Understanding Islam , A Simplified introduction to the basic principles of Islam


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  • Understanding Islam , A Simplified introduction to the basic principles of Islam


  • Chapter Eight

    The Fundamental Sources Of The Religion Of Islam

    All the fundamental rules of religion are based on the Qur'an and the Sunnah ; and the evidence of inferences referred to both of them. It is recorded in the Noble Hadith, Prophet Mohammad (PBU.H) , said: " I have bequeathed to you , that by which, if you adhere to you will never go astray: the Book of Allah and my Sunnah.” (Cited by AI-Hakim, who authenticated it)

    The Qur’au

    It is the word of Allah Sanctified, which He revealed to Prophet Mohammad (PBUH), piece by piece over twenty-three years. It is the period of the mission of which Prophet Mohammad (PBUH), spent among his companions. It is the text preserved between the two covers of the Holy Writ; and passed on to us, and is among us in perpetuity generation to generation. It is the eternal miracle of Islam and its comprehensive constitution of all that humanity needs in life and in the Hereafter.

    Allah Most High said:

    “ The Book- The Qur'an which We sent down  to you  is  the  fountain-head of divine knowledge and the chief source of  divine information. It elucidates  every aspect  of every thought and it is a guide into all truth and a mercy extended to the people and joyful tidings to those who  conformed to Islam. “(Sura 16:89) 

    There is no doubt that the guidance of the Qur'an is the best guidance because it has been revealed from He  , Who is exalted in Might

         Allah The Almighty said

    “ Indeed this Qur'an guides to the best way of moral rightness which has had everlasting residence in the character of the Godhead and to the uprightness of decision "( Sura 17:9) 

    The Qur’an shall remain the miracle and foundation until the Day of Resurrection. None can fully appreciate its linguistic, intellectual, legislative miracles and other aspects   of its miracles . Nor can any comprehend its laws with ease, except capable experts or scholars. Therefore, there remains the fact that the translations of its meanings, which have been made of it, have not done full justice to its miracles and guidance.

     

    THE SUNNAH

    This is all that originates in the sayings of the Prophet (PBUH) or action or description or approval. Above all, it is explanatory of the Qur'an: as stated in it:  

         Allah Most High said: 

    “And. We inspired to you (O Mohammad) The Qur'an to explain to the people all that has been revealed to them of decrees, ordinances and the fundamental principle of God’s system of faith and worship. (Sura 16:44)

    And so knowledge of the number of the obligatory prayers, and number of prostrations of each of these obligatory prayers; and the proportion of the Alms (Zakat ) and their value, and rites of fasting and Pilgrimage; and so I on; all those are explained by the Sunnah, which came at times with new rules? Like the prohibition of a man combining in marriage, between a woman and her paternal, or maternal  aunt; and the prohibition of eating domesticated donkeys. These are Laws from Allah Sanctified.

    Allah Most High Said: ... 

    “ Nor does he give utterance to words moved by selfish motive, or utter error against God and commits his  heart to  inequity. but what  he elates  to you people is  nothing other than a Qur'an. Revealed to him by inspiration from God. And it extends to all subjects treated " (Sura 53:3-4)

    And we are bidden to accept and follow the Sunnah as a source of legislation.

    Allah Most High said: 

    "And whatever the Apostle commands  you to do, you must do, and  whatever he forbids  you to do, you must  not do " (Sura 59:7)

    Allah The Almighty also said: (3/96)

    “ Say to them:Be obedient to God and to the Apostle”( Sura 3:32) 

    And it is in the Noble Hadith :

    "Behold, I have been given the Qur'an and its like , together with it ? So if I forbid you a thing, shun it; and if  I bid you do a thing, then do of it what you are able to do." (Authentic; cited by Ahmad; and by Abu Dawood) 

    And so it is not permissible to question the relevance o f the Qur’an .

    The scholars -'Ulama- have guarded it (the Qur’an) through recitation and insight; and they have written books on verification of narration’s with minute, and exact investigation and deliberation, which cannot be attained by the highest trend of modern criticism. These explications have been called the books of expostulations and explications. 

    In the same way the authentic Sunnah has been compiled in books, the most important of which is The Authentic Compendium of Bukhari, who died in 256 AH. In the same way, there is the compilation of the citations of Muslim who died in 261 AH.

    And so, if the texts of the Qur'an and Sunnah are compressed, yet by their totality and general tenets, it is possible by way of scrutinizing them and using the analogy of resemblances and similarities, to lay down laws and rules, for every incident, which arises until the Day of Resurrection. That is what the erudite Imams have done, and those who have furnished the Islamic library with books of Islamic Jurisprudence, replete with Laws, including even rules on what is deemed probable of occurrence. So by this flexibility of the texts of Religion, Islamic Shari'ah has remained extent and lively, and it shall continue to be lively, active and applicable to the Day of Resurrection.

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