The 200 FAQ On Muslim Belief


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  • The 200 FAQ On Muslim Belief


  • Q 76: Cite some of their kinds considering their nature and the missions they tackle?

    A--- Angels are of many kinds, foremost among which are:

    The one charged with conveying the Revelation to Allah's Messengers (Peace be upon them all). He is Jibril (Gabriel (Peace be upon him)).

    The one charged with rain. He is Michael (Peace be upon him).

    The one charged with the Bow. He is Israfil (Peace be upon him).

    The one charged with seizing the souls (death) i.e. the Angel of Death and his assistants.

    Those charged with (writing) the creatures' deeds and acts. They are the Honorable writers who write the deeds down.

    Those charged with guarding the creature from before and behind. They are the Angels in succession.

    Those charged with Paradise and its blessings. They are Ridwan and his assistants.

    Those charged with the Hell-Fire and its torment. They are Malik and his assistants.

    Those charged with the trial and torment of the grave. They are Munkar and Nakir.

    Those who carry the Throne of Allah the Almighty. Those charged with Nutfahs (mixed drops of male and female sexual discharge) in the wombs and writing the destiny of every human being.

    Those who enter AI-Bait AI-Ma `mur (the house over the heavens parallel to the Ka`bah at Mecca, continuously visited by the angels).

    Those charged with watching and visiting the sessions of the Remembrance of Allah the Almighty. Those who are ranked in rows standing and they never ever have rest.

    Those who are ranked in rows in Ruku’ kneeling down and they never ever raise their heads.

    And so many other kinds, {And none can know the hosts of your Lord but He. And this (Hell) is nothing else than a (warning) reminder to mankind}.(Al-Muddaththir, 31)

     

    Q 77: What is the Qur'anic textual proof that a Muslim must believe in the Heavenly Scriptures?

    A--- Allah the Almighty says in His Glorious Qur'an, {O you who believe! Believe in Allah, and His Messenger (Muhammad (Peace be upon him)), and the Book (the Qur'an) which He has sent down to His Messenger, and the Scripture which He sent down to those before (him)}. (An-Nisa', 136)

    Allah says{Say (O Muslims), "We believe in Allah and that which has been sent down to us and that which has been sent down to Ibrahim (Abraham), Isma`il (Ishmael), Ishaq (Isaac), Ya'qub (Jacob), and to Al-Asbat [the offspring of the twelve sons of Ya`qub (Jacob)], and that which has been given to Musa (Moses) and `Isa (Jesus), and that which has been given to the Prophets from their Lord. We make no distinction between any of them, and to Him we have submitted (in Islam)}.(AI-Baqarah, 136)

    Allah says: (Say: I believe in whatsoever Allah has sent down of the Book [all the holy Books, - this Qur'an and the Books of the old from the Taurat (Torah), or the Injeel (Gospel) or the Pages of Ibrahim (Abraham)]}. (Ash-Shura, 15)

     

    Q 78: Have all the Heavenly Scriptures been mentioned in the Glorious Qur'an?

       A--- Allah the Almighty cited the following only: the Glorious Qur'an, the Taurat (Torah), the Injeel (Gospel), the Zabur (Psalms), the Suhuf (Pages) of Musa (Moses) and Ibrahim (Abraham). He mentioned the rest in total, saying{Allah! La ilaha illa Huwa (none has the right to be worshipped but He), the Ever Living, the One Who sustains and protects all that exists. It is He Who has sent down the Book (the Qur'an) to you (Muhammad (Peace be upon him) with truth, confirming what came before it. And He sent down the Taurat (Torah) and the Injeel (Gospel), aforetime}. (Al `Imran, 2-4)

    Allah the Almighty says: {And to Dawud (David) We gave the Zabur (Psalms)}. (An-Nisa', 163 & Al-Isra', 55)

    Allah the Almighty says: {Or is he not informed with what is in the Pages (Scripture) of Musa (Moses), and of Ibrahim (Abraham) who fulfilled (or conveyed) all that (Allah ordered him to do or convey)}(An-Najm, 36, 37)

    Allah says{Indeed We have sent Our Messengers with clear proofs, and revealed with them the Scripture and the Balance (justice) that mankind may keep up justice}. (Al-Hadid, 25)

    Thus, we must believe in what was cited in detail and what was in total and say nothing but what Allah the Almighty Himself says: (Say: I believe in whatsoever Allah has sent down of the Book [all the holy Books, - this Qur'an and the Books of the old from the Taurat (Torah), or the Injeel (Gospel) or the Pages of Ibrahim (Abraham)]). (Ash-Shura, 15)

     

    Q 79: What does affirming faith in Allah's Scriptures mean?

       A--- It means to have pure, perfect and absolute belief in the fact that they are all sent down by Allah the Almighty, and that He spoke therewith. They are divided into more than one category: some were revealed from behind a veil with no intermediary Divine Messenger; some were conveyed through the intermediary Divine Messenger to the human Messenger; and some were written down by Allah's Hand. Almighty Allah says in His Glorious Qur'an: {It is not given to any human being that Allah should speak to him unless (it be) by revelation, or from behind a veil, or (that) He sends a Messenger to reveal what He wills by His Leave. Verily, He is Most High, Most Wise, or from behind a veil, or (that) He sends a Messenger to reveal what He wills by His Leave. Verily, He is Most High, Most Wise}(Ash-Shura,51)

    Almighty Allah said to Musa (Moses): {I have chosen you above men by My Messages, and by My speaking (to you)}(Al-A' raf, 144)

       Allah says: {And to Musa (Moses) Allah spoke directly}(An-Nisa', 164)

    He the Almighty said regarding the Taurat (Torah): {And We wrote for him on the Tablets the lesson to be drawn from all things and the explanation for all things}(Al-A' raf, 145)'

       Regarding 'Isa (Jesus), He Almighty Allah says: {And We gave him the Injeel (Gospel)}. (Al-­Ma'idah, 46 & Al-Hadid, 27)

       Allah says: {And We gave Dawud (David) the Zabur (Psalms)}. (An-Nisa', 163 & AI-Isra', 55)

    Pertaining to the Glorious Qur'an, He Almighty Allah says: {But Allah bears witness to that which He has sent down (the Qur'an) unto you (O Muhammad (Peace be upon him)),. He has sent it down with His knowledge, and the angels bear witness. And Allah is All Sufficient as a Witness}. (An-Nisa', 166)

    Allah says: {And (it is) a Qur'an which We have divided (into parts), in order that you might recite it to men at intervals. And We have revealed it by stages (in 23 years)}. (Al-Isra', 106)

    Allah says: {And truly, this (the Qur'an) is revelation from the Lord of the `Alamin (mankind jinn and all that exists). Which the trustworthy Ruh [Jibril (Gabriel)] has brought down. Upon your heart (O Muhammad (Peace be upon him)) that You may be (one) of the warners. ln the plain Arabic language}. (Ash-Shu'ra', 192-195)

    Allah says: {Verily, those who disbelieved in the Reminder (i.e. the Qur'an) when it came to them (shall receive the punishment). And verily, it is an honorable well-fortified respected Book (because it is Allah's Speech, and He has protected it from corruption. Falsehood cannot come to it from before it or behind it: (it is) sent down by the All­ Wise, Worthy of all praise (Allah)}. (Fussilat, 41, 42)

     

    Q 80: What is the position of the Glorious Qur'an among the earlier Divine Books?

       A ---Almighty Allah says regarding this{And We have sent down to you (O Muhammad (Peace be upon him)) the Book (this Qur'an) in truth, confirming the Scripture that came before it and Muhaymin (trustworthy in highness and a witness)

    over it (old Scriptures)}. (Al-Ma'idah, 48)

       Allah the Almighty says: {And this Qur'an is not such as could ever be produced by other than Allah (Lord of the heavens and the earth) but it is a confirmation of (the revelation) which was before it [i.e. the Taurat (Torah), and the Injeel (Gospel)], and   a full explanation of the Book (i.e. laws, decreed for mankind) -wherein there is no doubt ­from the Lord of the `Alamin (mankind, jinn, and all that exists)}. (Yunus, 37)

    Allah the Almighty says: {It (the Qur'an) is not a forged statement but a confirmation of (Allah's existing Books) which were before it [i.e. the Taurat (Torah), the Injeel (Gospel) and other Scriptures of Allah] and a detailed explanation of

    everything and a guide and a Mercy for the people who believe}(Yusuf, 111)

    Scholars of Exegesis say: Muhaimin means trustworthy in highness and a witness s over the old Scriptures testifying the truth that is therein and falsifying the falsehood that is added therein. Thus, all sincere adherents of the earlier Scriptures must submit and subjugate themselves to it (the Glorious Qur'an). Allah the Almighty says: {Those to whom We gave the Scripture [i.e. the Taurat (Torah) and the Injeel (Gospel)] before it, they believe in it (the Qur'an). And when it is recited to them, they say: "We believe in it. Verily, it is the truth from our Lord. Indeed even before it we have been from those who submit themselves to Allah in Islam as Muslims (like' Abdullah Ibn Salam and Salman Al­-Farisi), they believe in it (the Qur'an). And when it is recited to them, they say: "We believe in it. Verily, it is the truth from our Lord. Indeed even before it we have been from those who submit tthemselves to Allah in Islam as Muslims (like `Abdullah Ibn Salam and Salman Al-Farisi)}.(Al-Qasas, 52, 53)

     

     

    Q 81: What should the whole (Ummah) Community abide with pertaining to the Glorious Qur'an?

    A--- The whole Ummah should follow the Glorious Qur'an publicly and secretly, hold fast thereto and act persistently according to its teachings. Almighty Allah says: {And this is a blessed Book (the Qur'an) which We have sent down, so follow it and fear Allah (i.e. do not disobey His Orders)}. (Al-An"' am, 155)

    Allah says: {Follow what has been sent down unto you from your Lord (the Qur'an and Prophet Muhammad's Sunnah), and follow not any Auliya' (protectors and helpers who order you to associate partners in worship with Allah), besides Him (Allah)}. (Al-A`raf, 3)

    Allah the Almighty says: {And as to those who hold fast to the Book (i.e. act on its teachings) and perform As-Salat (Iqamat-as-Salat), certainly We shall never waste the reward of those who do righteous deeds}. (Al-A`raf, 170)

    Allah's Messenger (Peace be upon him) said regarding the Book of Allah the Almighty: "Stick to the Book of Allah and hold fast to it." (Sahih Muslim)

       His Hadith (Peace be upon him) that reads: ‘"Surely, there will be trials’.`Ali Ibn Abu Talib said: 'What is the outlet therefrom, Messenger of Allah?’ He (Peace be upon him) said: ‘The Book of Allah.’” (A Weak Hadith narrated by At-Tirmidhi)

     

    Q 82: What does holding fast to the Qur'an and observing its right mean?

       A--- It means to commit it to one's heart and to recite it properly at night and by day, to contemplate over its verses, to declare as lawful what it legalizes and to declare as unlawful what it makes illegal, to obey its ordainments, to take heed of its warnings, to derive lessons from its parables, to find admonition in its stories, to act on its entirely clear verses, to submit to its not-entirely-clear verses, to approach not its boundaries (of what is lawful and unlawful), to defend it against distortions and false claims, to give counsel to it in every meaning of the word, and to consciously preach it to men around.

     

    Q 83: What is the ruling pertaining to him who claims that the Qur'an is "Created"?

    A--- The Glorious Qur'an is the Word of Allah the Almighty: in wording and in meaning. His Word is neither the characters only, nor the meanings only. Both the characters and the meanings constitute His Word. Allah the Almighty Spoke it verbally, sent it down on His Prophet (Peace be upon him) by Revelation, and the true believers had faith in it. It is the Word of the Most Gracious even though it is written by hands, recited by tongues, committed to hearts, heard by ears, and seen by eyes. Indeed, the hands, ink, pens, and papers are all created, while what is written down with them is not. Moreover, tongues and voices are created, while what is recited thereof is not. Bosoms are created, while what is kept therein is not. Ears are created, while what is heard is not. Almighty Allah says in His Glorious Qur'an: {That (this) is indeed an honorable recitation (the Noble Qur'an). In a Book well­ guarded (with Allah in the heaven i.e. AI-Lauh Al- Mahfuz)}. (Al-Waqi'ah, 77,78)

    Allah says: {Nay, but they, the clear Ayat are preserved in the breasts of those who have been given knowledge (among the People of the Scriptures). And none but the Zalimun (Polytheists .and wrongdoers) deny Our Ayat (proofs, evidences, verses, lessons, signs, revelations, etc.)}.(Al-' Ankabut, 49)

    Allah says: {And recite what has been revealed to you (O Muhammad (Peace be upon him)) of the Book (the Qur'an) of your Lord (i. e. recite it, understand and follow its teachings and act on its orders and preach it to men). None can change His Words}(Al-Kahf, 27)

    Allah says: {And if anyone of the Mushrikun (polytheists, idolaters, pagans, disbelievers in the Oneness of Allah) seeks your protection then grant him protection so that he may hear the Word of Allah (the Qur'an)}. (At- Taubah, 6)

       Ibn Mas' ud (May Allah be pleased with him) said: "Keep looking at (the wording) of the Glorious Qur'an. Thereupon, whosoever says that the Glorious Qur'an or part thereof is created, he is a disbeliever denouncing Islam entirely. For the Qur'an is the Word of Allah the Almighty; it came first from Him and will turn back to Him and His Word is one of His Attributes. Whosoever says that any of the Attributes of Allah is created, he is a disbeliever and renegade. The ruling pertaining to him is that he is offered repentance. If he returns to Islam, he becomes safe. But, if he refuses, he is to be killed as a disbeliever who has nothing to do with the rulings governing the life and death of Muslims.

     

    Q 84: Is the Speech Attribute related to Allah's Entity or is it linked to His Acting Attributes?

    A--- Considering relating the Speech Attribute to the Entity of Allah Almighty, it is one of His Entity Attributes along with His Knowledge. Rather, it constitutes part of His Knowledge, He sent it down with His Knowledge and He is the Best Knower of what He sends down. As for His Speaking with His Will and Wish, it is an Attribute related to His Acting. As said by Prophet Muhammad (Peace be upon him): "If Allah wills to reveal the matter, He speaks with Revelation.” For this, our pious scholars of the earlier Muslims said regarding the Speech Attribute: "It is a Quality of both the Entity and Acting. For Allah, Glory be His, was and still described with Speech ever and forever, and that His Speaking and Addressing is up to His Will and Wish. He speaks if He wills, when He wills, and in the manner He wills with Words to be heard by whom He wills. His Speech is an Attribute with no end or termination. Allah says{Say (O Muhammad (Peace be upon him) to mankind): "If the sea were ink for (writing) the Words of my Lord, surely, the sea would be exhausted before the Words of my Lord would be finished, even if We brought (another sea) like it for its aid}. (Al-Kahf, 109)

    Allah says: {And if all the trees on the earth were pens and the sea (were ink wherewith to write), with seven seas behind it to add to its (supply), yet the Words of Allah would not be exhausted}. (Luqman, 27)

    Allah the Almighty says{And the Word of your Lord has been fulfilled in truth and in justice. None can change His Words. And He is the All-Hearer, the All-Knower}. (Al-An'am, 115)

     

    Q 85: Who are the Waqifah, and what is the ruling pertaining to them?

    A--- The Waqifah are those who say concerning the Glorious Qur'an: "We say: it is neither the Word of Allah, nor it is created." Imam Ahmed Ibn Hanbal (May Allah the Almighty rest his soul) said: "Whosoever among them who is well-versed, he is a lahmi.[1] And whosoever among them who is not well-versed and he is a familiar ignorant, he is to be offered the proof and evidence on his being mistaken and misled. If he repents to Allah and believes that the Glorious Qur'an is the Word of Allah and that it is not created, he is regarded as one of the Muslims. But, if he refuses to repent, he is deemed more malicious and worse than any of the lahmis.

     

    Q 86: What is the ruling pertaining to one who says: "My pronunciation of the Qur'an is created"?

    A--- It is not lawful to say such a statement either in the affirmative, or in the negative form. This is due to the fact that, "pronunciation" is a common sense between "pronouncing" which is the acting of man, and between the "pronounced" which is the Qur'an. So, if it is said "My pronunciation of the Qur'an is created", this reflects the second sense and thus agrees with the viewpoint of the lahmis. If it is said "My pronunciation of the Qur'an is not created", this implies the first sense which is the acting of man, and thus agrees with the viewpoint of the Ittihadyyiah. That is why our earlier pious scholars said: "Whosoever says "My pronunciation of the Qur'an is created, he is a Jahmi. Whosoever says it is not created, he is heresiarch."

     

    Q 87: What is the textual proof that a Muslim should believe in Allah's Messengers?

    A ---There are so many proofs from the Glorious Qur'an and the Prophetic Sunnah, some of which are: Allah the Almighty says: {Verily, those who disbelieve in Allah and His Messengers and wish to make distinction between Allah and His Messengers (by believing in Allah and disbelieving in His Messengers) saying, "We believe in some but reject others,” and wish to adopt a way in between. They are in truth disbelievers. And We have prepared for the disbelievers a humiliating torment. And those who believe in Allah and His Messengers and make no distinction between any of them (Messengers), We shall give them their rewards; and Allah is Ever Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful}. (An-Nisa', 150-152)

    Allah's Messenger (Peace be upon him) says: "I believed in Allah and His Messengers.” (Bukhari and Muslim)

     

    Q 88: What does "to have Faith in the Messengers of Allah" mean?

    A--- "To have Faith in the Messengers of Allah" means to have pure and absolute belief that Allah the Almighty sent down to every Ummah (community or nation) a Messenger from among them, to invite them to worship Him Alone and to renounce all that is worshipped besides Him. It means to believe that they are truthful, trustworthy, pious, divinely guided, honorable, respected, guiding and guided, supported with clear evidences and amazing miraculous signs from their Lord, and that they conveyed the whole Message they were sent with without making any change, alteration, distortion, increase or even decrease: {Then! Are the Messengers charged with anything but to convey clearly the Message?}. (An-Nahl, 35)

    This also means to believe that all of them were on a clear and truthful path. To believe in them means to believe that Almighty Allah took Ibrahim

    (Abraham) and Muhammad (Peace be upon them) as intimate friends, Spoke to Musa (Moses), raised Idris to a lofty place, and that' Isa (Jesus) was (no more than) a Messenger of Allah and His Word, ("Be!" - and he was) which He bestowed on Maryam (Mary) and a spirit (Ruh)[2] created by Him, and that He preferred some of them (the Messengers) to others; and others (from among them) He raised to degrees (of honor).

     

    Q 89: Did the call of the Messengers correspond with one another regarding the orders and prohibitions they conveyed?

    A ---Yes, their call corresponded to each other, and their call was one and the same from the first among them till the last. They all invited men to the principle and essense of worship that is Tawhid (Monotheism or the Oneness of Allah the Almighty, which means, "none has the right to be worshipped except Allah the Almighty)." As for the religious rituals or duties, Prayers and Fasting for example might be ordained on some of them, while not on the others. Moreover, something might be made illegal for some of them while it is legal for the others by way of test and trial from Allah the Almighty: {That He might try you, which of you is the best in deeds}. (Hud, 7)

     

     

    Q 90: What is the textual proof that they call for the same principle of worship (mentioned earlier)?

    A--- The proof of this from the Glorious Qur'an and the Prophetic Sunnah is of two types: (a) summarized and (b) detailed.

    As for the summarized: Almighty Allah says: {And verily, We have sent among every Ummah (community, nation) a Messenger (proclaiming): "Worship Allah (Alone), and avoid (or keep away from) Taghut (all false deities i.e. do not worship Taghut besides Allah)"}. (An-Nahl, 36)

    Allah the Almighty says: {And We did not send any Messenger before you (O Muhammad (Peace be upon him)) but We revealed to him (saying): "La ilaha illa Ana [none has the right to be worshipped but I (Allah)], so worship Me (Alone and none else) "}. (Al-Anbiya', 25)

    Allah the Almighty says: {And ask (O Muhammad (Peace be upon him)) those of Our Messengers whom We sent before you: "Did We ever appoint alihah (gods) to be worshipped besides the Most Gracious (Allah)?").        (Az-Zukhruf, 45)

    As for the detailed: Almighty Allah says: {And indeed We sent Nuh (Noah) to his people, and he said: "O my people! Worship Allah! You have no other Ilah (god) but Him (Islamic Monotheism)}. (Al-Mu'minun, 23)

       Allah the Almighty says: {And to Thamud (people, We sent) their brother Salih. He said: "O my people! Worship Allah! You have no other Ilah (god) but Him"}. (Al-A'raf, 73)

       Allah the Almighty says: {And to 'Ad (people, We sent) their brother Hud. He said: "O my people! Worship Allah! You have no other Ilah (god) but Him"}. (Al-A'raf, 65 & Hud, 50)

    Allah the Almighty says: {And to (the people of) Madyan (Midian), (We sent) their brother Shu 'aib. He said: "O my people! Worship Allah! You have no other llah (god) but Him"}. (Al-A'raf, 85 & Hud, 84)

       Allah the Almighty says: {And (remember) when Ibrahim (Abraham) said to his father and his people: "Verily, I am innocent of what you worship. Except Him (i.e. Allah Alone I worship none) Who did create me; and verily He will guide me"}. (Az-Zukhruf, 26, 27)

    Allah the Almighty says: {Your ilah (god) is only Allah (the One) La ilaha ilia Huwa (none has the right to be Worshipped but He), He has full knowledge of all things}. (Ta-Ha, 98)

    Allah the Almighty says{But the Messiah [' Isa (Jesus)] said: "O Children of Israel! Worship Allah, my Lord and your Lord." Verily, whosoever sets up partners (in worship) with Allah, then Allah has forbidden Paradise to him, and the Fire will be his abode}. (Al-Ma'idah, 72)

    Allah the Almighty says{Say (O Muhammad (Peace be upon him)): "I am only a warner and there is no Ilah (god) except Allah (none has the right to be worshipped but Allah) the One, the Irresistible "}. (Sad, 65)

     

    Q 91: What is the proof of the differences among their Shara’i` (pl. Shari'ah) laws pertaining to what is lawful [Halal] and what is unlawful [Haram]?

       A--- Almighty Allah says in His Glorious Qur'an, {To each among you, We have prescribed "Shir`ah wa Minhaj” a law and a clear way. If Allah had willed, He would have made you one nation, but that (He) may test you in what He has given you; so compete in good deeds}(Al­-Ma'idah,48)

    Ibn 'Abbas (May Allah be pleased with them) said: "Shir`ah wa Minhaj means a law and a clear way." The same viewpoint was held by Mujahid, `Ikrimah, Al-Hasan Al-Basri, Qatadah, Ad-Dahhak, As-Sadyi, and Abu Ishaq As-Subai`i.

    In Sahih AI-Bukhari, Prophet Muhammad (Peace be upon him) says: "The Prophets are paternal brothers, their mothers are different, but their religion is one.”[3]He means the Monotheism or Tawhid (The Oneness of Allah) with which Allah the Almighty sent all Messengers and Prophets, and that which He, Glory be His, revealed in all His Books. But, as for the laws, they are different pertaining to the ordainments and prohibitions, the lawful and the unlawful, {That He might try you, which of you is the best in deeds}. (Hud, 7)

     

    Q 92: Have all the Messengers been mentioned in the Glorious Qur'an?

    A--- Allah the Almighty related to us from their news what suffices us and what is enough for us to take admonition and lessons. Then He, Almighty Allah, says: {And Messengers We have mentioned to you before, and Messengers We have not mentioned to you}. (An-Nisa', 164)

    Thereupon, we must believe in all of them. We must believe in those who were mentioned and those who were not.

     

    Q 93: How many Messengers are mentioned in the Glorious Qur'an?

    A--- They are twenty-five: Adam, Nuh (Noah), Idris (Enoch), Hud, Salih, Ibrahim (Abraham), Isma'il (Ishmael), Ishaq (Isaac), Ya`qub (Jacob), Yusuf (Joseph), Lut (Lot), Shu'aib, Yunus (Jonah), Musa (Moses), Harun (Aaron), Ilyas (Elias), Zakaryia (Zachary), Yahya (John), Al-Yasa` (Elisha), Dhul-Kifl (Isaiah), Dawud (David), Sulaiman (Solomon), Ayyub (Job), `Isa (Jesus), and Muhammad (Peace be upon them all). Besides, He mentioned Al-Asbat [the offspring of the twelve sons of Ya`qub (Jacob)] in total.

     

    Q 94: Who are the Messengers of Firm Will [Ulul­-`Azm]?

    A--- They are five. Allah the Almighty mentioned them on two locations in His Glorious Qur'an:

    The first: in Surah Al-Ahzab that reads, {And (remember) when We took from the Prophets their covenant, and from you (O Muhammad (Peace be upon him» and from Nuh (Noah), Ibrahim (Abraham), Musa (Moses), and `Isa (Jesus) son of Maryam (Mary). We took from them a strong covenant}. (Al-Ahzab, 7)

    The second: in Surah Ash-Shura that reads, {He (Allah) has ordained for you the same religion (Islamic Monotheism) which He ordained for Nuh (Noah), and that which We have revealed to you (O Muhammad (Peace be upon him)), and that which We ordained for Ibrahim (Abraham), Musa (Moses) and `Isa (Jesus) saying you should establish religion (i.e. to do what it orders you to do practically), and make no divisions in it (religion) (i.e. various sects in religion). Intolerable for the Mushrikun, is that (Islamic Monotheism) to which you (O Muhammad (Peace be upon him)) call them. Allah chooses for Himself whom He wills, and guides unto Himself who turns to Him in repentance and in obedience}. (Ash-Shura, 13)

     

    Q 95: Who was the first Messenger?

    A--- The first Messenger after the eruption of disagreements and differences regarding the true path of Allah was Nuh (Noah) (Peace be upon him) as explained by Allah the Almighty in the Glorious Qur'an{Verily, We have sent the revelation to you (O Prophets after him}. (An-Nisa', 163)

    Allah the Almighty says: {The people of Nuh (Noah) and the Confederates after them denied (their Messengers) before these}. (Ghafir, 5)

     

    Q 96: When did the differing take place?

    A--- Ibn "Abbas (May Allah be pleased with them) said: Between Nuh (Noah) and Adam were 10 centuries of true and pure Tawhid (Islamic Monotheism) till they (the people) differed. {And Allah sent Prophets with glad tidings and warnings}. (Al-Baqarah, 213)

     

    Q 97: Who is the last (seal) of the Prophets?

    A--- The seal of the Prophets is Muhammad (Peace be upon him).

     

    Q 98: What is the textual proof of this?

    A--- AIlah the Almighty says: {Muhammad (Peace be upon him) is not the father of any of your men, but he is the Messenger of Allah and the last (end) of the Prophets. And Allah is Ever All­-Aware of everything}(Al-Ahzab, 40)

    The Prophet (Peace be upon him) says: "Surely after me, there would arise about thirty impostors, liars, and each one of them would claim that he is a messenger of Allah. And, I am the last (end) of the Prophets. There will be no Prophet after me." (Sahih Muslim)

    Allah's Messenger (Peace be upon him) addressing' Ali Ibn Abu Talib says: "You are in the same position with relation to me as Harun (Aaron) was in relation to Moses but with (this explicit difference) that there is no Prophet after me." (Bukhari and Muslim)

    He (Peace be upon him) says: "And, I am the last (end) of the Prophets. There will be no Prophet after me." (At-Tirmidhi and Abu Dawud)

     

    Q 99: What was given by Allah to Prophet Muhammad (Peace be upon him) and not to any of the other Prophets?

    A--- Prophet Muhammad (Peace be upon him) had have so many characteristics. Foremost among which are the following: he is the last (end) of the Prophets, as mentioned earlier.

       He (Peace be upon him) is the master of mankind, sons of Adam. This is explained in His Saying, Allah the Almighty, that reads, {Those Messengers! We preferred some of them to others, to some of them Allah spoke (directly),' others He raised to degrees (of honor)}, (Al-Baqarah,253)

    He (Peace be upon him) says: "I shall be pre­eminent amongst the descendants of Adam on the Day of Resurrection and 1 will be the first intercessor and the first whose intercession will be accepted (by Allah). " (Bukhari and Muslim)

    He (Peace be upon him) was sent to the whole people, mankind and jinn, as mentioned by Allah the Almighty, {O mankind! Verily, I am sent to you all as the Messenger of Allah - to Whom belongs the Dominion of the heavens and the earth, La ilaha illa Huwa (none has the right to be worshipped but He), It is He Who gives life and causes death, So believe in Allah and His Messenger (Muhammad (Peace be upon him)), the Prophet who can neither read nor write (i.e. Muhammad (Peace be upon him)), who believes in Allah and His Words [(this Qur'an), the Taurat (Torah) and the Injeel (Gospel) and also Allah's Word: "Be!" - and he was, i.e. `Isa (Jesus) son of Maryam (Mary), (Peace be upon them both), and follow him so that you may be guided}, (Al-A' raf, 158)

       Allah the Almighty says: {And We have not sent you (O Muhammad (Peace be upon him)) except as a giver of glad tidings and a warner to all mankind}, (Saba', 28)

    He, (Peace be upon him) says: "I have been given superiority over the other Prophets in six respects: 1 have been given words which are concise but comprehensive in meaning; 1 have been helped by terror (in the hearts of enemies); spoils have been made lawful to me; the earth has been made for me clean and a place of worship; 1 have been sent to all mankind and the line of Prophets is closed with me.” (Bukhari and Muslim)

    The Prophet (Peace be upon him) says: / have been conferred upon five (things) which were not granted to anyone before me(and these are): Every Messenger was sent particularly to his own people, whereas I have been sent to all the red and the black the spoils of war have been made lawful for me, and these were never made lawful to anyone before me, and the earth has been made sacred and pure and mosque for me, so whenever the time of prayer comes for anyone of you he should pray whenever he is, and I have been supported by awe (by which the enemy is overwhelmed) from the distance (which one takes) one month to cover and I have been granted intercession.” (Bukhari and Muslim)

    He (Peace be upon him) says: "By Him in Whose Hands my life is, none of this Ummah (community), either Jewish, or Christian who hear of me, then he dies without believing in what I have been sent with, he would be one of the dwellers of Hell-fire.” (Sahih Muslim)

     

    Q 100: What are the Miracles of the Prophets?

    A--- A miracle is an unusual thing, accompanied with challenge, and it can not be defeated. It is of two types:

    Material: that can be realized with senses, such as sight and hearing. This type is represented in the coming out of the She-camel from the rock, the turning of the stick into a snake, and the talking of the solid things, etc.

    Immaterial: that can be realized only by insight, such as the miracle of the Glorious Qur'an.

    Our Prophet Muhammad (Peace be upon him) was granted miracles of the two types. He (Peace be upon him) was granted miracles greater than those given to the previous Messengers and Prophets of Allah the Almighty. Foremost among the material miracles of Prophet Muhammad (Peace be upon him) were: The splitting of the moon, the crying of the stem of the date-palm tree in the Prophet's Mosque, the flowing of the water from among the fingers of Allah's Messenger Muhammad (Peace be upon him), speaking of the wolf, and the food-glorification of Allah before the Prophet, and this glorification was heard by the companions of the Prophet (Peace be upon him). Still, there are many other miracles that were authentically transmitted after him (Peace be upon him) till they reached us unchanged or even touched. But, all these miracles ended with the time of the Prophet (Peace be upon him) as happened with all the other miracles of the Messengers of Allah. Nothing remained save the everlasting miracle, i.e. the Glorious Qur'an, whose wonders do not come to an end and, {Falsehood cannot come to it from before it or behind it: (it is) sent down by the All­-Wise, Worthy of all praise (Allah)}. (Fussilat, 42)

     

    [1] i.e. One of the followers of Jahm Ibn Safwan. (Translator)

    [2] 1Ruh-ullah: According to the early religious scholars from among the companions of the Prophet (Peace be upon him) and their students and Mujtahidun, there is a rule to distinguish between the two nouns in the genitive construction: (a) When one of the two nouns is Allah, and the other is a person or a thing, e.g. Allah's House (Bait-ullah); Allah's Messenger (Rasul-ullah); Allah's slave (' Abdullah); Allah's spirit (Ruh-ullah), the rule for the above words

    is that the second noun, e.g. house, messenger, slave, spirit is created by Allah and is honorable in His Sight, and similarity, Allah's spirit may be understood as the spirit of Allah, in fact it is a soul created by Allah, i.e. 'Isa (Jesus). And it was His Word: "Be!" -and he was. [i.e. 'Isa (Jesus) was created like Adam]. But when one of the two is Allah and the second is neither a person nor a thing, then it is not a created thing but is a quality of Allah e.g. Allah's Knowledge ('Ilm-ullah); Allah's Life (Hayat-ullah); Allah's Statement (Kalam-ullah); Allah's Self (Dhat-ullah). (Quoted by translator)

     

    [3] Transmitted by AI-Bukhari (3442) and Muslim (2395) after Abu Hurairah with the following wording: "Both in this world and in the Hereafter, I am the nearest of all the people to Jesus, the son of Mary. The Prophets are paternal brothers; their mothers are different, but their religion is one. "

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