Study of the characteristics of matter and the utilization of different energies in the universe have been the main sources of human success. Although we make use of electricity for warming up, medical treatment, lighting, automation, driving locomotives and cars, etc., yet our knowledge of the nature of electricity is incomplete. Similar is the case with light and heat. To all of them, we give a vague name, energy, which is hidden in the universe and which can change into one another, but nobody can create it from nothingness.
Normally, all scientific theories attempt to interpret the origin of the universe on the basis of certain assumptions which could not be proved, or on the basis of certain points beyond which nobody could go. The science of physics does not touch the subject of creation from a state of nothingness. It only concentrates on a study of the characteristics of the existing, whether it is matter, energies or life.
But before we proceed to discuss the greater world represented in existence as a whole, it is better to talk first about the smaller world as represented in the smallest elementary particles which go to make the material, which is the atom. Atoms are made of the smallest possible non-matter particles. One could only define the nature of each matter or element by the number of particles existing in each atom. The most simple of all atoms in construction is the hydrogen atom. It is known as the universal gas or the gas which brought the existence into being, from which all other known matters have developed. The hydrogen atom is composed of a nucleus, which is a proton of positive nature, around which revolves an electron, which is negative. [Note: This small and simple collection in the world of atoms reminds us of its counterpart in the Greater World which includes the earth around which revolves the moon .This is a proof and support to the Quran's verse: "Thou seest no incongruity in the creation of the Beneficent." (Surat Al-Mulk: The Kingdom).] The construction of atoms gets more and more complicated as we proceed to know other material elements.
It was generally believed until recently, that atoms could not be further divided into elementary particles. The methods used for splitting them were useless. But, once the methods for splitting the atom were discovered in this age, it became certain finally that huge energy was inherent in it. The basis of the energy was the same which was used originally in uniting its elementary particles, particularly the constituents of the nucleus which came into being for the first time in the stars under tremendous pressure and heat, the degree of which is beyond description and imagination.
In most elements, the nucleus is not restricted to the positive proton. Instead, there are neutrons, which are elementary particles, having no distinguishing charge. It is understood that the nucleus is the first thing which determines the atom. Helium, for example, produced by the explosion of hydrogen atoms, is composed of two neutrons and two protons. When we proceed with nuclii till we reach the heavy elements represented in uranium, for instance, we find that the nucleus of this element is composed of 92 protones with 146 neutrons. Normally, negative charges inside any atom are equal to their positive charges. This is why the electrical charge of an atom equals zero. The helium atom is composed of one nucleus and two electrons (or negative electricity) which produce electrical equilibrium. But as regards the uranium atom, ninety two nuclii revolve around it. Electrons go round nuclii in different orbits which increase with the rise in electrons, as each orbit will be saturated with a certain number of them. The nearest of orbits to the nucleus has no room but for two electrons. The following orbit has eight electrons, and so on. What is left over from the saturation of the inner stratas remains in the outer ones. This is which could be easily separated and reorganized.
It is possible that one electron or more may be separated from the atom. This will release two charges, one positive and the other negative. This process is scientifically called ionization". The most simple apparatus in which the process of ionization takes place is the electric discharge tube used in lighting or advertising in which the gas glows under very low pressure resulting from the collision of electrons with gas atoms. This collision with some particles results in adding energies which are released in the form of light, which in its turn is the source of the glow known to us; while some other atoms are ionized.
A few years ago, new discoveries had been made in the material world as regards the formation of the atoms. These discoveries were of much importance to scientists, particularly astronomers. The most important of them was the discovery of the negative proton (the opposite to the proton known to us) and the positive electron (the opposite to the one familiar to us). This means that there are two different kinds of matter of which stars, the sun, planets and other various bodies are formed. If one of these two kinds meets the other or collides with it, atomic destruction takes place, the result of which will be the disappearance of the whole matter from existence and the release of huge energies. We, for instance, may describe the first kind of these two matters, that of positive protons and negative electrons, as "M"; the second and opposite kind, of negative protons and positive electrons, could be named as `S".
Astronomers have benefited from those discoveries in the potentialities and the different applications involved in them, which explained the mysteries of a number of this universe's phenomena. Due to these discoveries, astronomers were able to explain completely dark parts in galaxies, especially in the spiral nebulae, and were also able to know something about novas and supernovas;
There are some electrically-charged particles in the nuclii of heavy atoms. These are called masons. If a proton is transferred to a neutron, the former loses its positive charge, which will be separated with the separation of a positive mason. But if a neutron changes into a proton, the mason, in this case, will have a negative charge. When a positive proton collides with an other of a negative nature, or if a negative electron collides with a positive one, one completely destroys the other. The total energy will be released in this case.
From this we can easily realize that when one atom of matter "M" enters the orbit of matter "S", or vice versa. electrons become extinct or vanish first, then the protons.
However, we do not know, even approximately, whether the number of positive protons contained in the universe is completely equal to the negative protons of it. But a host of scientists believe that such a case should exist in a world created from nothingness. It will be the same result to be got if it happens that galaxies meet and collide with each other. This discovery may cast light on the exalted verse:
"Surely Allah upholds the heavens and the earth lest they come to naught. And if they come to naught, none can uphold them after Him. Surely He is ever Forebearing, Forgiving." (Surat Fatir : The Originator).
Anyhow, the possibility of the disappearance of heavens and the earth is a problem which science can not deny as we have already seen. This could be stated despite the fact that we are unable to confirm that positive and negative protons had come into existence as big numbers of pairs which became separated into single ones of which the total charge did not exceed zero, or that all such things had been formed as separated and single particles. It is also a fact that nobody had admitted that protons and electrons were regularly distributed among all parts of the universe. The possibility of securing electrical equilibrium, by the passage of time and at a certain place, between negative and positive charges, could be proved by witnessing it.
There are other verses which have rather the same meaning. These verses reveal the secret of the beginning and the end of this universe. Of them are the following:
"On the day when the earth will be changed into a different earth, and the heavens (as well)." (Surat Ibrahim: Abraham).
"The day when We roll up heavens like the rolling up of the scroll of writings." (Surat Al-Anbiya: The Prophets).
"And when the heaven has its covering removed.' (Surat Al-Takwir: The Folding Up).