of fighting (during the battles). Such are the people of the truth and they are Al-Muttaqun (the pious)}(Al-Baqarah, 177)

    It is narrated on the authority of Abu Hurairah (May Allah be pleased with him) that Allah's Messenger (Peace be upon him) says: "Faith has over seventy branches or over sixty branches, the most excellent of which is the declaration that there is no god but Allah, and the humblest of which is the, removal of what is injurious from the path: and modesty is the branch of faith.” (Bukhari & Muslim)


    Q 157: How did scholars interpret these branches?

    A--- Some of the scholars of Hadith counted them and contributed many books and introduced various explanations in this respect. They perfected the job and presented (us with) great benefit. However, knowing their count is not a prerequisite of Faith. It suffices to affirm one's faith in them in general. Moreover, they are no more than what is mentioned in the Glorious Qur'an and the Prophetic Sunnah whom one should stick to their orders, avoid their prohibitions, and believe in their news (pertaining to past, present and future). Finally, all that they counted are true aspects of faith, but to be positive about that these are the real intention of the Prophet (Peace be upon him) as intended by this Hadith is something that no one can confirm.


    Q 158: Mention what they counted?

    A--- Al-Hafiz summarized in Al-Fath what was mentioned by Ibn Hibban, saying: These branches are divided into three categories:

    (a) Deeds of the heart

    (b) Deeds of the tongue

    (c) Deeds of the organs

    They are explained as follows:

    Deeds of the heart: cover beliefs and intentions. These encompass   the following twenty-four branches:

    Affirming faith in Allah which includes affirming faith in His Entity, Attributes, that nothing resembles Him Who is the All Hearer, the All Seer, and that all other than Him is created. Deeds of the heart also include an affirming faith in His Angels, His Books, His Messenger, the Divine Decree about good and evil, the Last Day: including the questioning in the grave, resurrection, revival, reckoning, the Balance, the Straight Path, Paradise and Hell-fire. They also cover affirming faith in Allah's Love; loving and hating for His Sake; love of Prophet Muhammad (Peace be upon him); affirming faith in honoring .him: sending prayers upon him, his household and following his Prophetic Sunnah (way of life). They also cover affirming faith in sincerity: including avoiding showing off and hypocrisy. They also cover repentance, fear, hope, thank-giving, gratefulness, patience, satisfaction with the Pre-ordainment, reliance on Allah, mercy; modesty: including respecting the old and showing mercy to the young, and avoiding arrogance, conceitedness, envy, spite and anger.

    Deeds of the tongue: cover seven branches. These are as follows:

    Pronouncing Tawhid, reciting the Qur'an, learning, teaching (conveying) knowledge, supplication, Dhikr (remembrance of Allah), and forgiveness and avoiding Laghw (dirty, false, evil vain talk).

    Deeds of the organs: cover thirty-eight branches, fifteen of which pertain to bodies. These are as follows:

    Purification in all aspects, i.e. avoiding impurities, covering the private parts.. .etc., performing obligatory and supererogatory prayers, paying Zakah, freeing of slaves, generosity (i.e. feeding people, hospitality), obligatory and supererogatory fasting, Hajj (Major Pilgrimage), 'Umrah (Minor Pilgrimage), Tawaf (Circumambulating around the Ka' bah), I'tikaf (Seclusion in the mosque for the purpose of worship), observing Lailat AI-Qadr (the Night of Might), escaping with one's religion (i.e. migrating from the land of polytheism), fulfilling vows, protecting their oaths, and paying expiations.

    In addition, six branches are pertaining to one's close people: these are as follows: Preserving chastity through marriage, maintaining the children, being good to parents: avoiding impiety to them, bringing up the children, strengthening the ties of kinship, obeying masters, and showing mercy to slaves.

    Still, seventeen branches are due on the part of the public: assuming leadership with justice, sticking to the Jama'ah (Community), obeying the authorities, compromising between adversaries: (fighting against rebels and oppressors), cooperating in righteousness: enjoining what is good, and forbidding what is evil, and executing the Legal Penalties; Jihad: guarding the frontiers; keeping of trust: paying the Khumus (one-fifth of the booty fallen to one's lot); lending and paying the loan back; being generous to neighbors; good treatment: earning money by lawful means and spending it by its right, avoiding wasting and excessiveness; returning the greeting and replying to the sneezer: saying, "May Allah be Merciful on you," provided the sneezer says: "All the Praises are for Allah", avoiding harming the people, avoiding idle talk, and removal of harm from the people's path.

    These are sixty-nine branches; they can be counted as seventy-nine by way of counting the sub-­branches as well. And, Allah is the Best Knower!


    Q 159: What is the textual proof of Ihsan (Perfection of Faith) from the Glorious Qur'an and the Prophetic Sunnah?

    A ---Allah the Almighty says{And spend in the Cause of Allah (i.e. Jihad of all kinds) and do not throw yourselves into destruction (by not spending your wealth in the Cause of Allah) and do good. Truly, Allah loves Al-Muhsinun (the good-doers)}(Al-Baqarah, 195)

    Allah the Almighty says: {Truly, Allah is with those who fear Him (keep their duty unto Him), and those who are Muhsinun (good-doers)}. (An-­Nahl, 128)

       Allah the Almighty says: {And whosoever submits his face (himself) to Allah, while he is a Muhsin (good-doer i.e. performs good deeds totally for Allah's sake without any show off or to gain praise or fame and does them in accordance with the Sunnah of Allah's Messenger Muhammad (Peace be upon him)), then he has grasped the most trustworthy hand-hold [La ilaha illallah (none has the right to be worshipped but Allah)]}. (Luqman, 22)

    Allah the Almighty says: {For those who have done good is the best (reward, i.e. Paradise) and even more (i.e. having the honor of glancing at the Countenance of Allah the Almighty)}. (Yunus, 26)

       Allah the Almighty says: {Is there any reward for good other than good?}. (Ar-Rahman, 60)

       Allah's Messenger (Peace be upon him) says: "Verily, Allah ordained Ihsan (Perfection of Faith) on everything.” (Sahih Muslim)

    He (Peace be upon him) says: "Blessed is the slave who dies while worshipping Allah properly, and serving his master properly, blessed is he.” (Bukhari and Muslim)


    Q 160: What does Ihsan (perfection of Faith) in worship mean?

    A--- The Prophet (Peace be upon him) explained it when asked about it by Gabriel (Peace be upon him) saying: "That you worship Allah as if you are seeing Him, for though you don't see Him, He, verily, sees you." (Bukhari and Muslim) Thus, the Prophet (Peace be upon him) explained that there are two different ranks:

    First: The Seeing rank: that the worshiper acts upon his seeing of Allah the Almighty with his heart. This means that the heart gets illuminated with the light of faith, the insight gets sharper till the unseen becomes visible before his eyes. Verily, this is the reality of the Ihsan (Perfection of Faith) rank.

    Second: The Watching rank: that the worshipper recalls the Watching of Allah over him and His Nearness and Knowing of all things (pertaining to him). Upon this, if the worshipper recalls this while acting and acted thereupon, he will be loyal to Allah. This is because this prevents him from caring for other than Allah the Almighty upon performing acts. The reward of the people of these two ranks differs according to each one's pure and live insight.


    Q 161: What contradicts Iman (Faith)?

    A--- Disbelief contradicts Faith. Disbelief has different branches just as Faith does. We knew earlier that faith is basically a submissive belief that requires complete submission to deeds of obedience. So, disbelief is basically a kind of rejection and stubbornness that incurs arrogance and disobedience. Thereupon, all deeds of obedience are among the branches of belief; while all deeds of disobedience are among the branches of disbelief. Moreover, one should know that there are two types of disbelief: the Major Disbelief, which excludes one completely from the fold of Islam. This is the dogmatic disbelief that contradicts the utterance of the heart and its deeds or one of them. And, the Minor Disbelief, which does not exclude one from the fold of Islam. It only contradicts the perfection of belief. This is the so-called practical disbelief that contradicts neither the utterance of the heart, nor its deeds. It does not require or necessitate this as well.


    Q 162: Explain how does dogmatic disbelief exclude one from the fold of Islam?

    A--- You knew earlier that belief comprises an utterance and deeds: uttering of the heart and tongue, and deeds of the heart, tongue and organs.

    The utterance of the heart is to affirm one's belief. And, the utterance of the tongue is to say the Two Testimonies. Deeds of the heart are intention and sincerity. Deeds of the organs cover all deeds of obedience. So, if these four were gone -utterance of the heart and its deeds, utterance of the tongue and deeds of the organs -, belief in total is gone. Moreover, if the conviction of the heart is gone, the rest becomes of no good. As, conviction of the heart is a precondition for their existence and effectiveness. This is like one who belied the Names and Attributes of Allah or any of             what the Messengers were sent with or that which was revealed in the Books of Allah the Almighty. Moreover, in case Deeds of the heart alone were gone, scholars unanimously agree on that belief is gone too. As, believing without the existence of the deeds of the heart (intention and sincerity) is in vain. The same is applicable to Iblis (Satan), Fir'aun (Pharaoh) and his folks, the Jews and polytheists who saw the truthfulness of Prophet Muhammad (Peace be upon him) and confess it in public and secret, but used to say: He is not a liar, but we will neither follow, nor believe in him.


    Q 163: How many are the divisions of Major Disbelief?

    A--- These are four: [Kufr Jahl wa Takdhib] Disbelief of ignorance and refusal, [Kufr Juhud] Disbelief of denial, [Kufr 'lnad and Istikbar] Disbelief of arrogance and stubbornness, and [Kufr Nifaq] Disbelief of hypocrisy.


    Q 164: What does "Kufr Jahl wa Takdhib" mean?

    A ---It means the inward and outward disbelief such as those disbelievers from among the people of Quraish and the previous nations. Regarding them, Allah the Almighty says: {Those who deny the Book (this Qur'an), and that with which We sent our Messengers (i.e. to worship none but Allah Alone sincerely, and to reject all false deities and to confess resurrection after the death for recompense) they will come to know (when they will be cast into the Fire of Hell)}. (Ghafir,70)

    Allah the Almighty says: {And turn away from the foolish (i.e. don't punish them)}. (Al-A' raf, 199)

    Allah the Almighty says: {And (remember) the Day when We shall gather out of every nation a troop of those who denied Our Ayat (proofs, evidences, verses, lessons, signs, revelations, etc.), and (then) they (all) shall be set in array (gathered and driven to the place of reckoning). Till, when they come, (before their Lord at the place of reckoning), He will say: "Did you deny My Ayat whereas you comprehended them not by knowledge (of their truth or falsehood), or what (else) was it that you used to do?"}. (An-Naml, 83, 84)

    Allah the Almighty says{Nay, they have belied the knowledge whereof they could not comprehend and what has not yet been fulfilled (i.e. their punishment). Thus those before them did belie. Then see what was the end of the Zalimun (polytheists and wrong-doers)!}(Yunus, 39)


    Q 165: What does "Kufr Juhud" mean?

    A--- This implies concealing the truth and not to submit thereto while one knows it such as the disbelief of Pharaoh and his folk in Musa (Moses) (Peace be upon him) and the disbelief of the Jews in Muhammad (Peace be upon him).

       Allah the Almighty says in regard to Pharaoh and his folk: {And they belied them (those Ayat) wrongfully and arrogantly, though their own selves were convinced thereof [i.e. those (Ayat) are from Allah, and Musa (Moses) is the Messenger of Allah in truth, but they disliked to obey Musa (Moses), and hated to believe in his Message of Monotheism]}. (An-Naml, 14)

    He says in regard to the Jews: {Then when there came to them that which they had recognized, they disbelieved in it}. (Al-Baqarah, 89)

    Allah the Almighty says: {But verily, a party of them conceal the truth while they know it -[i.e. the qualities of Muhammad (Peace be upon him) which are written in the Taurat (Torah) and the Injeel (Gospel)]}. (Al-Baqarah, 146)


    Q 166: What does "Kufr 'Inad wa Istikbar" mean?

    A--- This implies rejection and arrogance to submit to Allah's Commandments after conviction of their truth. Such as the disbelief of Iblis (Satan), in whom Allah the Almighty says: {except Iblis (Satan), he refused and was proud and was one of the disbelievers (disobedient to Allah)}. (Al-Baqarah, 34)

    He, Iblis (Satan) himself, could not deny Allah's Commandment to perform prostration, but he objected to it and said: {Shall I prostrate myself to one whom You created from clay?}. (Al-Isra', 61)

    Allah says: {I am not the one to prostrate myself to a human being, whom You created from dried (sounding) clay of altered mud}. (Al-Hijr, 33)

    Allah says: {I am better than him (Adam), You created me from fire, and him You created from clay}. (Al-A'raf, 12)


    Q 167: What does "Kufr Nifaq" mean?

    A--- This means the disbelief of the hypocrites who declare belief and conceal their disbelief to deceive the Muslims. This category includes people such as Ubaiy Ibn Salul and his party; Allah the Almighty says pertaining to them: {And of mankind there are some (hypocrites) who say: "We believe in Allah and the Last Day" while in fact they believe not. They (think to) deceive Allah and those who believe, while they only deceive themselves, and perceive (it) not! In their hearts is a disease (of doubt and hypocrisy) and Allah has increased their disease. A painful torment is theirs because they used to tell lies. And when it is said to them: "Make notmischief on the earth!" they say: "We are only peace-makers.” Verily! They are -the ones who make mischief, but they perceive not. And when it is said to them (hypocrites): "Believe as the people (followers of Muhammad (Peace be upon him), Al­-Ansar and Al-Muhajirun) have believed, they say: "Shall we believe as the fools have believed?" Verily, they are the fools, but they know not. And when they meet those who believe they say: "We believe,” but when they are alone with their Shayatin (devils -polytheists, hypocrites), they say: "Truly, we are with you; verily, we were but mocking." Allah mocks at them and gives them increase in their wrong-doing to wander blindly. These are they who have purchased error for guidance, so their commerce was profitless. And they were not guided. Their likeness is as the likeness of one who kindled a fire; then, when it lighted all around him Allah took away their light and left them in darkness. (So) they could not see. They are deaf, dumb, and blind, so they return not (to the Right Path). Or like a rainstorm from the sky, wherein is darkness, thunder and lightning. They thrust their fingers in their ears to keep out the stunning thunderclap for fear of death. But Allah ever encompasses the disbelievers (i.e. Allah will gather them all together). The lightning almost snatches away their sight, whenever it flashes for them they walk therein, and when darkness covers them, they stand still. And if Allah willed, He could have taken away their hearing and their sight. Certainly, Allah has power over all things}. (Al-­Baqarah, 8-20)               




    Q 168: What is the practical disbelief that does not exclude one from the fold of Islam?

    A--- This includes all deeds of disobedience the Legislator called "Kufr" disbelief, though the doer is still regarded as Muslim. This is such as the saying of Prophet Muhammad (Peace be upon him) that reads: "Do not return to disbelief after me (my death) by striking the necks of one another." (Bukhari and Muslim)

       His (Peace be upon him) saying, "Abusing a Muslim is an outrage and fighting against him is disbelief " (Bukhari and Muslim)

    Thus, the Prophet (Peace be upon him) called the fighting of Muslims one against the other "Disbelief" and the doers of this as "Disbelievers", while the Glorious Qur'an says: {And if two parties or groups among the believers fall to fighting, then make peace between them both. But if one of them outrages against the other, then fight you (all) against the one that which outrages till it complies with the Command of Allah. Then if it complies, then make reconciliation between them justly, and be equitable. Verily! Allah loves those who are the equitable. The believers are nothing else than brothers (in Islamic religion). So make reconciliation between your brothers, and fear Allah,  that you may receive mercy}(Al-Hujurat, 9, 10)

    Though the verse made clear that the two parties were fighting one another, Allah the Almighty still calls them "believers" and ascribes religious brotherhood to them. The verse mentions nothing about the removal of their faith or the denial of their religious brotherhood.

    In addition, Allah the Almighty says in the verse of Al-Qasas (just retaliation): {But if the killer is forgiven by the brother (or the relatives, etc.) of the deceased against blood-money, then adhering to it with fairness and payment of the blood-money to the heir should be made in fairness}. (Al-Baqarah, 178)

    In the previous verse, Allah the Almighty affirmed for the killer the brotherhood in religion and did not remove it from him.

    In addition, the Prophet (Peace be upon him) says: "The fornicator who fornicates is not a believer so long as he commits it and no thief who steals is a believer as long as he commits theft, and no drunkard who drinks wine is a believer as long as he drinks it.'" Abdul-Malik Ibn Abu Bakr narrated this on the authority of Abu Bakr Ibn Abdur -Rahman Ibn Harith and then said: Abu Hurairah (May Allah be pleased with him) made this addition: "No plunderer who plunders a valuable thing that attracts the attention of people is a believer so long as he commits this act." (Bukhari and Muslim)

    In addition, Abu Dharr (May Allah be pleased with him) reported: I came to the Messenger (Peace be upon him) and he was asleep with a white mantle over him. I again came, he was still asleep, I came again and he had awakened. I sat by his side and (the Prophet) observed: There is none among the slaves who affirmed his faith in La illaha illallah (there is no God but Allah) and died in this state and did not enter Paradise. I (Abu Dharr) said: Even if he committed adultery and theft? He (the Prophet) replied: (Yes) even though he committed adultery and theft. I (again said): Even if he committed adultery and theft? He (Peace be upon him) replied: (Yes) even though he committed adultery and theft. (The Prophet repeated it three times) and said after the fourth time: "In defiance of Abu Dharr." Abu Dharr then went out and he repeated (these words): In defiance of Abu Dharr.” (Bukhari and Muslim)

    This proves that he did not deny absolute faith regarding the fornicator, thief, wine drinker and the killer; if he intended so, he would not say that whosoever says La illaha illallah and dies in this state, he enters Paradise, even though he commits these deeds of disobedience. In fact, none would enter Paradise except the believers. Hence, what he meant is the in-completion or imperfection of faith. But, whosoever commits such deeds of disobedience, while regarding them lawful and permissible, is a disbeliever. So doing, he rejects the Qur'an and denies the Prophetic Sunnah. Even, he becomes a disbeliever if he thinks them (these deeds of disobedience) lawful and permissible even though he commits them not, and Allah the Almighty is the Best Knower.

    Q 169: If it is said: Prostrating oneself before an idol, mocking at the Qur'an, abusing the Prophet and religion, etc. all these are regarded as aspects of the practical disbelief. The question is! Why do these acts exclude one from the fold of Islam, while the practical disbelief in general does not?

    A--- One should know that these four acts and the like are not from among the acts of practical disbelief. They are only regarded as such because they are performed by the organs as apparently noticed. But, the truth is that they do not take place unless deeds of tile heart -i.e. intention, sincerity, passion and submission -are gone. Hence, they apparently look like practical disbelief, but they basically require the dogmatic disbelief first. Consequently, these acts can not be performed but by a malicious hypocrite or a stubborn arrogant. This explains the position of hypocrites in the Battle of Tabuk. In the beginning, {They said the word of disbelief, and they disbelieved after accepting Islam, and they resolved that (plot to murder Prophet Muhammad (Peace be upon him)) which they were unable to carry out}. (At-Taubah, 74) But, when Muslims got victory, they declared, {We were only talking idly and joking}. (At-Taubah, 65) Here, came Allah's Word: {Say: "Was it at Allah (the Almighty), and His Ayat (proofs, evidences, verses, lessons, signs, revelations) and His Messenger «Peace be upon him)) that you were mocking?" Make no excuse; you disbelieved after you had believed}(At-Taubah, 65, 66)

    Finally, we did not define [Al-Kufr Al-Asghar] Minor Disbelief with "the Practical Disbelief", but with the absolute acting that does not require faith and did not contradict with the utterance of the heart or its deeds.


    Q 170: Into how many divisions do the following terms divide: Injustice, Debauchery, and Hypocrisy?

    A--- Each one is divided into two: 'Major' which leads to disbelief, and ‘Minor' which is less than this.

    Q 171: Cite some examples of the Major and Minor Injustice?

    A--- First: the Major Injustice:

       Allah the Almighty says: {And invoke not besides Allah any such that will neither profit you nor hurt you, but if (in case) you did so, you shall certainly be one of the Zalimun (polytheists and wrong-doers)}. (Yunus, 106)

    Allah the Almighty says: {Verily, joining others in worship with Allah is a great Zulm (injustice) indeed}. (Luqman, 13)

       Allah the Almighty says: {Verily, whosoever sets up partners (in worship) with Allah, then Allah has forbidden Paradise to him, and the Fire will be his abode. And for the Zalimun (polytheists and wrong-doers) there are no helpers}. (Al-Ma'idah, 72)

       Second: the Minor Injustice:

       Allah the Almighty says: {And fear Allah your Lord (O Muslims), And turn them not out of their (husband's) homes nor shall they (themselves) leave, except in case they are guilty of some open illegal sexual intercourse. And those are the set limits of Allah. And whosoever transgresses the set limits of Allah, then indeed he has been unjust to himself}. (At- Talaq, 1)

    Allah the Almighty says: {But do not take them back to hurt them, and whoever does that, then he has wronged himself}. (Al-Baqarah, 231)


    Q 172: Cite some examples of the Major and Minor Debauchery?

    A--- First: the Major Debauchery:

       Allah the Almighty says: {Verily, the hypocrites are the Fasiqun (rebellious, disobedient to Allah)}(At- Taubah, 67)

       Allah the Almighty says: {Except Iblis (Satan).He was one of the Jinn; he disobeyed the Command of his Lord}. (Al-Kahf, 50)

       Allah the Almighty says: {And We saved him from the town (folk) who practiced AI-Khaba'ith (evil, wicked and filthy deeds). Verily, they were a people given to evil, and were Fasiqun (rebellious, disobedient to Allah)}. (Al-Anbiya', 74)

       Second: The Minor Debauchery:

       Allah the Almighty says: {And reject their testimony forever. They indeed are the Fasiqun (liars, rebellious, disobedient to Allah)}. (An-Nur, 4)

    Allah the Almighty says: {O you who believe! If a Fasiq (liar evil person) comes to you with any news, verify it, lest you should harm people in ignorance, and afterwards you become regretful for what you have done}. (Al-Hujurat, 6)

    It is narrated that the last verse has been revealed in connection with Al-Walid Ibn 'Uqbah.


    Q 173: Cite some examples of the Major and Minor Hypocrisy?

    A--- First: the Major Hypocrisy:

    Allah the Almighty says: {Verily, the hypocrites seek to deceive Allah, but it is He Who deceives them. And when they stand up for As-Salat (the Prayer), they stand with laziness and to be seen of men, and they do not remember Allah but little. (They are)swaying between this and that, belonging neither to these nor to those; and he whom Allah sends astray, you will not find for him a way (to the truth -Islam). 0 you who believe! Take not for Auliya' (protectors or helpers or friends) disbelievers instead of believers. Do you wish to offer Allah a manifest proof against yourselves? Verily, the hypocrites will be in the lowest depth (grade) of the Fire; no helper will you find for them}. (An-Nisa', 142-145)

       Allah the Almighty says: {When the hypocrites come to you (O Muhammad (Peace be upon him), they say: "We bear witness that you are indeed the Messenger of Allah." Allah knows that you are indeed His Messenger, and Allah bears witness that the hypocrites are liars indeed}. (Al-Munafiqun, 1)

    Second: the Minor Hypocrisy:

    It is reported on the authority of Abu Hurairah (May Allah be pleased with him) that Allah's Messenger (Peace be upon him) says: "Three are the signs of a hypocrite: when he spoke he told a lie, when he made a promise he broke it, and when he was trusted he betrayed.” (Bukhari and Muslim)

    Narrated' Abdullah Ibn 'Amr (May Allah be pleased with them both): the Prophet (Peace be upon him) says: "Whoever has the following four (characteristics) will be a pure hypocrite and whoever has one of the following four characteristics will have one characteristic of hypocrisy unless and until he gives it up: (a) Whenever he is entrusted, he betrays (proves dishonest). (b) Whenever he speaks, he tells a lie. (c) Whenever he makes a covenant, he proves treacherous. (d) Whenever he quarrels, he behaves in a very imprudent, evil and insulting manner." (Bukhari and Muslim)


    Q 174: What is the ruling pertaining to Sorcery and Sorcerers?

       A--- Sorcery is real and it has an impact in case it coincides with the Universal Divine Decree, as explained by Allah the Almighty: {And from these (angels) people learn that by which they cause separation between man and his wife, but they could not thus harm anyone except by Allah's Leave}. (Al-Baqarah, 102)

    In addition, its effect is affirmed in the Prophetic Hadiths. As for the sorcerer, he is a disbeliever in Allah the Almighty and in what has been revealed to Muhammad (Peace be upon him). Allah the Almighty says{...Neither of these two (angels) taught anyone (such things) till they had said: "We are only for trial, so disbelieve not (by learning this magic from us)." And from these (angels) people learn that by which they cause separation between man and his wife, but they could not thus harm anyone except by Allah's Leave. And they learn that which harms them and profits them not. And indeed they knew that the buyers of it (magic) would have no share in the Hereafter}. (Al­Baqarah, 102)


    Q 175: What is the [Hadd] Prescribed Penalty for the Sorcerer?

       A ---Narrated Imam                     At-Tirmidhi: Allah's Messenger      (Peace be upon him) says:              "The Prescribed Penalty for the sorcerer is a hit with the sword.” (A Weak Hadith narrated by At- Tirmidhi)

       At-Tirmidhi added: This penalty has been brought into effect by the well-versed from among the companions of Prophet Muhammad (Peace be upon him) and others. This is also the saying of Imam Malik Ibn Anas. Imam Ash-Shafi' I said: The sorcerer is to be killed if his acts reach the degree of disbelief, but if they do not, he is not to be killed.

    In addition, killing the sorcerer was affirmed by the following: 'Umar Ibn AI-Khattab, his son 'Abdullah, his daughter Hafsah, 'Uthman Ibn 'Affan, Jundub Ibn 'Abdullah, Jundub Ibn Ka' b, Qais Ibn Sa' d, 'Umar Ibn 'Abdel 'Aziz, Imam Ahmed, Imam Abu Hanifah, and many others.

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