Fiqh-us-Sunnah, Volume 5: Umrah
In Arabic the word 'Umrah is derived from al-i'timar which means a visit.Here it means paying a visit to Ka'bah, performing lawaf around it, walkingbetween Safa and Marwah seven times, and then shaving one's head or cuttingone's hair short.
There is consensus among scholars that it is a prescribed worship. Ibn'Abbas reported that the Prophet (peace be upon him) said, "An 'Umrah inthe month of Ramadan is equal (in reward) to performing a Hajj.'' (This doesnot, however, remove from one the obligation of performing the obligatory Hajj)This was reported by Ahmad and Ibn Majah.
Abu Hurairah reported that the Prophet (peace be upon him) said, "Fromone 'Umrah to the next is an atonement for any sins committed in between, andthe reward for an accepted Hajj is nothing but Paradise." This wasreported by Ahmad, Bukhari and Muslim.
Nafi' said, "During the rein of Ibn Az-Zubair, Abdullah bin 'Umarperformed an 'Umrah twice a year." Al-Qasim said, "Aishah performedthree 'Umrahs in one year."
Some people asked if any of the scholars criticised her for this. Hereplied, "May Allah be blessed! (Criticise) the Mother ofBelievers?!!" The majority of scholars supports this view. Malik, however,holds that the repetition of 'Umrah more than once a year is disliked.
A person may perform 'Umrah during the months of Hajj, without performingHajj. 'Umar performed 'Umrah during the month of Shawwal and returned toMadinah without performing Hajj. One may, like 'Umar, perform 'Umrah evenbefore Hajj.
Taw'us said, "In the Days of Ignorance the Arabs considered performingan 'Umrah during the months of Hajj as one of the major sins. And they used tosay, "When (the month of) Safar ends, and the camels are back, and woundsin their legs are healed, and when traces of footprints (of pilgrims) areeffaced, then one wishing to perform 'Umrah may do so."
After the advent of Islam, the people were commanded to perform 'Umrah evenduring the months of Hajj. Thus, the 'Umrah was permitted during the months ofHajj till the Day of Judgement.
Ibn 'Abbas reported that the Prophet (peace be upon him) performed four'Umrahs in his lifetime: 'Umrah of Hudaibiyah, one that he performed to make upfor another missed 'Umrah, a third that he performed going forth fromAl-Ji'rannah, and the fourth he combined with his Hajj. This was reported byAhmad, Abu Daw'ud and Ibn Majah, with a sound chain of authorities.
According to the Hanafi school and Malik, 'Umrah is a sunnah, as describedin this hadith reported from Jabir who said, "The Prophet (peace be uponhim) was once asked about 'Umrah, and whether it was obligatory (wajib), towhich he replied, 'No, it is not, but it is better if you perform it."' Thiswas reported by Ahmad and Tirmizhi who consider this a sound hadith.
The Shafi'i school, and Ahmad hold it to be obligatory (fard) in the lightof the words of Allah (Qur'an 2.196) "And complete the Hajj and 'Umrah inthe service of Allah." In the above verse 'Umrah is mentioned along withHajj, which is obligatory, which means 'Umrah must likewise be obligatory, eventhough the former is preferable.
The author of Fath ul 'Alam says, "On this subject no decision can bemade on the basis of ahadith." Tirmizhi has reported that Ash-Shafi'isaid, "There is no evidence concerning 'Umrah; it is only a supererogatoryact of worship."
The majority of scholars is of the opinion that 'Umrah may be performed anytime during the year. Abu Hanifah, however, is of the opinion that it isdisliked to perform 'Umrah on five days: the Day of 'Arafah, the Day of Nahr(the 10th of Zhul-Hijjah), and the three days of Tashriq (11th, 12th, and 13thof Zhul-Hijjah).
Abu Yusuf considers it disliked on the Day of 'Arafah, and during the threefollowing days. All of them, however, agree on the permissibility of performing'Umrah during the months of Hajj.
Bukhari has reported from 'Ikrimah bin Khalid that he said, "I askedAbdullah bin 'Umar about performing 'Umrah before Hajj, whereupon he said,'There is no harm in doing so, because the Prophet (peace be upon him) himselfperformed 'Umrah before the Hajj."'
Jabir reported that 'Aishah's menstruation started while she was performingHajj, but she performed all the rites of Hajj except tawaf around Ka'bah. Whenher period ended and she was clean, she performed the tawaf, and said, "OProphet of Allah! Everyone has performed Hajj and 'Umrah together, but I haveperformed Hajj only." Thereupon the Prophet (peace be upon him) commandedher brother Abdur Rahman to accompany her to Tan'im (in order to perform'Umrah). So she performed 'Umrah right after Hajj in the month of Zhul-Hijjah.The best time to perform 'Umrah is during the month of Ramadan.
In case a person intending to perform 'Umrah is outside the miqat fixed forHajj, it is not permitted for him to cross these miqats (places fixed forihram) without declaring ihram.
Bukhari has reported that Zaid bin Jubair came to Ibn 'Umar and asked him,"Wherefrom should I declare my intention to perform 'Umrah?" Hereplied, "The Prophet (peace be upon him) has set Qarna as the miqat forthe people of Najd (from where they must declare their ihram), and similarlyfor the people of Madinah he set Zhul Hulaifah, and for the people of SyriaAlJohfah as their miqats."
One who is already well within the confines of the miqat area--even if oneis within the Sacred Precincts of Haram itself--must go out to the miqat anddeclare ihram from there, as is obvious from the above hadith of Bukhari whichsays that 'Aishah was commanded by the Prophet (peace be upon him) to go toTan'im (the miqat) and put on her ihram for 'Umrah from there.
This is called the Farewell Tawaf because by this a pilgrim bids farewell toKa'bah, the House of Allah. It is also known as Tawaf As-Sadr (Tawaf BeforeDeparting) because it marks the departing of pilgrims from Makkah. In thisthere is no jogging (ramal), and it is the last rite performed by a nonresidentpilgrim in Makkah before leaving for his home. Malik has reported in Al-Muwattathat 'Umar said, "The last rite of Hajj is tawaf around the Ka'bah."
As for residents of Makkah, and the menstruating women (pilgrims), they arenot obligated to perform it, nor to pay any atonement for missing it. BothBukhari and Muslim reported from Ibn 'Abbas that he said, "A menstruatingwoman (pilgrim) is permitted to depart (without performing the FarewellTawaf)." According to another report, he said: "People were orderedto make the tawafof the Ka'bah their last rite; the menstruating women were,however, excused from it."
It is also reported by Muslim and Bukhari that Safiyah, the wife of theProphet (peace be upon him) had her monthly period during Hajj. When theProphet (peace be upon him) was informed about this, he said, "Is shegoing to hold us here (till she performs her rites of Hajj)?" He was toldthat she had already performed all her Hajj rites except the Farewell Tawaf.The Prophet (peace be upon him) said, "There is no harm then, (let usgo)."
There is agreement among the Muslim scholars that the Farewell Tawaf isprescribed by law. Both Muslim and Abu Daw'ud reported from Ibn 'Abbas that hesaid, "The people (pilgrims) used to leave Makkah in every other direction(and haphazardly). Thereupon the Prophet (peace be upon him) said, "Letnone of you leave Makkah betore making a Tawaf around the Ka'bah, as the last ofHajj rites."
There is disagreement, however, about its legal position. Malik, Dawu'd, andIbn Al-Munzhir say it is sunnah and by leaving it one does not incur anypenalty. Ash-Shafi'i is also of this view. The Hanafi and Hanbali schools, and,according to one report, Ash-Shafi'i, hold that it is obligatory, and a pilgrimwho misses it must slaughter an animal to atone for it.
One should perform this rite after finishing all other rites and just beforeleaving Makkah so that it is the last rite one performs as a pilgrim, asmentioned in the hadith given above.
After the completion of the Farewell Tawafa pilgrim must leave Makkah,without engaging in any selling or buying or staying on for long thereafter. Aperson engaging in any of these must repeat his Tawaf before leaving Makkah.One may, however, stop for a while in order to purchase necessary provisions.
When departing, it is recommended that one should supplicate to Allah inthese words as transmitted by Ibn 'Abbas: Allahumma inni 'ahduka wa ibnu'abdika wa ihnu 'amatika. Hamalatni 'ala ma sakhartali min khalqika wasatartanifi hiladika hatta ballaghtani-bini'matika-ilabaitika, waa'antani 'alaada-i nusuki, fa-in kunta radita 'anni faz-dud 'anni ridan, wa illa fa-minalaana farda 'ani qabla an tan'a 'an baitika dari. Fa hazha awanu insirafi inazintali ghaira mustabdilin bika wa la bi-baitika, wa la raghibun 'anka wa la 'anbaitika. Allahummafa-as-hebnil al 'afiyatafi badani wa sihatafi jismi wal'ismata fi dini, wa ahsen munqalabi, warzuqni ta'ataka ma abqaitani, wajma' libalna khairai-dunyia wal akhirata, innaka 'ala kuli shai'in qadeer. "OAllah! I am your slave, son of your slave, son of your maid slave. You enabledme to mount what You subjected to my service of Your creation. You protected mein this land of Yours, until You, by Your grace, brought me to Your House. Youhelped me perform rites of Hajj. O Allah! If You are pleased with me, increaseYour pleasure with me. Otherwise, grant me Your pleasure before I depart fromYour House. O Allah, now is the time for me to depart, by Your leave, withoutchanging (my attitude) toward You and Your House, nor turning away from You orYour House. O Allah, grant me health in my body, purity in my religion, blessmy return, and help me to obey You until You cause me to live, and combine forme the good of this world and the world to come. You have power over allthings."
Ash-Shafi'i said, "I like that when leaving the House of Allah, apilgrim should stand by Al-Multazim, and then make the supplication mentionedin the above hadith."
On approaching the miqat (the place fixed for taking on ihram), a pilgrimshould trim his moustache, cut short his hair, clip his finger nails, and takea bath or make ablution, wear some perfume, and then don the ihram. He shouldoffer a two rak'ah prayer, and then declare his or her intention to performHajj, or Hajj and 'Umrah, or 'Umrah only, as the case may be.
Wearing ihram and declaring intention for Hajj or 'Umrah is an essentialpart of both, and neither will be correct without these.
Specifying the kind of Hajj, whether it is if rad (Hajj only), tamattu '(Hajj and 'Umrah combined with a break in between), or qiran (Hajj and 'Umrahwithout a break), is not essential. If someone makes an intention of performingHajj without specifying the kind, his ihram will still be valid, and he mayperform any of the three kinds of Hajj.
As soon as he enters the state of ihram a pilgrim must utter talbiyahloudly, whenever he climbs a hill or goes down a valley, meets a group or aperson, early in the morning, and after every prescribed prayer.
When in a state of ihram, a person must avoid sexual intercourse and allthings that lead to it; he must avoid wrangling and useless bickering, nor musthe marry or join others in marriage.
A muhrim must not wear any sewn clothes or shoes that cover his feet abovehis ankles. He must not cover his head, nor use any perfume, nor cut his hairor nails, nor engage in hunting any game, nor cut trees or grass within theSacred Precincts of Haram.: Repeated Performance of 'Umrah
When entering Makkah it is desirable that a pilgrim enter from its highiide. if possible. atter taking a bath at the Zhi Tawa well in Zahir. Then heshould go to the Ka bah and enter the Sacred Mosque from the gate called BabAs-Salam, while uttering supplications of entry into the mosques and observingotheretiquette of entry with humility, fear, and talbiyah on his tongue.
On seeing the Ka'bah, he should raise his hands and supplicate to Allah forHis bounties. Then he should directly proceed to the Black Stone, kiss it quietlyor touch it with his hand and kiss the hand. If this is not possible and onecannot reach the Black Stone, one may just point toward it from a distance.
After this one should begin his tawaf around the Ka'bah supplicating inwords transmitted from the Prophet (peace be upon him).
In the first three rounds it is liked that the (male) pilgrim uncover hisright shoulder and jog at a slow pace. In the remaining rounds he may walk at anormal pace. It is sunnah to touch in every round the Yemeni Corner and to kissthe Black Stone. Atter completing (seven rounds of) the tawafthe pilgrim shouldgo to the Station of Ibrahim in compliance with the command of Allah "Andtake the Station of Ibrahim as a place of prayer." (Qur'an 2.125) There heshould pray two rak'ahs of tawaf.
Now he should go to the well of Zamzam and drink of its water as much aspossible. Thereafter the pilgrim goes to Al-Multazim and stands there andsupplicates for himself to Allah for whatever good he may wish for in thisworld and the hereafter. After this he should (if possible) go to the BlackStone, and kiss it.
Then he should approach the (hill of) Safa through the As-Safa gate to beginhis Sa'i in compliance with Allah's words "Behold! Safa and Marwah areamong the symbols of Allah. So if those who visit the House in the season or atother times. should compass them, it is no sin." (Qur'an 2.158) He shouldclimb the Safa, look towards Ka'bah. and then make supplication to Allah, usingone transmitted from the Prophet (peace be upon him). After this he shouldclimb down and start walking toward the (hill of) Al-Marwah as a start of hisseven round walk between the two hills, while remembering Allah andsupplicating to Him.
On approaching one of the two green markers, he should jog to the secondgreen marker. And after that he should resume his normal walking speed towardAl-Marwah. Upon reaching Al-Marwah he should climb it, turn toward Ka'bah, andmake supplications and glorify Allah. This will complete his one round. Then heshould make the remaining six rounds in like manner, completing all sevenrounds.
This Sa'i is an essential (wajib) ritual of Hajj, and any pilgrim failing toperform it or a part of it must slaughter an animal to atone for this omission.Finally, if he is performing a Hajj Tamattu' (Hajj with an 'Umrah with a breakbetween the two), he should either shave olf his head or trim his hair short.This would release him of all the restrictions of the state of ihram, and allthings that were prohibited to him in that state become permissible for him,including sexual intercourse with his wife.
Those who intend to perform a Hajj Ifrad (Hajj only) or Hajj Qiran (Hajj and'Umrah together without a break) they must continue in the state of ihram. Onthe 8th of Zhul-Hijjah those intending to perform Hajj Tamattu' will once moreresume ihram from their residences and proceed to Mina, along with those whohad continued in a state of ihram, and spend the night there.
At sunrise of the 9th of Zhul-Hijjah the pilgrims leave for Arafah, and (ifpossible) stay by the Mosque of Namira. There they take a bath and offer Zuhrand 'Asr prayers, making Qasr (shortening the prayers) and combining them atthe earliest time behind an imam. If this is not possible then one may prayalone, as best as one can, combining and shortening the two prayers.
Pilgrims' stay at Arafah begins only atter the sun has passed its zenith.During this time one should stand by the rocks (of Arafah) or as close aspossible, because this is where the Prophet (peace be upon him) used to takehis stand. Staying at Arafah is the principal rite of Hajj, but climbing theMount of Mercy is neither a sunnah nor should it be attempted.
During this stay one should face the direction of Qiblah, glorify Allah andremember Him, and supplicate to Him as much as possible until nightfall.
After nightfall the pilgrims must leave for Muzdalifah, and reaching there,offer Maghrib and 'Isha prayers, combining them and offering them toward thethe end of the usual time, and then spend the night there.
At dawn the pilgrims stand by Al-Mash'ar al Haram (the Sacred Monument), andremember and glorify Allah until it is broad daylight. Thereafter they shouldreturn to Mina after picking up their pebbles from Muzdalifah.
Standing by the Sacred Monument is essential (wajib), and anyone failing todo so is required to offer a sacrifice in atonement.
After the sunrise, a pilgrim must throw seven pebbles at Jamarah Al-Aqabah.Then he should slaughter his sacrificial animal, if possible, shave off or cuthis hair short. This will release him frolll the restrictions of ihram. and hemay engage in any normal activity except sexual intercourse with his wite.
He must then return to Makkah to perform Tawaf Al-Itadah an essential partof Hajj, and also known as Tawaf Az-Ziyarah. He should perform it in the samemanner as he had earlier performed Tawaf Al-Qudum. If the pilgrim is performingHajj Tamattu', he must perform a Sa'i after this Tawaf Al-Ifadah. For a pilgrimperforming Hajj Qiran or Ifrad, this second Sa'i is not essential, if onarriving in Makkah he had performed a Tawaf Al-Qudum.
After this tawaf - Tawaf-Al-Ifadah - a pilgrim may engage in all normallawful activities including sexual intercourse with his wife.
The pilgrim must now return to Mina and stay overnight there. This overnightstay at Mina is essential and for abandoning it one must atone by offering asacrifice.
After midday on the 11th of Zhul-Hijjah, the pilgrim must throw pebbles atthe three Jamarahs, starting with the one nearest to Mina, then the middle one,and stand for a while invoking and supplicating to Allah. Then he should go tothe last Jamarah, throw pebbles at it, and leave without stopping there. Apilgrim should finish throwing pebbles at the three Jamarahs well before thesunset. On the 12th of Zhul-Hijjah he should repeat the rites of the previousday.
Having thrown the pebbles a pilgrim is free either to return to Makkahbefore the sunset of the 12th of Zhul-Hijjah, or spend the 13th of Zhul-Hijjahas well in Mina, and throw pebbles at the Jamarahs.
Throwing pebbles is an essential rite of Hajj and for failing to do so onemust offer a sacrifice.
After returning to Makkah if the pilgrim desires to return to his homecountry he must perform TawafAI-Wida' or Farewell Tawaf, which is also anessential rite of Hajj. In case he is unable to perform it, and if he has notcrossed the miqat, he should return to Makkah and perform it, or else sacrificea sheep.
In short, the essential rites of Hajj and 'Umrah are: declaring ihram frommiqat, tawaf, Sa'i, halq (shaving one' s hair) or qasr (or cutting one' s hairshort). With these the rituals of 'Umrah are completed.
In the case of Hajj one has to perform certain additional rites. Theessential rites of Hajj are spending a Day at Arafah, throwing pebbles atJamarahs, Tawaf Al-lfadah, staying in Mina, slaughtering an animal, shaving orcutting one's hair short. This is a brief summary of all the rites of Hajj and'Umrah.
Abu Hurairah reported that the Prophet said. "Traveling is but a sortof torture. One is prevented from (properly) eating and drinking. So when oneof you (travels and) accomplishes his work, he must hasten back to hisfamily." This is reported by Bukhari and Muslim. 'Aishah reported that theProphet (peace be upon him) said, "When one of you has performed Hajj, heshould hasten back to his family, for that will increase his reward." Thiswas reported by Ad-Daraqutni.
Muslim has reported from Al-'Ala bin Al-Hadrami that the Prophet (peace beupon him) said, "A pilgrim from abroad may stay for three (days) aftercompleting his Hajj."
Al-lhsar (as used in the Qur'an) means blocking the path to the House ofAllah. Allah says, "And complete the Hajj or 'Umrah in the service ofAllah. But if you are prevented (from completing it) send an offering forsacrifice." (Qur'an 2.196)
This verse was revealed at the time of Hudaibiah when the Prophet (peace beupon him) was prevented from visiting the Sacred Mosque. By implication itmeans being prevented from making tawaf in the case of 'Umrah, or spending theDay at Arafah and making Tawaf Al-lfadah in the case of Hajj.
There is disagreement among the scholars, however, on what constitutes astate of prevention or blockading. Malik and Shafi'i hold that such a staterefers to a blockade by an enemy, for the verse was revealed about the Prophet(peace be upon him) who was blocked from performing an 'Umrah. Ibn 'Abbas alsoholds a similar view.
Most scholars including the Hanafites and Ahmad, however, are of the opinionthat a person is deemed blocked when he is prevented from approaching the Houseof Allah, by reason of an enemy force (A force of disbelievers or a rebelgroup) or a sickness which could worsen by motion or travel, a state of fear(and insecurity), loss of provisions, or in the case of a woman, the death ofher mahram accompanying her, or any other similar cause. Ibn Mas'ud even gave averdict that a man bitten by a snake is also considered among the preventedones.
These scholars base their argument on the fact that the words "But ifyou are prevented" used in the above Qur'anic verse about the Prophet(peace be upon him) are general and are not limited to any specific cause ofprevention. This is the strongest view on this subject.
The verse is quite clear in that a prevented person may slaughter any animalhe is able to afford. Ibn 'Abbas reported that when the Prophet (peace be uponhim) was prevented from performing 'Umrah (by the Quraish) he shaved his head,consorted with his wives, and slaughtered his animal. The next year heperformed an 'Umrah to make up for the year that he had missed. This wasreported by Bukhari. The majority of scholars in light of this hadith hold theview that a prevented person must slaughter a sheep, a cow or a camel. Malik,however, differs with this opinion and says slaughtering an animal is notessential.
The author of Fath ul 'Alam remarks, "Malik is right in his opinion,because all the Companions of the Prophet (peace be upon him) who were preventedwith him (at Hudaibiyah) did not have animals with them to slaughter after theywere unable to perform 'Umrah. The Prophet (peace be upon him) slaughtered hisanimal which he had brought along with him from Madinah." There is noimplication of any obligation in the verse. Rather, it is the Prophet (peace beupon him) who is referred to in the Qur'anic verse (48.25): "They are theones who denied revelation and hindered you from the Sacred Mosque andsacrificial animals."
The author of Fath ul 'Alam says: ' The scholars disagree concerning theplace of slaughter on the Day of Hudaibiah whether it was within or outside theSacred Precincts of Haram. Apparently the words of Allah "and they hinderedyou from the Sacred Mosque and sacrificial animals" suggest that theanimals were slaughtered outside the Sacred Precincts of Haram. There arevarious views concerning this. One view - the majority view - is that aprevented person may slaughter his sacrificial animal within or outside theSacred Precincts of Haram. Another view, the view of the Hanafi School is thathe must slaughter it within the Sacred Precincts of Haram. A third view, theview of Ibn 'Abbas and a group of scholars, is that if a prevented person is ina position to send his sacrificial animal to the Precincts of Haram he mustslaughter it there, and only then terminate his ihram. If this is not possiblethen he may slaughter it at the place where he is prevented.
Commenting on the Qur'anic verse "But if you are prevented (fromcompleting it) send an offering for sacrifice," Ibn 'Abbas said, "Ifone intended to perform either Hajj or 'Umrah, but was prevented fromapproaching the House of Allah, then he must slaughter whatever animal he canafford, a sheep or a larger animal."
If a person intended to perform the obligatory Hajj (and he was prevented),he must make it up later, but if he was intending a supererogatory Hajj, hedoes not have to make up for it.
Malik said that he was told that the Prophet (peace be upon him) and hisCompanions came to Hudaibiah, and there they slaughtered their animals, shavedtheir heads, terminated their ihram, and resumed their normal course of life,without having first made Tawaf of Ka'bah or without the sacrificial animalsreaching the Ka'bah.
Likewise there is no record, according to Bukhari, that the Prophet (peacebe upon him) ordered his Companions to make up for their (missed) 'Umrah orreturn to the Sacred Mosque to repeat it, although Hudaibiah is outside theSacred Precincts of Haram.
Ash-Shafi'i holds that a prevented person may slaughter his sacrificialanimal at the place he is stopped and terminate his ihram and resume hisnorrnal life. He is not required to make up for what he missed, because Allahhas not mentioned any such thing.
Ash-Shafi'i adds, "For we know from the recorded reports that some ofthe people who were with the Prophet (peace be upon him) at the time ofHudaibiah did not return the next year to make up for their missed 'Umrah.
They were not forced to stay back for any excuse, sickness or worldlybusiness. If making up for the 'Umrah were essential the Prophet (peace be uponhim) would have certainly commanded them to join him and not to stayback."
Continuing, he further says, "This 'Umrah was called the "'Umrah tulQada (or 'Umrah performed in order to make up for the missed 'Umrah)"because of the the dispute between the Prophet (peace be upon him) and theQuraish, and not because it was essential (wajib) and had to be made up laterby another 'Umrah."
Many scholars hold it to be permissible for one to set a condition whenentering the state of ihram that one will be relieved of it if one fell ill.Muslim has reported from Ibn 'Abbas that the Prophet (peace be upon him) toldDaba'ah, "Perform Hajj but set a condition that you shall be relieved ofthe ihram whenever you are prevented (due to illness, etc.,)."
ln such a case if a pilgrim is prevented from performing Hajj or 'Umrah forany reason, illness or something else, he may terminate his state of ihram andnot be required to slaughter any animal, or fast in atonement.
In the pre-lslamic period the Arabs used to cover the Ka'bah with a clothcovering. When Islam prevailed it retained this tradition. Al-Waqidi has statedthat Isma'il bin Ibrahim bin Abu Habibah reported from his father that in theDays of Ignorance the Ka'bah was covered with rugs made of red skin. Later onthe Prophet (peace be upon him) covered it with Yemeni cloth, while 'Umar and'Uthman covered it with an Egyptian white cloth, Qabati. Hajjaj covered it withsilk brocade. The first one to cover it was a man from Tubba' of Yemen calledAs'ad al-Himairi.
Ibn 'Umar used to choose the best and most expensive Qabati, Egyptian cloth,and send it as covering for the Ka'bah. This is reported by Malik.
Al-Waqidi has also reported from Ishaq bin Abu Abd bin Abu Ja'far Mohammadbin Ali that he said, "The people used to send cloth coverings for theKa'bah, and likewise they sent to it sacrificial camels loaded with Yemenicloth."
Yazid bin Mu'awiyah covered it in silk brocade, and so did Ibn Az-Zubairafterwards. He used to delegate Mus'ab bin Az-Zubair to send a covering for theKa'bah which was changed on 'Ashura (the 10th of Muharram).
Sa'id bin Mansur has reported that "Umar bin Al-Khattab used to takedown the old cover of Ka'bah, every year, cut it into pieces, and distributethem among the pilgrims who used them as shelter from the heat of Makkah.
Aishah said, "Perfume the Ka'bah, because this is a part of purifyingit." Ibn Az-Zubair used to perfume the entire interior of the Ka'bah. Heused to burn one pound of incense in the Ka'bah daily, but on Friday, he burnttwo pounds of incense.
Allah says in the Qur'an (22.25): "And any whose purpose therein isprofanity or wrongdoing, them will We cause to taste of a most grievouspenalty." Abu Daw'ud reported from Musa bin Bazhan that he said, "Iwent to Ya'la bin Amayyah, who said, 'the Prophet (peace be upon him) said,"Hoarding food in the Sacred Mosque is committing an act ofprofanity." Bukhari in his At-Tarikh Al-Kabir reported from 'Umar that hesaid, "Hoarding food is a profane act."
Ahmad reported that Ibn 'Umar came to Ibn Az-Zubair who was sitting inAl-Hijr (The area attached to Ka'bah and also called Hijr Isma'il) and said,"O Ibn Az-Zubair! Be mindful of acts of profanity while in the Haram ofAllah! I bear witness that I heard the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him),saying, 'A man of Quraish shall violate its sanctity."' The words ofanother report are "a man from the Quraish will commit acts of profanityin it. His sins will be equivalent to the sins of humans and Jinns combined, ifweighed against them. Be mindful that you are not that man."
Mujahid said that good deeds multiply (many fold) in Makkah as do the sins.Ahmad was once asked, "Are the sins recorded more than once?" Hereplied, "No, except in Makkah because of the sanctity of that city."
Bukhari and Muslim reported from 'Aishah that the Prophet (peace be uponhim) said, "An army will attack the Ka'bah. When they reach a desert theywill all be caused to be swallowed up by the earth, to the last man."'Aishah asked, "O Messenger of Allah, how is that, because among themthere may be some pious and good people and others who are not with them?"The Prophet (peace be upon him) said. "They will all be swallowed up bythe earth, but then they will be restored to life (on the Judgment Day)according to their intentions."
Sa'id bin Al-Musayyib reported from Abu Hurairah that the Prophet (peace beupon him) said, "You should not undertake a special journey to visit anyplace other than the three Mosques: the Sacred Mosque of Makkah, this mosque ofmine, and Al-Aqsa Mosque (of Jerusalem)." This is reported by Bukhari,Muslim, and Abu Daw'ud. In another natration the words are "For threemosques a special journey may be undertaken: The Sacred Mosque (Ka'bah), mymosque, and the mosque of Al-Quds (Jerusalem)."
Abu Zharr reported that he asked the Prophet (peace be upon him), "OProphet of Allah, which mosque was built first on earth?" The Prophet(peace be upon him) replied, "The Sacred Mosque of Makkah." Abu Zharragain asked, "Which was next?" The Prophet (peace be upon him) said, "TheAl-Aqsa Mosque." "How long was the period between them?" AbuZharr asked. The Prophet (peace be upon him) said, "Forty years. Apartfrom these, offer your prayers anywhere when it is time to pray, althoughexcellence is in praying in these mosques."
Traveling to these three mosques is prescribed because of their specialposition in Islam. Jabir reported that the Prophet (peace be upon him) said,"One prayer in this mosque of mine is better than 1,000 prayers offeredanywhere else except the Sacred Mosque, and one prayer in the Sacred Mosque isbetter than a hundred thousand prayers in any other mosque." This wasreported by Ahmad with a sound chain of authorities.
Anas bin Malik reported that the Prophet (peace be upon him) said,"Whoever prays forty prayers consecutively in my mosque without missingany of the obligatory prayer, he will be removed from Hell, from punishment,and from hypocrisy." This was reported by Ahmad and At-Tabarani with asound chain. We read in various ahadith that a prayer offered in the AlAqsamosque is five hundred times superior (in reward) to one offered in any othermosque, except the Sacred Mosque and the Mosque of the Prophet (in Madinah).
-1- It is recommended that one should approach the Prophet's Mosque calmlyand with composure. One should wear perfume, put on a nice clean dress andenter the mosque with the right foot, and say, A'uzhu billahil 'azeem wabi-wajhihil kareem wa sultanihil qadeem minashaitanir rajeem. Bismillah, Allahummasalli 'ala Muhammadin wa aalihi wa sallam, Allahummaghfir li zunubi waftah liabwaba rahmatika. "I seek refuge with Allah the Supreme with His NobleFace and with His Eternal Dominion from the accursed devil. In the Name ofAllah O Allah! Bless Mohammad his family and his followers. O Allah! Forgive mysins and open doors of Your mercy for me."
-2- It is also recommended to go first to the raudah (According to a hadithraudah (literally, a garden) is the space in the Prophet's mosque between hisgrave and his pulpit. As is stated in the hadith below. The Prophet (peace beupon him) died in his house, and that is where he was buried) and offer theretwo rak'ahs as greetings to the Mosque with calm and humility.
-3- After this one should head toward the grave of the Prophet (peace beupon him) face it, and with the back to the Qiblah, give greetings of peace tothe Prophet (peace be upon him), saying: Assalamu 'alaika ya rasulallah.Assalamu 'alaika ya nabiyallah. Assalamu 'alaika ya khiyrata khalqillah minkhalqihi. Assalamu 'alaika ya khaira khalqillah. Assalamu 'alaika yahabiballah. Assalamu 'alaika ya sayyidil mursaleen. Assalamu 'alaika yarasullallah rabal 'alameen. Assalamu 'alaika ya qa 'idal ghirril muhajjaleen.Ash-hadu alla-ilaha illallah, wa ash-hadu annaka 'abduhu wa rasuluhu wa ameenuhu wa khiyratuhu min khcllyihi, wa ash-hadu annaka qad ballaghtar rasalata waaddaital amanata wa nasahtal ummata wa jahdta fillahi haqa jihadihi."Peace be on you, O the Messenger of Allah. Peace be on you, O, theProphet of Allah. Peace be on you, O, the chosen one of Allah's creation. Peacebe on you, O, the beloved one of Allah. Peace be on you, O, the Chief of theMessengers of (Allah). Peace be on you, O, the Messenger of the Lord of theuniverse. Peace be on you, O, the Chief of the unique generation. I bearwitness that there is no God but Allah, and I bear witness that you are Hisslave, messenger, trustee, and the chosen one of His creation. I bear witnessthat you indeed delivered the message (of Allah). discharged your trust,counseled the Muslim community, and strove hard tor the cause of Allah."
-4- Now moving about a yard to the right, the visitor should offer hisgreetings to Abu Baker As-Siddiq, and then moving further another yard in thesame direction, offer greetings to 'Umar bin Al-Khattab.
-5- Then facing the direction of Qiblah the visitor should supplicate forhimself, his family, friends, relatives, and the rest of the Muslims, and thenleave.
-6- A visitor should not raise his voice more than needed to hear himself.The people in charge should prevent others from raising their voices gently andpolitely.
It is reported that 'Umar bin Al-Khattab saw two men raising their voices inthe Mosque of the Prophet (peace be upon him). At this he told them, "HadI known that you are from this city, I would have punished you."
-7- Avoid wiping hands on the chamber (i.e., the grave of the Prophet), orkissing it. The Prophet (peace be upon him) has forbidden all such things.
Abu Daw'ud reported from Abu Hurairah that the Prophet (peace be upon him)said, "Do not turn your houses into graves, nor make my grave a place offestivity. Send your greetings upon me, for your greetings are conveyed to mewherever you are." Abdullah bin Hasan saw a man frequenting the grave ofthe Prophet (peace be upon him) and making supplications there. Thereupon hetold him, O, so and so, the Prophet (peace be upon him) has said, 'Do not makemy grave a place of festivity. but send your greetings upon me from whereveryou happen to be, for your greetings are conveyed to me.' (In this respect)there is no difference between you and a man from (a distant country like)Andalusia."
Bukhari reported from Abu Hurairah that the Prophet (peace be upon him)said, "The space between my house and my pulpit is (raudah) one of thegardens of Paradise, and my pulpit is at my Fountain."
The Prophet (peace be upon him) used to go there, riding or on foot, everySaturday and offer a two rak'ah prayer. He advised others to do the same,saying, "Whoever makes ablutions at home and then goes and prays in theMosque of Quba, he will have a reward like that of an 'Umrah." This wasreported by Ahmad, Nasa'i, Ibn Majah, and Al-Hakim, who says it has a soundchain of narration.
Abu Hurairah reported that the Prophet (peace be upon him) said,"Verily, belief returns and comes back to Madinah as a snake returns andcomes back to its hole (when in danger)."
At-Tabarani has reported from Abu Hurairah that the Prophet (peace be uponhim) said, "Madinah is the dome of Islam, the abode of faith, the land ofmigration, and the dwelling place of what is lawful and unlawful."
'Umar reported that when things became very dear in Madinah and the peoplesuffered hardship, the Prophet (peace be upon him) said (to the people),"Be patient (and of good cheer) and receive the happy news. I have blessedyour measures, your Sa' and Mudd. So eat in groups together. One person's foodshall be sufficient for two; two people' s for five; and food for four peopleshall be sufficient for five and six people. The blessings are upon thecommunity. He who perseveres and is patient in its (i.e., of Madinah) times ofhardship and difficulty, I shall be an intercessor and a witness for him on theDay of Judgement. And he who leaves it (i.e., Madinah) disliking what istherein (of hardships), Allah will replace him with someone better than him.Whoever intends evil against it, Allah will cause him to be dissolved (destroyed)like the salt is dissolved in water." This was reported by Bazzar with asound chain of narration.
At-Tabarani has reported with a sound chain of narration from a woman ofThaqif that the Prophet (peace be upon him) said, "He amongst you who isable to stay until death in Madinah must do so, as I shall be a witness or anintercessor for him on the Day of Judgement."
That is why 'Umar prayed to Allah to cause him to die in Madinah. Bukharireported from Zaid bin Aslam, and he from his father that 'Umar said, "OAllah! Grant me martyrdom in Your cause, and cause me to die in the sanctuaryof Your Prophet (peace be upon him).":